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Hook, Walter Farquhar, 1798 

An ecclesiastical biograph3i 

NOTICE to Purchasers of the Work, in Parts and 
single Volumes. 


The Title, Dedication and Preface given herewith, (dated 
May 15th, 1852,) are to be placed at the commence- 
ment of Vol. I., and the Binder is requested to 
cancel the Dedication and the Prefaces and Tables 
which have already appeared in that and the rest of 
the Volumes. 

The "Table" to be placed at the End of Vol. VIII. 




ILibes of ^MCient ^at^ers anK Plotrern MUmn, 




BY jf 










l^tbes of ^nctent J^iatjers anir l^otKmt Htbtnes, 






Vol. I. 







My DEAR Friend, 

Having brought to a conclusion The Ecclesiastical 
Biography, in the compilation of which I have found, 
for several years, a pleasing occupation for my few 
leisure hours, I dedico.te these Volumes to you. From 
our boyhood we have been accustomed to take sweet 
counsel together in all that relates to religious prin- 
ciple and sentiment ; you have walked with me in the 
House of God as my Friend ; you have stood true to 
the Church of England through evil report and good 
report ; and you have been charitably opposed to 
religious extremes whether on the side of Romanism 
or on the side of Puritanism ; treading ever in that 
via media in which we are instructed that the Truth 
must always be found. To such a one it is a 
pleasure to be able to say that, at the termination of 
this Work, I find myself more than ever confirmed 



in those Principles which we thought out together 
in early life, and long before the controversies arose 
which now unfortunately disturb the Church; and, 
with an increased feeling of deep gratitude to the 
merciful Providence which, amidst the excitements 
of the Keformation, over-ruled the passions of our 
ancestors and directed their minds, while removing 
the corruptions of Medievalism and the various 
errors which grew up in the dark ages, to "stand 
in the ways and see and ask for the old paths," so 
that we, their descendants, find rest to our souls in 
walking in that good way, — the straight and narrow 
path, — which they marked out for us ; and possess a 
Church, both Catholic and Protestant, which, not- 
withstanding many defects in the administration of 
it, is the glory of our native land, the terror of the 
Papist, the monitor of the Puritan, and the bulwark 
of the truth as it is in Jesus. 

Let me add that it is impossible to approach 
Ecclesiastical History or Biography without being 
impressed with the fact, that the holiest of men, 
whether Fathers, Eeformers, or Modern Divines were 
not only fallible but sinful men ; and never let us 
forget that Scriptural truth so firmly held in tlie 


Primitive Church, obscured in the Medieval Church, 
and re-asserted at the Keformation, but repudiated 
by the Tridentines, that we must rely for justification 
not on our own righteousness, for sin cleaves to 
our holiest things, — but on the alone merits and 
righteousness of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
the Head of the Church, and the King of Saints. 

I am, my dear Friend, 

Your's most truly, 

W. F. HOOK. 


15th May, 1852. 


The following compilation is one of very humble 
pretensions on the part of the author, although he 
may be permitted to hope that its usefulness will 
be considerable to those for whose service it was 

It was commenced in 1844, and has been con- 
tinued in monthly parts till its completion in 1852. 
It was designed for those among the author's 
parishioners, who, engaged in commercial pursuits, 
and without much time for study, take an interest 
in Ecclesiastical affairs, and desire to become ac- 
quainted with the History of the Church and her 
divines. If it shall be found useful by masters of 
National Schools and their pupil teachers, or even 
by those of the clergy who, labouring in remote 
parishes, have no extensive library at hand, the 
author will be more than repaid for the trouble 
he has taken and the labour he has expended upon 
the Work. 

Although the form is biographical, yet the object 
is historical. The reader must not expect to find 


in the articles of a Dictionary necessarily brief, 
the anecdotes which render Biography one of the 
most interesting branches of study ; the object of 
a Biographical narrative devoted to one subject is 
to throw light upon character ; whereas, a Bio- 
graphical dictionary can only be expected to state 
the circumstances under which a distinguished cha- 
racter has been placed. 

The Biographies in these volumes have been 
written on the following plan : All points of minor 
interest or importance, such as those which relate 
to a person's family, have been either omitted or 
slightly noticed : for these, and for all minuter facts, 
the reader must have recourse to those works, which 
are devoted exclusively to the history of the person 
whose life can, in this place, be only briefly noticed, 
and to which reference is made at the foot of each 

There have been in most men's lives one or 
two important events to which a peculiar interest 
is attached; and, by omitting points of minor 
importance, an opportunity has been afforded of 
dwelling upon these at considerable length. His- 
torical events of Ecclesiastical interest have been 
narrated with some minuteness of detail, when 
the subject of a Biography has been instrumental 
in their accomplishment; when, on the contrary, 
he has been chiefly distinguished by his literary 
labours, the chief dates have been given, which 
are followed by extracts from his works. 


On doubtful points, relating either to dates, or to 
other matters of detail, the author has adopted the 
conclusion which he thinks most probable, without 
entering into a discussion of the reasons by which he 
has been influenced in his decision ; to have done 
this would have been to occupy more space than 
could, in such a work as this, be allotted to one 

The authorities on which each Biography of im- 
portance is composed, are given at the end of the 
article : the very words of a biographer or historian 
have been adopted, when the fact he relates is briefly 
or happily expressed. 

Besides the authorities quoted at the end of each 
article, use has been made of Moreri, Bayle, and 
Chalmers, the Biographia Britannica, the Biographie 
Universelle, and other similar works. 

The author does not make the slightest preten- 
sions to impartiality; and he never gives credit to 
the sincerity of an author who professes to be 
impartial. The compiler of these Biographies has 
seen every event with the eye of one nurtured in the 
Church of England, and, he hopes, thoroughly im- 
bued with her spirit and principles. At the same 
time he trusts that he has done justice to every one, 
whether Papist or Puritan, when sincerity, even in 
error, and real piety have been displayed. The 
author believes that he proves his real love of fair 
dealing by making this admission; as the reader, now 
knowing the bias of the author's mind, will be 


prepared to make due allowance for those prejudices, 
the existence of which, the author does not attempt 
to conceal. 

The names of divines who have flourished in the 
present century are not included in these volumes ; 
a rule which it was found expedient to adopt after 
the publication of the first parts of the work. 

The reader is indebted to Sir William Page Wood, 
M.P., late solicitor-general to her Majesty, for the 
Life of Bishop Berkeley ; to the Rev. G. A. Poole, 
for the Lives of B^de, Cyprian and Wiclifi'; to the 
Rev. Dr. Maitland, for the Life of Foxe, the Mar- 
tyrologist ; and to the Rev. G. Wyatt, for the Life of 

At the end of the work a chronological arrange- 
ment is given of the chief characters in each century, 
for the use of those who desire to employ these 
volumes as an Ecclesiastical History. 



Of this learned and amiable man, we have an auto- 
biography, but it contains little more than an account 
of his publications, and of the manner in which high 
preferments in the Church came to him without his 
seeking them. He was born in 1690, in Holborn, 
where his father was a distiller. He received his primary 
education at a school at Ealing, from whence he was re- 
moved to Westminster, and from Westminster he was 
elected to Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1716, he 
published an edition of Cicero de Oratore, with notes 
and emendations, which he dedicated to Chief Justice 

When Parker became lord-chancellor, he appointed 
Pearce to be his domestic chaplain, and by his lord- 
ship's influence with Dr. Bentley, Pearce had been pre- 
viously elected a fellow of his college. He was ordained 
deacon in 1717, and priest in 1718. In 1719, he was 
presented to the living of Stapleton Abbots, in Essex, 
to which was added the next year, the Rectory of St. 
Bartholomew, by the Royal Exchange, London, and he 
was, not long after, appointed chaplain in ordinary to 
his majesty. In 17*23, he was presented to St. Mar- 
tin's-in-the-Fields, and received a Lambeth degree of 
D.D. In 17^24, he published his edition of Longinus 
on the Sublime, with a new Latin version and notes. 



In 1739, he was appointed Dean of Winchester, and in 
1744, he was prolocutor of the House of Convocation. 
In 1748, he was consecrated Bishop of Bangor, and in 
1756, was translated to the See of Rochester, to which, 
the Deanery of Westminster was annexed. 

What follows is given in his own words : — " In the 
year 1763, the Bishop of Rochester being then seventy- 
three years old, and finding himself less fit for the 
business of his station, as bishop and dean, informed 
his friend Lord Bath of his intention to resign both, 
and live in a retired manner upon his own private for- 
tune. And after much discourse upon that subject, at 
different times, he prevailed upon his lordship at last 
to acquaint his majesty with his intention, and to 
desire, in the bishop's name, the honour of a private 
audience from his majesty for that purpose. Lord Bath 
did so, and his majesty named a day and hour, when 
the bishop went and was admitted alone into his closet. 
He there made known his request to his majesty, and 
acquainted him with the grounds of it, telling him, that 
he had no motive for resigning his bishopric and deanery 
from dislikes which he had to any thing in the Church 
or State ; that being of the age before mentioned he 
found the business belonging to those two stations 
too much for him, and that he was afraid, that it would 
still grow much more so, as he advanced in years ; that 
he was desirous to retire for the opportunity of spend- 
iiog more time in his devotions and studies, and that 
he was in the same way of thinking with a general 
officer of the Emperor Charles the Fifth, who, when 
he desired a dismission from that monarch's ser\dce, 
and the emperor asking the reason of it, answered, 
' Sir, every wise man would, at the latter end of life, 
wish to have ain interval between the fatigues of busi- 
ness and eternity. ' The bishop then shewed him, in 
a written piaper, instances of its having been done at 
several times ; and concluded with telling his majesty 


that he did not expect or desire an immediate answet 
to his request ; but rather that his majesty would first 
consult some proper persons among his servants about 
the propriety and legality of it. This the king consented 
to do, and told the bishop, that he would send for 
him again, when he was come to a determination. 

" About two months afterwards he sent for the bishop 
and told him, that he had consulted about it with two 
of his lawyers; that one of them, Lord Mansfield, saw 
no objection to the resignation of the bishopric and 
deanery ; but that the other said, he was doubtful about 
the practicability of resigning a bishopric ; but that 
however the same law7er. Lord Northington, soon after- 
wards had told him, that upon further considering 
the matter, he thought the request might be complied 
with. ' Am I then. Sir,' said the bishop, ' to suppose 
that I have your majesty's consent ?' ' Yes,' said the 
king. 'May I then, Sir,' said the bishop, 'have the 
honour of kissing your hand as a token of your con- 
sent ?' Upon that the king held out his hand, and 
the bishop kissed it. 

" So far all went agreeably to the Bishop's inclination. 
Consent was given, and in such a manner as is seldom 
recalled ; it being, as Lord -Bath expressed it, a sort 
of engagement. 

" But unfortunately for the bishop. Lord Bath, as soon 
as he heard of the king's consent being given, requested 
him to give the bishopric and deanery, which were 
to be resigned, to Dr. Newton, then Bishop of Bristol. 
This alarmed the ministry, who thought, as other 
ministers had done before them, that no dignities in 
the Church should be obtained from the crown ; but 
through their hands. They therefore resolved to oppose 
the resignation, as the shortest way of keeping the 
bishopric from being disposed of otherwise than they 
liked : and the lawyer, who had been doubtful, and who 
soon after had been clear, was employed to inform his 


majesty that he was then again douhtful, and thai the 
bishops generally disliked the design. His majesty 
upon this sent again, but at some distance of time, to 
the Bishop of Rochester, and at a third audience in 
his closet told him, that he must think no more about 
resigning the bishopric ; but that he would have all the 
merit of having done it. The bishop replied, ' Sir, I 
am all duty and submission,' and then withdrew." 

The affair of the resignation was again mooted, — " In 
the year 1768, the Bishop of Rochester, having first 
obtained his majesty's consent, resigned his Deanery of 
Westminster upon Midsummer-day, which he had held 
for twelve years, and wtiich was nearly double in point 
of income to his bishopric, which he was obliged to re- 
tain. As dean of that Church, he had installed twelve 
knights of the Bath in 1761 : he had the honour of 
assisting in the ceremonies of crowning his present 
majesty, and the melancholy office of performing the 
funeral service over King George the Second, and six 
others of the royal family. He had always given more 
attention to the interests of that society, where he was 
the dean, than to his own ; and when he quitted it, 
which was without any conditions attending it, he was 
succeeded in the deanery, by Dr. Thomas, who had 
been for many years his sub-dean there, and whom 
he favoured no farther towards his getting it, than by 
acquainting him some months before with his intention 
of resigning it." 

He died at Little Ealing, in 1774. In addition to the 
works already mentioned. Bishop Pearce published : — 
An Account of Trinity-College, Cambridge, 1720, 8vo; 
Epistolae duae ad celeberrimum doctissimumque virum, 
F. V. Professorem Amstelodamemsem scriptae; quarum 
in altera agitur de editione Novi Testamenti a clarissimo 
Bentleio suscepta, &c, 1721, 8vo ; A Letter to the Clergy 
of the Church of England, on occasion of the Bishop of 
Rochester's commitment to the Tower, 1722, 8vo; Th© 


Miracles of Jesus vindicated, in 4 parts, 1727, and 1728, 
8vo ; in answer to some of the principal parts of Mr. 
Woolston's Six Discourses on the Miracles of Our Saviour, 
&c. ; Two Letters, in controversy with Dr. Middleton, on 
the subject of his attack upon Dr. Waterland, 1730, and 
1731, 8vo ; Two Letters to the Rev. Dr. Waterland, upon 
the Eucharist ; Nine occasional Sermons ; A Discourse 
against Self-murder ; and a Concio ad Clerum. The hu- 
morous pieces sent by the author to the Guardian, and 
Spectator, are No. 121 in the former work, and No. 572 
in vol. viii of the latter. To the same volume he com- 
municated the Essay on the Eloquence of the Pulpit, in 
No. G33. By his will he bequeathed his library to the 
Dean and Chapter of Westminster, excepting such books 
as they already possessed ; which books, together with 
his manuscripts, he gave to his chaplain, the Rev. John 
Derb3^ To that gentleman was bequeathed the care of 
publishing the author's great work, the result of many 
years studious application. It made its appearance in 
the year 1777, under the title of " A Commentary, with 
Notes, on the Four Evangelists, and the Acts of the 
Apostles ; together with a new translation of St. Paul's 
first Epistle to the Corinthians, with a Paraphrase and 
Notes. " &c., in 2 vols. 4to. To the Commentary, &c. 
are added some of the author's earlier theological pieces. 
Mr. Derby has also given to the public, from the author's 
manuscripts, " Sermons on several Subjects," 1778, in 
4 vols. 8vo. — Life i^'^fi^^f-l to Commentary, and Auto- 


This great divine was born at Great Snoring, of which 
place his father was rector, on the 28th of February, 
1612-13. In 1623, he went to Eton, where he con- 
tinued till 1631. He was then admitted, on the 10th 
B 3 


of June, at Queen's College, Cambridge ; but within 
a year, in April, 1632, he was elected scholar of King's, 
of which he became fellow, in 1634. He proceeded 
B.A. in 1635, and M.A. in 1639, in which year he 
entered into holy orders. 

There are many stories of him in this college, 
says Cole, who was himself a fellow of King's ; one 
of which is, that some one of his acquaintance, seeing 
him still at Eton a long while after he had left it, 
spoke to him in this manner, "So, John! what here 
still? To my knowledge you have been the best 
scholar in the school these ten years." Certain it is, 
that such was his propensity to books and knowledge 
while a school-boy, that all the money he could get 
went for the first, and all the time out of school to 
the improvement of the last: nay, he hardly allowed 
himself time for natural rest: for when the prepositor 
at ten o'clock at night, saw that all the candles, 
according to rule, were put out in the long chamber 
or dormitory, he would contrive to light up his within 
an hour or two after, when all the boys were asleep ; 
and by this means, I have heard it affirmed that 
before he left Eton to come here, he had read most 
of the Greek and Latin fathers of the Church. 

It is not,, perhaps, very probable, that a boy at 
school should have done quite so much as is here 
affirmed : but it is easily supposed that the vigor- 
ous and deep mind of Pearson grew early accustomed 
to lore beyond the ordinary study of school-boys. 
And the perfect training of his memory in the writings 
of the fathers, guiding him in his Exposition of the 
Creed, and other works, not only to apposite quotations 
on every doctrinal point, but perhaps to the most 
apposite which his authors contain, is in itself an 
evidence of the zeal his youth had shewn in acquiring 
that perfect skill. His grateful remembrance of Eton 
is expressed in a passage of the Vindiciaelgnatianae, 


with something of the tone of a man who is conscious 
that he had not wasted the years of boyhood. Sir 
Henry Savile, whom he mentions in the same sen- 
tence, was dead before he went to school ; but Savile 's 
Chrysostom was perhaps accessible ; and there was a 
link in after-years to connect him with Savile's me- 
mory, when he became acquainted with the memorable 
John Hales. 

Our famous Dr. Pearson, says Allen, was a 
yery hard student at college ; and finding that the 
fireside diverted the intention of his thoughts, and 
dulled his spirits, he avoided coming near it as much 
as possible, contented to sit close to his books, with a 
blanket thrown over his shoulder. This is very 
characteristic : the discipline of a cold room to quicken 
the attention is still not unknown to hardy students ; 
though the modern luxuries of stoves and warm air 
have somewhat rebated the keen edge of such literary 

On the death of his father, in 1639, Pearson in- 
herited certain lands, mentioned in his will, situated at 
Snoring and Downham ; and the income derived from 
this source may have preserved him, during the troubled 
period now impending, from those extreme privations 
suffered by many of the loyal clergy. About the same 
time, he was collated by Dr. John Davenant, Bishop 
of Salisbury, to the Prebend of Netherhaven, in that 
cathedral; a preferment which, no doubt, he owed to 
that prelate's regard for his father; Davenant having 
been with him a fellow of Queen's, over which college 
he presided as master before his elevation to the See of 
Salisbury. Within a few months after he had obtained 
this preferment, he resigned his fellowship, but con- 
tinued to reside at King's, as a fellow-commoner. 

In June, 1640, he was appointed chaplain to Lord 
Keeper Finch. He was about the same time presented 
to the hving of Thorington, in Suffolk, but not, as Arch- 


deacon Churton shews, by Lord Keeper Finch, but pro- 
bably by Mr. Henry Coke, son of the great lawyer, Sir 
Edward Coke. 

In the troublous times which now came on, Pearson 
took his side manfully and devotedly as a royalist. He 
preached strongly on the subject at Cambridge, and we 
find him, in 1645, acting as chaplain to the forces under 
the command of Lord Goring, at Exeter, After the dis- 
persion of this last hope, he appears to have resigned his 
living and to have taken up his abode in London, where 
he is said for a time to have been chaplain to Sir Piobert 
Coke, and, subsequently to George, Lord Berkeley. 

Pearson's first controversial work was a notice of a 
book called Exomologesis, or a faithful narration of his 
conversion, written by Hugh Paulin de Cressy, an 
apostate from the Church of England, and a proselyte 
of the Church of Rome. Pearson attacks him in a 
short argumentative preface which he prefixed to Lord 
Falkland's Discourse on the Infallibility of the Church 
of Rome : in which he takes notice of some singular 
admissions of Cressy 's on the subject of this infalli- 
bility, made in sec. ii., c. 21. of his Exomologesis. 
Cressy replied to him in a second edition of his book, 
printed at Paris, 1653, by an appendix of great length, 
in which he professes to clear " the misconstructions" 
of J. P., — a term often employed by a controversialist, 
when he finds he has allowed his opponent too much 
advantage by his former statements. And it appears 
from his own confessions in this Appendix, that his 
book had met with some severe censure on this ground 
from his new friends abroad. The point of infallibility 
is indeed one that is maintained with great latitude, 
and in many discordant ways, by the advocates of the 
Church of Rome ; as is admitted by Cressy in his 
reply, and was afterwards forcibly urged by Charles 
Leslie, and allowed by one who undertook to answer 
him with more learning than logic. 


In 1649, he published an answer to a minor as- 
sailant of Catholic practice from among the sectaries, 
in a short tract entitled " Christ's Birth not Mistimed"; 
in refutation of an attempt which had just been made 
to throw discredit on the calculation by which the 
Church keeps the day of our Lord's Nativity on the 
25th of December. The argument of the opponent 
was founded on the courses of the Jewish priests with 
reference to St. Luke, and, as Hammond says of it, 
"was evidently demonstrated to be a mere deceit" by 
Pearson, from the testimony of Josephus and other 
Jewish writers. 

The next memorable circumstance in Pearson's life is 
the engagement which he made with the parishioners 
of St. Clement's, Eastcheap, to undertake the office 
of preacher in their parish Church. It has been made, 
says Archdeacon Churton, a question whether, to hold 
this appointment, he complied in any way with the 
times. The supposition that he did so seems to have 
arisen from a mistake as to the office itself. He was 
not rector of St. Clement's, or minister, as the style 
then ran, but preacher or lecturer. The lawful rector 
of St. Clement's during the whole period of the usurpa- 
tion >vas Benjamin Stone, a chaplain of Bishop Juxon's, 
who was also prebendary of St. Paul's, and rector of 
St. Mary, Abchurch ; a man who incurred a bitter 
persecution at the hands of the parliament, was very 
early voted unfit to hold any eccleisastical benefice, 
and suffered a long imprisonment at Crosby House, 
and afterwards at Plymouth, without being brought to 
trial. He lived to be restored after the return of the 
royal family. The intruder in his room at St. Mary 
Abchurch was one John Kitchin, whose name appears 
with that of Beynolds, Matthew Poole, Manton, Bates, 
and about sixty other presbyterian ministers of London 
and the suburbs, subscribed to the *' Seasonable Exhor- 
tation" of 1660. But at St. Clement's we find no record 


of any rector occupying his place ; one Walter Taylor 
is called pastor in the parochial vestry-book from 1649 
to 1040, but no appointment has been discovered in 
the episcopal registers : after his departure the church- 
wardens seem to have managed the temporalities, and 
the entries in the vestry- book make it probable that the 
services of the Church were during this time entirely 
discharged by ditierent voluntary lecturers. 

Fortune teaches the conquered the art of war. It 
was one of the ordinances of the long parliament, 
which had now the force of law, " That it should be 
lawful for the parishioners of any parish in England 
or Wales, to set up a lecture, and to maintain an 
orthodox minister, at their own charge, to preach 
every Lord's day, where there was no preaching, and 
to preach one day in every week, where there was no 
weekly lecture." This ordinance, passed in September, 
1641, was designed only to open the door, which Laud 
and Wrenn had closed in their efforts for conformity ; 
but it was left so widly ajar, that tliere w;is room for 
Rutulian as well as Trojan to enter in. By degrees 
several Churches, left without their lawful pastors, were 
supplied with preachers or lecturers who were known to be 
friends of the exiled family and the deprived episcopate. 
It does not appear that the Triers, Presbyterian or 
Independent, had any jurisdiction beyond the admission 
to benefices : nor is it easy to see how lectures could 
fall under their province, without rescinding the liberty 
so impetuously demanded and so eagerly established 
at the commencement of the struggle. Thus Dr. 
Thomas Warmestry was lecttirer at St. Margaret's 
Westminster, till one of Cromwell's parliaments peti- 
tioned the protector to remove him. Thus a friend 
of Pearson's, a man of gi'eat learning and eloquence 
as a preacher, Antony Faringdon, was sometime 
preacher at St. Mary Magdalen's, Milk-street : imited, 
as Wood savs, by Sir John Robinson, a kinsman of 


Laud's, (afterwards lieutenant of the Tower under 
Charles II.) " and others of the good jDarishioners." 
That he was only preacher, and not incumbent, is 
evident from his own beautiful and touching sermon 
on Gal, iv. 12, preached on his recall to the lecture- 
ship, from which a temporary misunderstanding with 
tlie parishioners had caused his temporary removal. 

In 1655, Pearson published his Prolegomena in 
Hieroclem, prefixed to the Oj)uscula of that author 
edited by Meric Casaubon. It was two years after 
this, that we find him engaged, with his friend Peter 
Gunning, in a conference with two Roman Catholics 
whom he met in London, on the question whether 
the Church of England or that of Rome at the period 
of the Reformation was guilty of schism. The con- 
ference was prolonged by several adjournments during 
the months of May, June, and July, 1657; and then 
virtually abandoned : though some negotiations for a 
renewal of it were kept up for some time afterwards 
with Gunning. In the course of the next year, one 
of the Roman Catholic disputants published his state- 
ment of the controversy in a volume, said to have 
been printed in France, under the title, " Schism Un- 
masked; or, a late Conference between Mr. Peter 
Gunning and Mr. John Pierson, Ministers, on the 
one part, and two Disputants of the Romish Profession 
on the other; wherein is defined both what Schism 
is, and to whom it belongs." A volume so drawn up, 
and printed without the consent or knowledge of one 
of the tv^^o parties, has no claim to be considered as a fair 
report of the debate. The Romanist, w^ho pubhshed 
it, is stated by Baxter, on the information of Tillotson, 
to have been a person of the naiue of Tyrwhitt ; with 
whom he also had a controversy on paper without 
knowing his opponent, and from whom he attempted, 
without success, to recover a young Presbyterian maiden, 
the Lady Anne Lindsey, daughter of the Countess of 


Balcarras, whom Tyrwhitt had persuaded to become 
a convert at the mature age of seventeen, and after- 
wards conveyed her away to a nunnery in France. 

Tyrwhitt's book contains some scattered extracts of 
the papers that were offered in the conference by Gun- 
ning and Pearson, but arranged in an order of his 
own; and he confesses that he does not print all that 
they offered, and particularly speaks of a long letter 
of six folio pages from Gunning, with which the treaty 
appears to have closed, as " too long to be inserted." 
No notice was taken of the publication by either 
Pearson or Gunning ; and indeed, notwithstanding 
all the advantage taken of arrangement and additions 
of his own, the book does not present a favourable 
aspect of the controversy as conducted by Tyrwhitt 
and his ally. It was complained of, as an unfair 
relation of the dispute, in the following year, by 
Thomas Smith, of Christ's Coll., Cambridge, in a 
book called " A Gag for the Quaker ; " and again, 
thirty years afterwards, by Dr. William Saywell, mas- 
ter of Jesus Coll., in an able pamphlet entitled " The 
Reformation of the Church of England justified ac- 
cording to the Canons of the Council of Nice, and other 
General Councils," in answer to another pamphlet pub- 
lished by a Romanist at Oxford, which was an extract 
from Tyrwhitt's book, with the title " The Schism of 
the Church of England demonstrated in four Argu- 
ments formerly proposed to Dr. Peter Gunning, and 
Dr. John Pearson, the late Bishops of Ely and Chester, 
by two Catholic Disputants in a celebrated Conference 
on that point." 

In 1659, he published the first edition of his Expo- 
sition of the Creed, being the substance of a series 
of sermons or lectures preached at St. Clement's, " the 
most perfect theological work," as Alexander Knox 
well characterises it, "that has ever come from an 
English pen." To say more of it than to repeat 


this, which is indeed the common sentence of approval 
it has received from the Church ever since it first 
appeared, is altogether unnecessary. It has remained 
without an effort made to amend or supersede it. It 
has been continually reprinted as the storehouse and 
armoury of the well-furnished theological student ; 
repeatedly abridged by judicious and learned clergy- 
men, to extend its use as a manual of Christian 
education ; and it was at an early period translated 
into Latin by a German scholar, Simon J. Arnold, 
whose version has been once or oftener reprinted 
abroad. Among the abridgments may be mentioned 
those of Basil Kennett, and Dr. Burney ; but the 
best without comparison is that excellent Analysis 
lately published at Calcutta, for the use of his Indian 
pupils, by Dr. W. H. Mill, and since re-published in 

In this same year, Pearson wrote a preface to Dr. 
David Stokes's " Paraphrastical Explication of the Minor 
Prophets," an unpretending work of considerable merit, 
and one which may be profitably consulted now by 
those who desire a modest and safe guide to the mean- 
ing of those often obscure Scriptures. Stokes was 
one of Brian Walton's fellow-labourers in the Poly- 
glott ; he had lost a canonry at Windsor and a living 
in Berkshire by the rebellion, but lived to be restored 
to both. 

He wrote also a Preface to the " Remains of the 
learned and ever-memorable John Hales," for whom 
he had a strong personal regard. 

The noble collection of the " Critici Sacri " alone re- 
mains to be mentioned as forming a portion of Pearson's 
literary labours at this period. The date of the publi- 
cation is 1660 ; but as it was for several years previously 
in preparation, it naturally belongs to the period before 
the restoration of the royal family. It appears by the 
preface, which bears very decisive marks of the hand 
VOL. VI u. c 


of Pearson, that the bookseller, Mr. Cornelius Bee, was 
the chief patron and promoter of the work. His name 
has been honourably mentioned as an encourager of 
works relating to English history and antiquities; but 
the great publisher of the theology of the Church at 
this period is well known to have been the loyal Richard 
Royston. It is probable that Royston, and the other 
booksellers whose names are on the title-page, including 
Morden and Robinson, the booksellers of Cambridge 
and Oxford, had a share in the undertaking; but it 
deserves to be remembered to the honour of Cornelius 
Bee, that such a monument of sacred literature was 
erected by the laudable zeal and enterprise of one 
who was by profession only a trader in the service of 
learning. The Polyglott was carried on by the help of 
many liberal subscriptions from the loyal nobility and 
gentry, who, after suffering a second decimation under 
Cromwell, had still something to spare for learning, 
and the learned sufferers by whom that task was ac- 
complished. But the Critici Sacri was a bookseller's 
speculation, requiring a very great outlay, before any 
return could possibly be made ; it is not easy to say 
how many thousands of pounds it would now cost to 
reprint it. It is however to be reasonably hoped, that 
the event corresponded to his wishes ; the change of 
dynasty coming in, just as the nine volumes were ready 
to be issued, must no doubt have had a favourable effect 
upon the sale ; and there would not be many libraries 
to which the Polyglott had found admittance, to which 
the Commentators did not follow. 

Pearson was engaged in some controversies in defence 
of the Church of England, which cannot be more 
particularly noticed here ; but an account of which 
may be found in Archdeacon C burton's Life of this 
great divine. 

At length, the Restoration of the Church, together 
with that of the monarchy, was effected ; and, at the 


close of 1660, Pearson was collated by Juxon, Bishop 
of London, to the Rectory of St. Christopher's, in the 
city: he was created D.D. by royal mandate: he was 
installed as a Prebendary of Ely: nominated Arch- 
deacon of Surrey : and appointed Master of Jesus 
College, Cambridge. 

In 1661, he was selected, with Earle, Heylin, Hacket, 
Barwick, Gunning, Thomas Pierce, Sparrow, and Thorn- 
dike, to act as one of the representatives, in the Savoy 
Conference, of such of the bishops as should be hindered 
by age or infirmity, or charge of other duties, from 
constantly attending at the meetings. In this confe- 
rence he seems to have taken some part from the 
commencement of the proceedings ; but we have no 
account of his individual share in them, except during 
the written disputation of the last few days. 

On one of these days, as Baxter relates, Pearson 
having offered to answer the objections of the Presby- 
terians, it was determined that three on each side 
should take by turns the part of opponents and respon- 
dents. Upon which Baxter and his friends commenced 
by offering to the episcopal disputants the following 
unpromising syllogism : — 

" To enjoin all ministers to deny the communion 
to all that dare not kneel in the reception of the 
sacrament on the Lord's day, is sinful : but the Com- 
mon Prayer-book and Canons enjoin all ministers to 
deny the communion to all that dare not kneel in 
such reception : ergo, the Common Prayer-book and 
Canons do, or contain, that which is sinful." 

To prove the major, Baxter argued that it was con- 
trary to the custom of the primitive Church to commu- 
nicate on Sundays in a kneeling posture ; because 
the twentieth Nicene canon and other ancient autho- 
rities shew that the established usage was not to 
worship by genuflection on any Lord's day, or any 
day between Easter and Whitsuntide, There is a 

16 PEARSON. • 

remarkable silence in Baxter's statement on the point 
which he was more concerned to prove ; namely, that 
there was any primitive sanction for the custom of 
sitting, as prescribed by the Directory, at the Lord's 
table : and an equally remarkable assumption, that 
by excluding kneeling at certain times, the primitive 
Church intended to exclude all posture of worship. 
Of this it is not possible to suppose that Pearson 
and his brother disputants could be ignorant. Baxter, 
however, states that the answer in which they rested 
was, that the Nicene canon and other authorities 
spoke only of prayer, and not of the posture at the 
communion ; an answer which, though it did not 
satisfy him, was known by his better informed oppo- 
nents to be sufficient, since it is clear, from testimony 
bearing directly on the question, that the ancient 
custom was to approach the altar, either kneeling, or 
bowing low, which was equally a token of humble 

And this will perhaps help to explain what Baxter 
appears not to have understood in Pearson's way of 
dealing with his minor. The Presbyterians were 
desired to prove the minor; and Pearson would not 
allow their mode of proof, by which they joined the 
Prayer-book and Canons of 1603 together. "Dr. 
Pierson confessed," says Baxter, "that the Canons 
did reject them that kneel not ; but the words of the 
Common Prayer-book do not : they only include kneel- 
ers, but exclude not others." It is certain that there 
is nothing in the Rubric amounting to a prohibition 
of administering it to others. It may therefore have 
been Pearson's meaning, that before the canon had 
fixed it, the minister would not violate the order of 
the Praper-book, who should give the sacred elements 
to one who stood and bowed himself, though he did 
not kneel. This mode of argument, however, was 
interrupted by Bishop Morley, whose business it 


was, says Baxter, to offend the Non-Conformists ; and 
the bishop having given his judgment for the exclu- 
sive sense, there was no opportunity for further expla- 

It is not for a moment to be supposed, that Pearson 
would have shewn any indulgence to the sitters in the 
pews, to whom Tillotson was anxious to grant every 
accommodation. In his " Articles for the Primary 
Visitation of his Diocese," this point of inquiry was 
strictly attended to ; that " all who received this sacred 
mystery," should do it " with that outward gesture 
of humility and reverence, as became them, lur^^ekly 
kneeling upon their knees." But it is now in our 
power to refer to a still more decisive testimony from 
one of his Cambridge speeches, delivered not long 
after the Savoy Conference, and before, or near upon 
the time of the secession of Baxter and his eighteen 
hundred followers ; a time at which, evidently, he had 
some fears lest their example should spread insubor- 
dination in the university. 

At the conference, it is possible that Baxter mny 
have misunderstood him, because he strictly confined 
himself to the logical rules of conducting a disputa- 
tion, — rules somewhat too rigid for the erratic genius 
of his opponent. Accordingly, after many attempts 
to re- mod el the syllogism, being closely pressed 
with the formal and material errors pointed out by 
Pearson and Gunning, Baxter took his papers home 
again, and was prepared with a new dissertation instead 
of a syllogism, the following morning. Gunning re- 
plied to this, and Baxter rejoined at the length of 
seven folio pages, but not without a further paper from 
Gunning, who seems to have been unwilling that the 
Presbyterian leader should occupy the whole time of 
the meetings. 

In the mean time, the opponents and respondents 
having changed places, that none of the space left for 


debate might be unemployed, the same argument was 
debated in another form, Of this an attested account 
was afterwards given by Gunning and Pearson to 
Bishop Morley, who pubUshed it in defence of himself 
in the following year, when he had silenced Baxter. 
The account was also published, where it has been 
more generally read, in good Izaak Walton's Life of 
Sanderson, with a little postscript of information which 
he had received from Pearson. Baxter has left us 
a more diffuse report in his Autobiography, but nei- 
ther his statement nor comment add any circumstance 
which is materially different. The account of Gunning 
and Pearson is as follows : — 

" This proposition being brought by us, viz., That 
command which commands an act in itself lawful, and 
no other act or circumstance unlawful, is not sinful : 

*'Mr. Baxter denied it for two reasons, which he 
gave in with his own hand in writing thus : one is, 
Because that may be a sin per accidens, which is not 
80 by itself, and may be unlawfully commanded, 
though that accident be not in the command. The 
other is, that it may he commanded under an unjust 

" Again, this proposition being brought by us, That 
command which commandeth an act in itself lawful, 
and no other act whereby an unjust penalty is enjoined, 
nor any circumstance whence j:»er accidens any sin is 
consequent, which the comramander ought to provide 
against, is not sinful : 

"Mr. Baxter denied it for this reason, given in 
with his own hand in writing thus : Because the first 
act commanded may be per accidens unlawful, and 
be commanded by an unjust penalty, though no other 
act or circumstance commanded be such. 

" Again this proposition being brought by us, That 
command, which commandeth an act in itself lawful, 
and no other act whereby any unjust penalty is en- 


joined, nor any circumstance, whence directly or 
per accidens any sin is consequent, which the com- 
mander ought to provide against, hath in it all things 
requisite to the lawfulness of a command, and particu- 
larly cannot be guilty of commanding an act per accidens 
unlawful, nor of commanding an act under an unjust 
penalty : 

" Mr. Baxter denied it upon the same reasons. 

" Peter Gunning. 

"John Pearson." 
** Baxter's talent," says Collier, in reference to this 
passage, "lay in retiring to foreign distinctions, and 
misapplications of the rules of logic. Whether this 
involving the argument in mist, was art, or infirmity, 
is hard to determine : however, let the most charitable 
construction pass." It is a good judgment on the case : 
but meantime it is not surprising if Bishop Morley 
a man of some spirit, but sincere and benevolent, 
charged Baxter with holding principles destructive of 
all authority, human and divine ; nor if Bishop 
Sanderson, whose mildness and patience are well 
attested, thought the genius of logic, to whom in his 
youth he had paid great honour, somewhat ill-used 
by treatment much more sophistical than subtle. 
It seems also that Pearson himself, when he related 
to Izaak Walton the incident of which Baxter rather 
bitterly complains, did not feel quite so much respect 
for his opponent in the disputation, as Baxter pro- 
fesses towards Pearson. 

" The Bishop of Chester," says Walton, " told me, 
that one of the dissenters, whom I could, but forbear 
to name," — no question, Baxter is meant, — " appeared 
to Dr. Sanderson to be so bold, so troublesome, so 
illogical in the dispute, as forced patient Dr. Sander- 
son to say with an unusual earnestness, that he had 
never met a man of more pertinacious confidence, and 
less abilities, in all his conversation." 


On the contrary, it is somewhat remarkable that, of 
all the phalanx of episcopal divines, Pearson is the 
only one, of whom Baxter speaks with entire respect ; 
and his testimony would be very honourable to him, 
were it not for the groundless insinuations with w^hich 
it is accompanied, that the equanimity with which he 
commends was a proof of his indifference to the cause 
in which he was engaged : — 

•' Dr. Pierson and Dr. Gunning," says Baxter, "did 
all their work, but with great difference in manner. 
Dr. Pierson was their true logician and disputant ; 
without whom, as far as I could discern, we should 
have had nothing from them but Dr. Gunning's pas- 
sionate invectives, mixed with some argumentations. 
He disputed accurately, soberly, and calmly, being but 
once in any passion, breeding in us a great respect for 
him, and a persuasion that if he had been independent, 
he would have been for peace, and that if all were in 
his power, it would have gone well. He was the 
strength and honour of that cause, which we doubted 
whether he heartily maintained." 

Baxter probably penned this before the appearance 
of the " VindicifB Ignatianre;" and perhaps it shews no 
more than a wish to persuade himself that his most 
learned opponent, was one who desired more liberty 
than the Church allowed, a wish to grace his own 
cause as far as possible with such a name ; but the 
surmise is contradicted by the whole tenor of Pearson's 
life, by the character of bis friends, by all his writings, 
and not least, by some of those which are now first made 
public, by Archdeacon Churton. 

In the Convocation which first met during this Con- 
ference, on the eighth of May, 1661, there were, as 
Pearson said of it, while it was in prospect, " divers 
particular concessions to be made for the satisfaction of 
all sober minds;" and it appears from the imperfect 
journals which remain of their meetings, that he took 


a prominent part in them. For some of the duties 
imposed on him, his excellent Latin style was likely to 
have pointed out his fitness ; as when he was chosen 
to present the prolocutor of the Lower House to the 
Upper House, and afterwards, with Dr. John Earle, 
the Latin translator of the " Eikon Basilike," to superin- 
tend a version into Latin of the amended book of 
Common Prayer. But, though something has been 
claimed for different distinguished names which are 
found 'among the members of this synod, there is 
very little evidence, beyond the public records, to shew 
what part of the amendments and additions was executed 
by individual divines. 

Dr. D'Oyly, in his Life of Archbishop Sancroft, has 
published an important extract made by that prelate 
from the Journal of the Lower House, which is now 
lost ; from which we learn that Pearson was one of eight 
members of that house who were employed in drawing 
up the service for the twenty-ninth of May, and one of 
six who were to prepare the prayer for the high court of 
parliament ; and when they met again in the winter, he 
was one of three, to whom the revision of all the additions 
and amendments was committed, in order to its being 
received and subscribed by the members of both 
houses ; which was done on the twentieth of December, 
1661. Thus far we learn from the journals ; and the 
absence of all private memoirs is only a proof of the 
happy unanimity which now governed their proceedings. 

Pearson's name appears again in the journals of the 
Upper House in reference to a subject comparatively of 
minor importance, but of some concern to the interests 
of learning, — a proposal to prepare one general Latin and 
Greek grammar to be used in all the schools of England ; 
which proposal was occasionally under discussion in the 
sessions of 1663 and 1664. Pearson presented such a 
grammar to the Upper House on the fourth of May, 1664, 
when it was referred to a committee of seven bishops ; 


but from that time no further notice of it occurs, and 
after that date very little sjnodical business was done. 

In 1661, Pearson was appointed Margaret Professor 
of Divinity, where he delivered those lectures which 
are published among his Minor Theological works. In 
the same volumes is published his "Theological Deter- 
minations." The first of which contains an admirable 
argument on the apostolic ordinance of episcopacy, the 
dignity of which, as a perpetual distinct order in the 
Christian ministry, he vindicates alike from the errors 
which have had their rise in the Papal and in the 
Presbyterian consistory. " For nothing is more cer- 
tain," says Pearson, " than that all diminution of 
the rights of episcopacy had its source in the papal 
usurpation : and the Pope of Rome appears to me in 
no other light, than as an individual who claims to 
himself all the authority given to bishops throughout 
the whole w^orld, and from the assumption of that 
authority to himself, threatens the independence of 
Christian princes, states, and churches. Whatever else 
relating to ceremonies or opinions you may choose with 
the multitude to call popish, it is easy to shew that 
it prevails as much, where there is no Pope, or where 
all are the Pope's enemies." He then shews how some of 
the schoolmen, considering the essence of the Christian 
priesthood to reside in the power of consecrating the 
holy eucharist, first taught the identity of orders in 
bishops and presbyters. 

In 166:2, Pearson was appointed Master of Trinity, 
resigning both his prebends and his rectory. In 1667, 
he became F.R.S. In 1672, he was consecrated Bishop 
of Chester. In the same year The Vindicise Epistolarum 
S. Ignatii were published. The Introductory Discourse, 
says Archbishop Churton, divided into six short chap- 
ters, furnishes an account of the rise, progress, and state 
of the controversy up to the time at which he wrote, the 
different editions both of the interpolated and spurious 


Epistles, and the doubts and perplexities of critics, be- 
fore Ussher in 1664 discovered the existence of two 
English copies of the shorter Epistles in the old Latin 
version, and Isaac Yossius in 1646, followed up his 
discovery by publishing the Greek text from the Floren- 
tine manuscript, which so remarkably agreed with it. 
This event had changed the aspect of the dispute. 
Andrew Rivet, a respected name for learning among 
the Dutch Protestants, and the eminent Jesuit critic, 
Petavius, at once recognised the genuine ancient in the 
Ignatius of Vossius and Ussher. Salmasius and David 
Blondel stood on their old ground ; but with this differ- 
ence, that while Salmasius allowed the supposed impos- 
tor to have written the Epistles under the reign of the 
Antonines, Blondel assigned him a date after the death of 
Clement of Alexander, about the beginning of the third 
century. These critics were answered briefly by Ussher, 
and more fully by Hammond ; and a short pause was 
made in the controversy, till Daille in 1666, published 
his treatise, *' De Scriptis, quae sub nominibus Dionysii 
Areopagitae et Ignatii circumferuntur," in which he under- 
took to prove, that, though the shorter Epistles and the 
longer were the work of different hands, neither were 
written by^Ignatius. 

The great celebrity, which the name of this remark, 
able man had attained both in England and on the 
continent, his diligence in theological research, his 
shrewdness of remark and pointed way of exposing 
and exaggerating fallacies, his success in argument with 
Baronius and Perron and other champions on the Roman 
side, and on the other hand his freedom from the ex- 
treme Genevan doctrines of the preceding age, which 
liad brought him into disputes with Des Marets and 
other zealous contra-remonstrants, — all combined to 
make his appearance in the controversy an important 
incident to both parties. Besides which, he was now a 
veteran in the service of literature, having entered on 


his seventy-second year when he made his formal assault 
on the remains of Ignatius ; though he had before 
expressed his doubts in his early work on the Use of 
the Fathers, and in his essay " De Jejuniis et Quadra- 
gesima," had declared his sentiments to be unaltered 
by Ussher's discovery. It was now nearly forty years 
since he had written that first and most famous of his 
treatises, " De I'Emploi des Peres," — a treatise, which, 
with all its faults, was too bold and striking not to have 
had a powerful effect on some of the most inquiring 
spirits of the time. Its actual influence in England 
may have been over-rated, but was not inconsiderable. 
No doubt it was still remembered and admired. When 
Daille therefore came forward in his old age with this 
elaborate attempt to disprove the genuineness of all 
that bore the name of the apostolic martyr, it was a 
strong proof that he was an earnest disbeliever in these 
writings, and a plain challenge to all who saw cause 
to trust their authenticity, to be bold in their defence. 

Daille's view differed materially from that of Elondel 
and Salmasius. He saw the improbability or inutility 
of supposing the impostor to have been of so primitive a 
date as the middle of the second or the beginning of the 
third century. Forgeries are usually the work of an age 
of literary ease and leisure, and do not so easily spring 
up in the midst of persecution. And if the writer had 
been so ancient, under whatever name, his evidence would 
have been of some weight in reference to the doctrines 
and practices of his own period. He therefore resolved 
to assign him a date near the time of Constantine, to 
assert that Eusebius was first taken in by the imposi- 
tion, and that his error was followed by St. Athanasius 
and all subsequent writers. There was however a serious 
difficulty in the way of this hypothesis, since it had been 
commonly supposed that St. Polycarp and St. Irenseus 
had referred to these Epistles, and, besides other testi- 
monies less express, there were two treatises of Origen, 


which quoted two sentences from the Epistles to the 
Ephesians and Romans severally, as they were yet extant. 
Hence it became necessary to extend the licence of scep- 
ticism, to suspect the Epistle of Polycarp of a partial 
interpolation, to question whether Irenaeus did not speak 
of some traditional saying of Ignatius rather than of his 
writings, and to throw doubts on the genuineness of those 
works of Origen, in which the w^ords of the Epistles were 
contained. Such was the venturous theory, by which it 
was attempted to set aside the external evidence for these 
primitive records ; to whose genuineness, as Pearson 
proved by a long array of authorities, there was an un- 
broken line of witnesses in every age, from the contem- 
poraries of Ignatius to the fifteenth century. 

As to the internal evidence, it was the plan of Daille 
to heap together objections against the interpolated and 
spurious Epistle with those that concerned the genuine ; 
calculating probably, that a greater impression would be 
made on the reader, who was not always likely to ask 
whether the critical flail was employed upon the chaff 
or upon the pure grain, and that it would give more 
trouble to an answerer to be obliged to use the winnowing 
fan. His arguments were directed chiefly to four distinct 
points : first, to prove that there were allusions to facts 
or persons of later date than Ignatius ; secondly, that the 
doctrine of certain passages, especially in the Epistle 
to the Romans, was unsound and unfit to be ascribed 
to the apostolic martyr : thirdly, that there were indica- 
tions of a subsequent age in the style and phraseology ; 
fourthly, that which has probably been at the root of all 
critical suspicions on this subject, that there was much 
too distinct an enumeration of the three holy orders of 
the Christian ministry for a writer so immediately follow- 
ing the Apostles. 

Against both these classes of objection the body of 
Pearson's work was now directed. It was divided into 
two parts of nearly equal length, the first embracing 



the defence of the external, the latter of the internal 
evidence. Not only the principal arguments of Daille, 
as they directly affect Ignatius, but many discursive 
critical inquiries illustrating the main question, of the 
greatest interest to the student of Christian antiquity, 
are discussed in either part of the Vindicise ; and few 
have risen from the perusal without a conviction, that 
the learned vindicator, after a most patient sifting of 
separate objections, has left his opponent without one 
position which is any longer defensible. 

Indeed the main difficulty had been in a great degree 
removed, when the text of the shorter Epistles was 
recovered. The previous doubts had chiefly arisen from 
the want of a test to distinguish between what had the 
appearance of interpolation and the true antiquity ; for 
that there were portions from the very hand of St. 
Ignatius, the general assent of candid critics had allowed. 
It was no unusual or unprecedented case, that a later 
writer should have undertaken to accommodate the style 
of an ancient author to his own time, to paraphrase 
what seemed to him brief and obscure, and otherwise 
to enlarge and adapt the old record to his own purposes. 
But there was this peculiarity about the interpolator of 
Ignatius, that no principle could be traced in his altera- 
tions, no design was avowed, none appeared to be fol- 
lowed ; it was nothing but a sophistical display of his 
powers of amplification, or some poor conceit that he 
could improve upon the matter and form of the original. 
But when a copy was found closely agreeing with the 
extracts furnished by Eusebius, Theodoret, and other 
Greek fathers, with whom the interpolator's portions 
were at plain variance, the fact itself was sufficient to 
decide the question. There have indeed been a few 
persons before and since Pearson wrote, who singularly 
enough have shown an inclination to defend the inte- 
grity of the interpolated Epistles ; such as the learned 
ritualist, Morinus, and our countryman, the wrong- 


headed Whiston; and it is not much to the credit of 
Mosheim that, after saying what he can to perplex the 
question, he ends by leaning to the same side. But the 
common sense of all good critics since the appearance 
of the Vindiciae, is well expressed by a late worthy 
Oxford scholar, whose later performances did not equal 
his earlier promise : " The encomium which Pearson 
has given to Eusebius may with the utmost propriety 
be applied to himself: Ego Eusebium tanta diligentia 
tantoque judicio in examinandis ChristianoiTim pri- 
maevae antiquitatis scriptis, fuisse contendo, ut nemo 
unquam de ejus fide, aut de scriptis, quae ille pro indu- 
bitatis habuerit, postea dubitaverit." 

Dr. Pearson held the Bishopric of Chester for thirteen 
years, but was disqualified from all public ser^^ice by 
his infirmities, and especially by a total loss of memory, 
for some years before his death, which took place at 
Chester, on the IGth July, 1686, in the seventy-fifth 
year of his age. He was the author of a Preface to 
The Golden Remains of the ever-memorable Mr. John 
Hales, of Eton College, 1660, 8vo; No Necessity of 
Reformation of the public Doctrine of the Church of 
England, &c., a Sermon ; a Sermon preached before the 
king, on Eccles. vii. 14, and published by his majesty's 
command; the learned Preface, (Praefatio Paraenetica,) 
to Field's edition of The Septuagint, 1665, l^mo; and 
of Annales Cyprianici, sive tredecim Annomm, quibus 
S. Cyprianus inter Christianos versatus est, Historia 
Chronologica, printed with Bishop Fell's edition of the 
works of that father, 1 682, fol. He was also one of the 
editors of the Critici Sacri ; and from his MSS. were 
published, after his death, V. CI. Joannis Pearsonii, 
S. T. P. Cestriensis nuper Episcopi, Opera Posthuma 
Chronologica, &c. Singula praelo tradidit ; edenda curavit 
et Dissertationis novis Additionibus auxit H. Dodwellus, 
&c„ 1668, 4to. 

In 1844, the minor Theological Works of Bishop Pear- 


son, first collected, with a Memoir of the author, notes, 
and index, were pubUshed at the Universitj-press at 
Oxford, by the venerable Archdeacon Churton, from 
which memoir this article is an abbreviation. 


John Peckham was born in the county of Sussex, about 
1Q40, and was educated in the monastery of Lewes. 
Thence he was sent to Oxford and became a Minorite 
friar. He was first professor of Divinity, and afterwards 
provincial of his order in England. He twice visited 
Paris, and there delivered lectures in theology. From 
thence he went to Lyons, where he obtained a canonry 
in the cathedral which, according to Carr and Godwin, 
was held with the Archbishopric of Canterbury for two 
centuries after. It was convenient as a resting-place 
between Canterbury and Rome, and the popes were 
glad to facilitate the intercourse by which they enslaved 
our Church. On going to Rome, he was appointed by 
the pope auditor or chief-judge of the palace, or as some 
say, palatine-lecturer or reader. 

On the vacancy of the See of Canterbury, in 1278, 
the Chapter of Canterbury elected Thomas Burnell, 
Bishop of Bath, to the vacant see. Nevertheless, though 
this was a unanimous election, the Pope of Rome, in 
the plenitude of his assumed power, set the election 
aside and gave the see to Peckham. The pope claimed 
the power because the See of Canterbury was vacated 
by his advancing Kilwardby to the cardinalate, making 
him Bishop of Porto. To the disgrace of England, it 
submitted to this act of aggression on the part of a 
foreign prelate. The worst heresies of medievalism were 
now prevalent, and Friar Peckham came to England 
destined to carry to the extreme the superstitions in 
fashion at Rome. To shew the spirit of the fiiar, with 

PECKHAM. 29[- 

reference to certain wise regulations which had been 
made to stay the progress of Popery, we will present 
the reader with the substance of a letter, written by 
him to the king, Edward I., in 1281 : — "He professes 
obedience, and owns his great obligations to the king, 
but declares that he could not be bound to disobey laws 
which subsisted by a divine authority by any human 
laws or oaths : he observes an old rivalry between the 
ecclesiastical and secular powers; and speaks of the 
Churches being oppressed contrary to the decrees of the 
popes, the statutes of the councils, and the sanctions 
of orthodox fathers, in which there, says he, is the 
supreme authority, the supreme truth, the supreme 
sanctity (he forgot the Holy Scriptures,) and no end can 
be put to disputes, unless we can submit our sublimity 
to these three great laws : for out of these the canons 
(as he adds, meaning the canon law) are collected. 
He undertakes to prove the authority of these from 
Matt. xvi. 18; Deut. xvii. 9—11, 18, 19; Matt. x. SO; 
xviii, 19, 20, and then goes on in this manner. Con- 
stantine. King of England, and emperor of the world, 
granted all that we ask, and particularly, that clerks 
should be judged by their prelates only. Wihtred, 
King of Kent, granted the same, as is plain from the 
council held by Archbishop Brithwald, a.d. 794. This 
Knute declared in his laws. King Edward promised to 
keep the laws of Knute ; and King William, to whom 
St. Edward gave the kingdom, granted that the same" 
should be observed. He intimates, that these oppressions 
began under King Henry I., but proceeded to a still 
greater height under King Henry II. He gives the 
epithet damnable to the Articles [of Clarendon] because 
Archbishop Thomas suffered banishment and death for 
not subscribing them. He tells the king, he was awed 
by his conscience to write this letter, that no oath could 
bind against the liberties of the Church; and further 
says he, we absolve you from any oath, that can any 
D 3 


ways incite you against the Church. He begs of the 
king to learn this lesson, for which so many of the holy 
fathers, and the last but one [of my predecessors] the 
Lord Boniface, your mother's uncle, did so earnestly 
labour, and to which we believe you inclined, unless 
evil counsellors deceive you. Dated from Lambeth, 
4 Nones of November, 1281." 

The archbishop was consecrated in 1278, upon his 
agreeing to pay the pope 4000 marks, which bribe he 
was so slow to pay after consecration, that the pope excom- 
municated him. Such was medieval corruption. The 
archbishop took the University of Oxford under his 
patronage, and the following constitution will be read 
with interest. 

"A Protection of the Liberties of the Scholars at Ox- 
ford," by the Archbishop of Canterbury: — Friar John, by 
divine miseration Archbishop of Canterbury, primate of 
all England, to his beloved in Christ the chancellor, and 
university of masters and scholars at Oxford in the 
diocese of Lincoln, health, grace, and benediction. We 
show all possible favour to them who are seeking the 
pearl of knowledge in the field of scholastic discipline, 
and willingly grant them what may advance their tran- 
quillity by taking away the occasion of their grievances. 
Therefore moved by devout prayers, we receive under our 
protection your persons, together with all the goods 
belonging to you all, which you at present do by fair 
means possess, or which ye shall hereafter by God's 
help justly get. But especially we with the unanimous 
express consent of our brethren, do by the authority of 
these presents, and by the patronage of this present 
writing confirm to you, and to your successors by you, 
the liberties and immunities duly granted you by bishops, 
kings, great men, and other faithful people of Christ, 
according as ye do now justly and fairly enjoy them. 
Further, because we are given to understand, that some 
men regardless of their own salvation, when they have 


been laid under a sentence of suspension, or excommuni- 
cation for their offences committed in the University of 
Oxford, by the chancellor of the university, or by inferior 
judges deputed by him, or by the said chancellor together 
with the whole university of regents only, and sometimes 
both of regents and non-regents, they withdraw from 
you and your jurisdiction in contempt of the keys of 
the Church ; now to the intent that the said sentences 
may have their full force and strength, we with the 
express unanimous consent of our brethren, do grant 
to you by the tenour of these presents, that the said 
sentences, be put in full execution within our province 
by ourselves, our brethren, and their officials, as often 
as we, or our brethren are lawfully required by you in 
this respect. And being willing further to make a more 
plentiful provision for your tranquillity, that your com- 
munity for the future may be conducted in prosperity 
and peace, we grant to you, and with the express unani- 
mous consent of our brethren, we ordain and enact, 
that if any clerks beneficed in our province be found in 
arms by night or by day, to the disturbance of your 
peace, or by any other means interrupting the tran- 
quillity of the university, and are lawfully and duly 
convicted hereof, or do presumptively confess it by their 
running away, that their benefices be sequestered in the 
hands of their prelates for three years upon an informa- 
tion made to the bishops by the chancellor under the 
common seal of the university; and that lawful satis- 
faction be made to him, or them that have been hurt 
by the party so convicted, confessing, or running away, 
out of the fruits of such benefices in the meantime to 
be received. But if they are unbeneficed, let them for 
five years be esteemed incapable of accepting any eccle- 
siastical benefice ; unless in the meantime they make 
competent satisfaction to them whom they have hurt, 
and have by merit recovered the grace of the university, 
with a saving to their reputation after satisfaction made. 


In testimony of all which our seal, together with the 
seals of our brethren here present, is appendant to this 
writing dated in our council at Reading, the day before 
the Calends of August, in the year of Grace, 1279, — 
Cantuar. Lincoln. Sarum. Winton. Exon. Cicestern. 
Wygorn. Bathon. Landaven. Herefordens. Norwycen. 
Bangoren. Rofiens." 

In July, 1279, the archbishop held a synod at Read- 
ing, to force upon the Church of England popish super- 
stitions and papal abuses. The constitutions of Othobon, 
made in the council of London, 1268, having been read, 
the twelve following constitutions were published : — 

1. Renews the twenty-ninth constitution of Othobon 
against pluralities ; and directs bishops to cause a re- 
gister to be kept of all incumbents in their dioceses, 
with all particulars relating to them and their livings. 

2. Relates to commendaries, and declares that such 
as are held otherwise than the constitution of Gregory, 
made in the council of Lyons, 1273, permits, to be 

B. Orders all priests, on the Sunday after every rural 
chapter, to explain to the people the sentences of excom- 
munication decreed by the council of Oxford in 1222; 
and to publish four times in each year the constitutions 
of Othobon concerning Baptism at Easter and Pentecost, 
and that concerning concubinaries at the four principal 
rural chapters, the laity being first dismissed. 

4. Orders that children born within eight days of 
Pentecost and Easter shall be reserved to be baptised 
at these times ; but that children born at other times 
shall be baptised at once, for fear of sudden death. 

5. Orders the eighth constitution of Othobon (1268) 
against concubinary priests to be read openly in the four 
principal rural chapters, and declares that such reading 
shall be taken as a monition. If the dean or his deputy 
neglect this, he is directed to fast every Friday on bread 
and water until the next chapter. 


6. Relates to the chrism : orders that what remains of 
the old chrism shall be burnt when the new is consecra- 
ted : directs that priests shall be bound to fetch the 
chrism for their Churches every year from their bishops 
before Easter : forbids to use any other than the new 
chrism, under the heaviest penalties. 

7. Orders that the consecrated host be kept in a fair 
pyx, within a tabernacle : that a fresh host be consecrated 
every Lord's day; that it be carried to the sick by a priest 
in surplice and stole, a lanthorn being carried before, and 
a bell sounded, that the people may " make humble 
adoration wheresoever the King of Glory is carried 
under the cover of bread." 

8. Declares the custom of praying for the dead to be 
" holy and wholesome ;" and ordains that upon the death 
of any bishop of the province of Canterbury, his survi- 
ving brethren shall perform a solemn office for the dead, 
both singly in their chapels, and together, when called to 
assemble in council or otherwise, after the death of the 
said bishop ; orders further, every priest to say one mass 
for the soul of his deceased diocesan, and intreats all 
exempt religious priests and seculars to do likewise. 

9. Relates to the preaching of indulgences, and orders 
caution in so doing, "lest the keys of the Church be 

10. Forbids to set free, or admit to purgation, on slight 
grounds, clerks who having been put into prison for their 
crimes, are delivered to the Church as convicts. 

11. Enjoins that care be taken to preserve the chastity 
of friars and nuns : forbids them to sojourn long in the 
houses of their parents and friends. 

12. Forbids parishioners to dispose of the grass, trees, 
or roots, growing in consecrated ground ; leaves such pro- 
duce at the disposal of the rectors : forbids the latter, 
without sufficient cause, to spoil or grub up such trees 
as are an ornament to the churchyards and places there- 


Then follows (in some copies) an injunction that the 
clergy of each diocese should send at least two deputies 
to the next congregation, to treat with the bishops for 
the common interests of the Church of England. This 
injunction, however, is by some persons said to be not 

But the most important council in Peckham's episco- 
pate was held on the llth of October, 1281, at Lambeth, 
the Canons of which throw much light on the very 
depressed state of religion in the middle ages. In this 
council the acts of the council of Lyons, 1274, the 
constitutions of the council of London, 1268, and those 
of the preceding council of Lambeth, 1261, were con- 
firmed and twenty-seven fresh Canons were published. 

The first Canon runs thus : — " The Most High hath 
created a medicine for the body of man, which was taken 
out of the earth, reposited in seven vessels, that is, in 
the seven sacraments of the Church which are handled 
and dispensed with little reverence and diligence, as our 
own eyes inform us. Here then let us begin our correc- 
tion, and especially in the sacrament of our Lord's 
Body, which is a sacrament, and a sacrifice of a sacra- 
ment, sanctifying those who eat it; and a sacrifice, 
which by its oblation is profitable for all in whose behalf 
it is made, as well the living as the dead. By daily 
scandals we find, that there are many priests of the 
Lord in number, few in merit. We chiefly lament this 
among their damnable neglects, that they are irreverent 
in respect to this sacrament; that they consecrate it 
with accursed tongues, reposit, and keep it with con- 
tempt ; and neglect to change it so long, that the con- 
taining species is corrupted ; so that the Author of our 
salvation, Who gave Himself for a viaticum to His Church, 
is justly offended with such irreverence ; we ordain as a 
remedy to this mischief, that every priest that hath not 
a canonical excuse, do consecrate once every week at 
least, and that a tabernacle, &c., as in the seventh of 


this archbishop's constitutions at Reading, to the word 
Lord's day. Let the bells be tolled at the elevation of 
the body of Christ, that the people who have not leisure 
daily to be present at mass, may, wherever they are, 
in houses, or fields, bow their knees in order to the 
having the indulgences granted by many bishops. And 
let priests who are negligent in keeping the Eucharist, 
&c., as in constitution the seventh at Reading, to the 
end. Let priests also take care when they give the 
holy communion at Easter, or at any other time to 
the simple, diligently to instruct them that the Body 
and Blood of our Lord is given them at once under 
the species of bread; nay the whole living and true 
Christ, Who is entirely under the species of the Sacra- 
ment : and let them at the same time instruct them, 
that what at the same time is given them to drink is 
not the Sacrament, but mere wine, to be drunk for the 
more easy swallowing of the Sacrament which they 
have taken. For it is allowed in such small churches 
to none but them that celebrate, to receive the Blood 
under the species of consecrated wine. Let them also 
direct them not overmuch to grind the Sacrament with 
their teeth, but to swallow it entirely after they have 
a little chewed it ; lest it happen that some small par- 
ticle stick between their teeth, or somewhere else. Let 
parish priests beware that they give not the body of the 
Lord to any that have not evidence of their having 
confessed by testimonial, or other credible assurance : 
and we lay the stress of the proof upon the oath of 
him that is to receive the Sacrament, who is to take 
care of what concerns his salvation. Let no priest 
give the Communion to the parishioners of another 
priest without his manifest licence. We extend not 
this ordinance to travellers, or persons in danger, or in 
case of necessity. 

Transubstantiation was now generally received, though 
in fact a novelty, (see Paschasim Radbert,) and according 


to the theory of Transubstantiation, communion in one 
kind would naturally be deemed complete. But the 
withdrawal of the cup was too serious an innovation to 
be otherwise that cautiously approached ; hence the cau- 
tion of the Canon : — 

2. Relates to masses for the dead. 

3. Runs thus : We find some have transgressed as 
to the sacrament of Baptism. For whereas it is allowed 
to laymen, or women to baptize children in case of 
inevitable necessity, and such baptism is evidently suffi- 
cient to salvation, if the due form be observed; and 
they who have been so baptized ought not to be baptized 
again ; and yet some foolish priests re-baptize them ; 
which is an indignity to the sacrament ; now we firmly 
forbid this for the future. But let the Exorcisms, and 
Catechisms be used over children so baptized, in re- 
verence to the ordinances of the Church. But the 
form of the sacrament in the vulgar tongue consists 
not only in the signs, but in the series of the words, 
as it was instituted by God ; inasmuch as Christ the 
Lord hath conferred a regenerative power to those words 
80 arranged as they are in the Latin tongue : Let then the 
baptizers say thus : — " I christen thee in the Name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." And if 
the priest doubt whether the child was baptized in due 
form, let him observe the manner in the Decretal, to- 
gether with the Exorcisms, and Catechism, saying, " If 
thou art baptized, I do not rebaptize thee, if thou art 
not baptized, I baptize thee in the name of, &c." Let 
priests take care that names, which carry a lascivious 
sound be not given to children at their baptism, espe- 
cially to those of the female sex. If they be, let them be 
altered by the bishops at confirmation. 

4. Denies communion to persons not confirmed. 

5. Forbids to confer on any, holy orders, i.e., those of 
sub-deacon, deacon, and priest, at the same time with 
the four lesser orders, i.e., the ostiary, the lector, the 


exorcist, and the acolyth ; and desires that, when it 
may be, the lesser orders shall not be received at one 
and the same time. 

6. Denies absolution to hardened sinners, while they 
continue in sin. Forbids under pain of excommunica- 
tion any one to hear confessions without licence from 
the bishop. 

7. Orders public penance for notorious sins, reserves 
the absolution of wilful murder to the bishop only. In 
both of these canons complaint is made of the general 
ignorance or profligacy of the clergy. 

8. Directs that in each deanery there shall be a 
general confessor for the clergy. 

9. Observing that the ignorance of the priests plunges 
the people into error, and that the stupidness of clerks 
who are commanded to instruct the faithful in the Catho- 
lic faith, does rather mislead than teach them, directs 
the clergy to explain four times in the year, in the 
vulgar tongue, the creed, the ten commandments, the 
two evangelical precepts, the seven works of mercy, 
the seven deadly sins, the seven cardinal virtues, and 
the seven sacraments. Then follows a brief explanation 
of them all. 

10. Orders the publication of Archbishop Peckham's 
sentences of excommunication. 

IL Orders rectors to exercise hospitality. 

12. Ptelates to certificates given by rural deans. 

13. Is directed against the fraudulent methods too 
prevalent, which were employed to get possession of 
benefices during the absence of their possessors. 

14. Prelates to the same, shewing the extreme corrup- 
tion of the clergy. 

15. Renew^s the 16th canon of Langton at Oxford, 
1222, against farming churches. 

16. Orders all houses of Augustines to assemble toge- 
ther in the general chapter. 

17. Enormous lust is so prevailing, that some without 



any regard to the laws and canons published to excite 
the chastity of nuns, commit incest, and sacrilege with 
them ; for remedy whereof we lay all clergymen and 
laymen who practise such filthiness under sentence of 
the greater excommunication ; resersang the power of 
absolving them to the persons of the bishops only, 
except at the point of deaih, at which time any priest 
may absolve them ; uj)on condition that if they recover, 
they do within three months make confession to their 
proper bishops, or in the vacancy of the see, to the 
guardian of the spiritualities, or the Dean of the Cathe- 
dral Church, under pain of anathema. 

18. Many nuns, like Dinah, delighting in an ill habit 
of wandering, frequently fall into a like, or greater 
scandal. Now we consulting their salvation rather than 
their pleasure, to provide against this danger, forbid 
any one of them under pain of excommunication, to 
stay even in company wdth a sister nun, much less 
without it, in the house of her parents, or relations, 
much less of others, of how great estate, dignity, or 
sanctity soever they be, above three natural days for the 
sake of diversion ; nor above six days upon any occasion 
whatsoever, except sickness ; unless the bishops for some 
necessary cause shall sometimes please to have it other- 
wise, whose consciences we onerate in this point in 
respect to the tremendous judgment. We extend not 
this to the nuns who are forced to beg for their neces- 
sities : and some nuns are so far deceived, as that 
though they are of lawful age, and of years capable of 
craft, after they have lived, above a year, a monastic 
life among the nuns, they think they are not professed, 
and that they may return to a secular life, because they 
have not received the bishop's benediction, nor made 
their solemn vow. We to remove such mistakes, declare 
by authority of the present council, that such as have 
voluntarily led a regular life in a college for above a 
year be deemed ^/>so facto professed; so as not to be 


permitted to return to a secular life ; though they are 
solemnly to be consecrated, or veiled by the bishop. 
We give the same judgment as to monks, and all other 
religious where there is no canonical impediment ; that 
if they have for above a year willingly worn the religious 
habit in a monastery, and then rejecting it return to 
a secular life, they be repelled as apostates from eccle- 
siastical benefices ; and be compelled, as the law requires, 
to return to their monasteries. Let archdeacons make 
diligent inquiry concerning these ; because we know- 
many who have the heart of a wolf under the fleece 
of a sheep. 

19. Provides for the reclamation of relapsed monks. 

20. Forbids monks to become executors to wdlls. 

21. Though the name of religion be by use appro- 
priated to the monastic life, [yet] the good behaviour of 
clergymen has a remarkable degree of religious life in 
it, if those things be observed which the canons have 
decreed. But, alas, very many clergymen of this famous 
country, imitate the madness of the Jews, who preferred 
the fashions of the Grecians to those of their fathers. 
They are ashamed to appear as clergymen, and take the 
military dress to please fools, and provoke wise men. 
And whereas the crown is the distinguishing mark of 
a soldier of the Church, and of a heart enlarged and 
open to the celestial rays, they hide their crowns with 
hairlaces, and like the Jews have a veil upon their 
hearts, whereby those rays are repelled. But we sticking 
to the statute of the Lord Othobon do strictly order and 
charge, that every clerk in holy orders have his outward 
garment unlike to soldiers and laymen, for shape and 
comeliness. And because the said legate against clerks 
that wore coifs and hairlaces before their prelates, or 
people, ordained, that if they did not reform upon a 
monition, they should ipso facto incur a suspension 
from office, in which if they continued for three months 
they should then be suspended from benefice, and not 


be absolved till they have given the sixth part of their 
ecclesiastical goods to be distributed to the poor by the 
hands of the Bishops, and yet be otherwise punished 
at the bishop's discretion: we observing how little 
effect this statute hath had, because lesser prelates dare 
not admonish such monstrous clergymen, on which ac- 
count they seem to have fallen into the punishments 
ordained by the said legate as their pusillanimity de- 
serves, and such clerks seldom come into the presence 
of bishops ; we ordain, that (since ignorance of the law 
does not excuse clergymen) such clergymen, as often as 
they w^ore such coifs, or hairlaces before their prelates, or 
people, do without any monition fall under the punish- 
ments aforesaid ; unless it be in a journey. And we 
command that special enquiry be made after such for 
the future in every deanery, and that whatever their de- 
gree or dignity be, they be proceeded against in form 
of canon. 

22. Forbids the sons of rectors to succeed immediately 
to their fathers in churches where they ministered. This 
shews that though celibacy was enforced, concubinage 
w^as common. 

23. Orders bishops to give to every clerk upon his 
admission to a benefice letters patent testifying his 

24. Forbids pluralities. 

25. Relates to the office of advocate. 

26. Orders that when an archbishop or bishop dies, 
one mass for his soul shall be said in every parish and 

In 1282 he went in person to the prince of Wales, then 
at Snowdon, in order to bring about a reconciliation be- 
tween him and the king (Edward I.) but was unsuccess- 
ful ; and, therefore, when, on his return, he passed 
through Oxford, he excommunicated the prince and his 
followers. He died at Mortlake in 1292, and was buried 
in Canterbury Cathedral, near the remains of Thomas a 


Becket. He founded a college at Wingliam, in Kent. 
Wood, in liis Annals, makes frequent mention of Peck- 
ham's attention to the interests of the University 
of Oxford ; and Tanner enumerates a great number of 
his works on divinity, which show him accomplished in 
all the learning of his age. These remain, however, in 
manuscript, in our different libraries, except some of his 
letters published by Wharton, and his statutes, institu- 
tions, &c., in the Concil, Mag. Brit, et Hib. vol. ii. Two 
only of his works were published separately, and often 
reprinted ; viz., his Collectanea Bibliorum, libri quinque; 
and his Perspectiva Communis. — Collier. Johnson. 
Landon. Tanner. 

PELAGIUS, — (See the Life oj Augustine. J 

This heresiarch of the 5th century, was born in Wales. 
His vernacular name was Morgan, or Marigena, signify- 
ing Sea-born, which he changed into Pelagius, a word of 
Greek derivation, and of the same meaning. He em- 
braced the monastic life, probably in the celebrated 
monastery of Bangor. About the year 400, accompanied 
by his intimate friend Coelestius, an Irish monk, he went 
to Rome, and there began to disseminate his peculiar 

Pelagius was a man of irreproachable morals, and in 
his zeal for morality it was that he started his heresy. 
He saw the truth abused and leading, in its abuse, to a 
laxity of morals, and therefore he tried to introduce a 
stricter code. Such a man found it easy to gain a crowd 
of followers ; and the heresy spread so much, that it 
became neccesary for him to quit Rome, in the year 400, 
going to Sicily, and accompanied by Coelestius. They 
continued in Sicily, till the report of a conference, held 
at Carthage between the Orthodox and the Donatists, 
induced them to go to Africa ; but Pelagius did not stay 
long there ; and after his departure, Coelestius being 


accused of denying original sin by Paulinus, was con- 
demned by a council held at Carthage in the year 412, 
under Aurelius, primate of Africa. Upon this he re- 
paired to his friend Pelagius, who had retired to 
Palestine. Here they were well received by John, 
Bishop of Jerusalem, the enemy of St. Jerome. In 
Palestine his doctrine was approved in a council held 
at Diospolis, in 415, consisting of fourteen bishops. On 
the other hand, the African bishops held a council, accor- 
ding to custom, in 416, at Carthage, and decided that 
Pelagius and Coelestius ought to be anathematized ; and 
they communicated their judgment to Innocent I. in 
order to join the authority of the see of Rome to their 
own; and, prompted by St. Augustine, they refuted in 
a summary way the chief errors imputed to Pelagius, 
concluding thus : " Though Pelagius and Coelestius dis- 
own this doctrine, and the writings produced against 
them, without its being possible to convict them of false- 
hood ; nevertheless, we must anathematize in general 
whoever teacheth that human nature is capable of 
avoiding sin, and of fulfilling the commands of God; 
as he show^s himself an enemy to His grace." 

Pelagius, who certainly was guilty of such prevarica- 
tions at this time as to induce us to suppose that he had 
now forfeited the character he once sustained as a moral 
man and a lover of truth, resorted to the artifice often 
employed by the crafty, and sent declarations of his 
orthodoxy and his obedience to Rome. The wicked 
policy of the see of Rome has always been to encourage 
every act by which the authority of its bishop can be 
advanced. Coelestius came to Rome at the time 
when Zosimus had just been elected bishop. In an 
evil hour for himself and his see, Zosimus, flattered 
by the personal appeal to his justice on the part of 
the heretics and the acknowledged submission to the 
chair of St. Peter, pronounced the innocence of the 
Pelaoian doctrine. 


The Pope of Rome was an avowed Pelagian heretic. 

But the African Bishops, though they pitied the heresy 
of their brother, were firm in their orthodoxy. They 
assembled in 417, to the number of two hundred and 
fourteen, and determined, in spite of the heretical Pope 
of Rome, to adhere to their decrees against Pelagius, 
and before excommunicating Zosimus remonstrated with 
and instructed him. In 418, a plenary synod of Africa 
was convened at Carthage, and in eight canons it con- 
demned the principal of the Pelagian errors. 

The Roman Bishop now perceived his mistake, and 
pretending that he had been deceived, although he had 
but just before accepted the heresy, joined with the 
African bishops in condemning the heretic. 

Pelagius was banished from Italy by an edict of the 
emperor Honorius, in 418. It is supposed that he after- 
wards retired to his own country. 

The following is a brief statement of his doctrines as 
given by Dollinger. 

The first man was created mortal, and must conse- 
quently have died, whether he had sinned or not. As 
death is not therefore the effect of sin, sin has no in- 
fluence generally on human nature ; and being a thing 
unsubstantial, it cannot affect or change our nature. 
Children are born, therefore, in the same state in which 
Adam was before his fall, and men are as free now as 
he was in Paradise. The words of the apostle, " that 
in Adam all have sinned," are to be understood to signify 
only that all imitate the first man in the sin which he 
committed, for that which is unavoidable is no sin, and 
concupiscence, even in its present state, is not evil. All 
men can consequently exist free from sin, and observe all 
the Divine commandments. That man can desire and 
perform what is good, is a power which he has received 
from God ; and it is in the bestowing of this power, — 
that is, free-will or the power not to sin, — that Divine 
grace chiefly consists : grace, therefore, is an assistance 


which God grants to us, that we more easily perform 
those things which He has commanded us to perform by 
virtue of our free will ; this grace is no other than the 
law, the doctrine and the example of Christ, then the 
remission or non-imputation of sin, referring only to the 
past, not connected with an interior sanctification or 
strength for the avoiding of future offences. In addition 
to these external, Pelagius, during the contest, allowed 
there were other interior and supernatural graces, such 
as the in-dwelling of the Holy Ghost; which, however, 
produced no more than an enlightening of the under- 
standing, not that sanctifying grace which immediately 
affects and guides the will, and which infuses charity into 
the soul of man. Of this doctrine the consequence was, 
that we are not to pray to God that He would grant us 
His grace to love and do what is good, but only the grace 
to know it. When, therefore, Pelagius spoke of the neces- 
sity of grace, he thereby understood no more than the 
first, the grant of free will ; and this he defined to be a 
state of indiff'erence, or equipoise of the will between 
good and evil : the assisting or helping grace, which he 
admitted was not necessary to man for overcoming 
temptation or for fulfilling the commandments, but 
with it man was enabled to perform good more easily : 
it is not a free gift of God, but merited by man by the 
good use of his free will : for God gives it to every one, 
who, by the sole, proper, due employment of his natural 
faculties, disposes himself to receive it. By the power of 
his free will alone, man can attain to the true faith, can 
merit the second (the assisting) grace, can resist every 
temptation, and comply with all the commandments. 
Baptism is necessary to adults for the forgiveness of 
sins ; but to children, who are born without sin and 
without guilt, it is necessary only that they may obtain 
the adoption of children of God, and the inheritance of 
the kingdom of Heaven ; for children who die unbap- 
tized, and Pagans who have lived unstained by crime, 


enjoy eternal life ; not, indeed, in the kingdom of 
Heaven, which is open only to those who have been 
baptized, and who have been made partakers of the 
grace of Christ. 

Very few of his writings remain. He was confuted by 
Augustine, Jerome, Prosper, and Fulgentius, his con- 
temporaries. The history of the Pelagian schism has 
been written by Archbishoj) Usher, in his Antiq. Eccles. 
Britan, ; Laet ; Gerard Vossius ; Le Clerc ; Cardinal 
Noris; Father Garnier, in his Supplem. Oper. Theo- 
doreti ; Jansenius, in his Augustine ; and by the Jesuits, 
Longueval and Patouillet. — Usher. Mosheim. Dollinger. 


CoNEAD Pellican, was born at Euffach, in Alsace, Jan. 
8, 1478. We have his autobiography in Melchior Adam 
at some length. He was educated first at Ptuffach, and 
then at Heidelberg. In 1492, he returned to his parents, 
who were too poor to support him, and he earned his 
livelihood by keeping a school. His desire of improve- 
ment was, however, unabated, and he was enabled to 
borrow what books he wanted from the neighbouring 
monastery of the Cordeliers. His frequent intercourse 
with the monks rendered him open to their persuasions, 
and, contrary to the wish of his relations, he entered 
into their community and took the habit in the sixteenth 
year of his age. In 1494, he was ordained a sub-deacon. 
In 1496, at the request of an uncle who had befriended 
him and who was in better circumstances than his parents, 
he went for further improvement first to Basle and then 
to Tubingen, where he was instructed and protected by 
Paul Scuptor, one of the professors. In 1499, he began 
to study Hebrew under the instruction of a converted 
Jew. In 1500, Reuchlin came to Tubingen, and under 
him PeUican pursued his studies witli such success that, 
next to Reuchlin, he was considered the best Hebrew 


scholar in Germany. In ]501,hewas ordained priest 
and in the following year he was appointed professor of 
Divinity, in the convent of his order at Basle, and edited 
the works of St. Augustine and St. Chrysostom. He also 
superintended an edition of the Psalter in four languages. 
In 1508, he was appointed to a similar professorship at 
his native place, and having held other high offices in his 
order, he was appointed, in 1519, guardian of the convent 
of Basle. 

By the study of Scripture he had for some time heen 
convinced of the unscriptural state of the existing Church, 
and on reading the writings of Luther now brought to 
Basle, his convictions were strengthened and his doubts 
confirmed. He became by degrees a convert to the re- 
former. Pellican fearlessly propounded his opinions, and 
in 1522, was accused of Lutheranism in a chapter of his 
order. We are not told how he defended himself, but it 
was with such success that he obtained permission for 
the ablest of the students and preachers to read the works 
of Luther. In 1523, Gaspar Sazgar, the provincial, 
visited the convent, and hearing complaints of Pellican 
and other members of the fraternity, of their being 
Lutherans, prepared to remove the accused from their 
situations. But he was prevented from taking that step 
by the interference of the senate, who confirmed Pellican 
in his place, and appointed him fellow-professor of 
divinity with Oi^colampadius. Sometime afterwards he 
was removed from the office of guardian ; but he still 
retained his post at the university, and filled the theo- 
logical chair alternately with his learned colleague. In 
1526, on the invitation of Zuinglius, he withdrew to 
Zurich, where he was appointed professor of divinity 
and of Hebrew. He now, in his forty-eighth year, to 
show that he finally renounced the papal communion, 
took to himself a wife. He doubtless did this as a 
protest against the demoralizing celibacy enforced upon 
the clergy by the Church of Rome, but he had the vow 


upon him, and by breaking the vow he disgusted those 
members of the Church of Rome who were beginning to 
see the evil of their system. He should have vindicated 
the liberty of others without availing himself of it 
on his own account. But the reformers generally took 
a different view of the matter. This step lost him the 
friendship of Erasmus, with whom he had been inti- 
mately connected. 

In the same year he edited a second impression of 
the Biblia Hebraica, cum Comment. R. Abraam Abe- 
neara, et R. Salomonis in Prophetas ; and also of the Se- 
pher Michlol, first printed at Constantinople. In 1528, 
he took part in the celebrated disputation at Bern, on the 
subject of the Eucharist, and published a volume of the 
debates and speeches on that occasion. In the follow- 
ing year he commenced his public exposition of the books 
of the Old Testament. This work, entitled, Commentarii 
Bibliorum cum Vulgata Editione, sed ad Hebraicam 
lectionem accurate emendata, Zurich, 1531 — 1536, 4 
vols., fol , is highly commended by Richard Simon. 
He next devoted his labours to an illustration of the 
New Testament, which he published in 2 vols., fol. He 
had, besides, a considerable share in editing the commen- 
taries of Sebastian Meyer upon the Apocryphal books. 
He also translated into Latin the Chaldee paraphrases, 
including the Targums of Onkelos, Jonathan, and Jeru- 
salem, various small Talmudical treatises, and Elias 
Levita's edition of the Massora. He published, in Ger- 
man, An Exposition of the Pentateuch, Joshua, Ruth, 
Samuel, and the Books of Kings. He also published, 
Psalterium Davidis ad Hebraicam veritatem interpreta- 
tum, cum Scholis brevissimis ; and he bestowed great 
labour in editing various commentaries, dictionaries, 
&c., of which an enumeration may be seen in Melchior 
Adam. He died in 1556. His works have been col- 
lected together, and published in 7 vols, fol. — Melchior 



William Pemble, was bom in 1591, and was educated 
at Magdalen College, Oxford. He was a learned man, 
though a Calvinist ; he died in April, 1623. 

His works, all of which were separately printed after 
his death, were collected in 1635, fol., and reprinted four 
or five times ; but this volume does not include his Latin 
works, De Formarum Origine; De Sensibus internis; 
and Enchiridion Oratorium. — Wood. Fuller. 


Joachim Perton was born at Cormeri, in the Touraine, 
about 1500, and at the age of seventeen entered the 
Benedictine abbey at his native place, and afterwards 
studied at Paris, where for twenty years he applied 
himself to the reading of the authors of antiquity, 
especially Cicero. He was admitted to the degree of 
doctor by the faculty of theology at Paris, and during 
several years explained the Scriptures in that city with 
great applause. By a decree of the university he was ap- 
pointed to defend Aristotle and Cicero against Ramus ; 
and he discharged that task with great success. He 
died in 1559. 

His printed works are ; — De Dialectica Lib. III. ; 
Historia Abdise Eabylonii ; Topicorum Theologicorum 
Lib. II. ; De Origine Linguae Gallicse, et ejus cum 
Greca Cognatione ; Liber de sanctorum Virorum qui 
Patriarchae ab Ecclesia appellantur Ptebus gestis, ac 
Vitis ; De Vita Rebusque Jesu Christi ; and, De Vita 
Virginis et Apostolorom; in both of these the Scrip- 
ture history is debased by the intermixture of absurd 
fabulous legends ; De Romanorum et Graecorum Ma- 
gistratibus Lib. III. ; Notes on the Harangues in Livy ; 
and, a Latin Version of the Commentary of Origen 
upon Job, &c. — Biog. Universelle. 



Davis (Petau) Petavius was born at Orleans in 1583. 
He was educated at Paris, and in his nineteenth year 
was appointed to the chair of philosophy at Bourges. 
In his twenty-third year he entered into the society of 
the Jesuits, and a veritable Jesuit he became. He 
studied divinity at Pont a Mousson, and afterwards 
taught Rhetoric and Theology at Rheims, La Pleche, 
and Pans. 

In 1621, he succeeded Fronton du Due in the chair 
of theology, which he filled with distinguished repu- 
tation for twenty-two years. He Vv'as perfectly versed in 
the learned languages, and was well acquainted with the 
sciences ; but his particular study was chronology, and 
it is upon his writings on that topic that his literary 
fame is chiefly founded. Declining an invitation to 
Madrid from Philip IV., and to Rome from Urban VIlL, 
he continued to live in his cell in the college of Clermont, 
where he died in 1652, in the seventieth year of his age. 
He had been a great sufferer from the stone, so that he 
regarded death as a desirable release. The writings of 
Petavius are numerous and various. He appeared as a 
translator and critical editor in his Latin versions and 
editions of several pieces of St. Epiphanius, of Synesius, 
Themistius, the emperor Julian, and the historical 
abridgment of the Patriarch Nicephorus. He exercised 
himself in poetry both in the Greek and Latin languages, 
in the former of which he gave a paraphrase of all the 
Psalms and Canticles. 

The first of his more important works is, De Doctrina 
Temporum, 2 vols, folio, 1627; it was republished with 
considerable additions by himself, as well as by Har- 
douin and others, in 8 vols, folio, Antwerp, 1703; it is 
generally accompanied by his Uranologia, in quo Graeci 
Auctores varii de Sphsera ac Sideribus commentati sunt, 



&c. folio, 1630. He also published : — Rationarium Tem- 
porum, 2 vols. 8vo., 1652 ; this is an abridgment of his 
De Doctrina Temporum, with an abstract of general 
history; of the various editions of this useful work, the 
best is reckoned to be that of J. Conrad Rungius, 2 vols. 
-Svo. Lugd. B. 1710; Perizonius published an edition of 
it, with a continuation down to 1715 ; and, Dogmata 
Theologica, 3 vols, folio, 1644 — 1650; the best edition 
is that of Venice, 1758, 7 vols, folio, superintended by 
Zaccaria, with dissertations, notes, and a life of the 

This is the work for which he is " damned to fame" in 
the theological world, and which has been demolished by 
our own Bishop Bull. His object was to prove that the 
Ante-Nicene fathers were not orthodox or Homoousians 
on the doctrine of the Trinity. Hence, the Arians 
have claimed him as their own, and " Unitarians" 
in their own unfairness praise him for the "fairness 
of his statements." Anything but fairness of state- 
ment appears to have been the design of Petavius. 
Bishop Bull acquits him of any intention of advancing 
the cause of Arianism, and suggests that he had in view 
the support of the pope rather that Arius, and of the 
Church of Rome than of any other sect. His course 
was truly Jesuitical, and such as other writers of his 
communion have not feared to pursue. Truth and 
Christianity itself they would sacrifice to promote the 
interests of the Roman see. Petavius perceived that if 
the Catholic writers of the first three centuries were 
almost all of the same opinion, which was afterwards 
condemned in Arius for heresy, by the Council of 
Nice ; or that they wrote in such a manner as they 
m.ight at least be thought to hold such an opinion, by 
their loose way of expressing themselves ; it will thence 
follow, as he (Prooem. 88,) has himself observed, first, 
that there is very little regard to be had to the fathers 
of the first three centuries, to whom the reformed Catho- 

PETER. 61 

lies generally appealed, and secondly, that general councils 
have a power of making new articles of faith, or of 
manifesting and declaring them, as he preferred to ex- 
press it : the inference from all which he designed to 
be that all the additions to the primitive faith, voted at 
the pretended Council of Trent, ought to be received 
without examination. With this view, Petavius set to 
work to prove the heterodoxy of the Ante-Nicene fathers. 
How completely and miserably he has failed may be seen 
in the incomparable works of Bishop Bull. The more 
honest or less crafty of his own communion became 
alarmed at his boldness, and the Sorbonne compelled 
him to qualify his statements in an orthodox preface, 
which, however, has only made him appear inconsistent 
with himself. In like manner his representations of the 
opinions of St. Augustine having given offence to his 
brethren of the society, he was forced to retract, and 
adopt the Molinist sense of those doctrines. It is re- 
ported that he said to a friend, as a reason for this altera- 
tion, " I am too old to change my lodgings," intimating 
that he must otherwise have quitted the society : such 
was its tyranny in matter of opinion! The style of 
Petavius, when writing upon these abstruse and thorny 
subjects, is much admired for its purity and clearness. 
His life is written at length by Father Oudin, in the 
"Memoires du Niceron." — Oudin. Bull. Bayle. 


Peter, Bishop of Alexander, one of the most illustrious 
prelates of the fourth century, was educated at Alexan- 
dria, of which city he was probably a native. He was a 
pupil of Thomas, the bishop of that see, whose successor 
he became in the year 300. " He was," says Eusebius, 
" a most excellent teacher of the Christian doctrine— an 
ornament to the episcopal character, both for the holiness 


of his life, and his laborious application in studying and 
explaining the sacred Scriptures. He governed the 
Church three years before the persecution. The rest 
of his time he passed in a more strict and mortified 
course of life, but without neglecting the common good 
of the Churches." "Without any crime of any kind 
laid to his charge," adds the same writer, " beyond all 
expectation, on a sudden, for no other reason but the 
will of Maximin, he was taken into custody and be- 
headed." His martyrdom took place in 311. He had a 
quarrel with Meletius, Bishop of Lycopolis, which pro- 
duced a long schism in the Egyptian Church. He is the 
reputed author of: — A Book on Penance, thirteen canons 
of which are inserted in Greek and Latin, in the first 
volume of the Collect. ConciL ; Some fragments also 
of another treatise attributed to him. Concerning the 
Divinity, may be met with in the third and fourth vols, 
of the same collection. — Eusehius. Dupin. 


Blessensis Peter, or Peter of Blois, who flourished 
in the 12th century, was educated at Paris and Bologna. 
He was a pupil of John of Salisbury, so frequently 
mentioned in the life of Thomas a Becket. 

In 1167, he travelled into Sicily with Stephen, son of 
the Count of Perche, and cousin to the queen of that 
island, where he was appointed tutor, and afterwards 
secretary, to William II. of Sicily. When, however, 
Stephen, who had been made chancellor of the king- 
dom, and Archbishop of Palermo, was sent into banish- 
ment, Peter was involved in his disgrace, and found it 
necessary to take refuge in his native country. Hence 
he was invited into England by Henry II., at whose 
court he continued for some time, and was nominated 
Archdeacon of Bath. He next entered into the service 
of Richard, Archbishop of Canterbury, (the successor of 


Thomas a Becket,) who appointed him his chancellor, 
and deputed him to negotiate business of importance 
relating to his metropolitan see, with Henry IT. and 
Alexander III. and Urban III. After the death of 
Henry he resided for a time at the court of Queen 
Eleanor. Late in life he was deprived of his Arch- 
deaconry of Bath ; though he was was afterwards in 
some degree compensated for his loss by obtaining that 
of London. He died in 1200. The word Transubstan- 
tiation is said to have been first of all made use of by 
him to express the doctrine of the Romish Church on 
the subject of the Eucharist. The most considerable of 
his remains consist of Letters, one hundred and eighty- 
three in number, which he formed into a collection by 
order of Henry II. They abound in quotations from 
the Scriptures, as well as from ecclesiastical and profane 
writers. There are also still extant several sermons of 
this author, and various treatises which he wrote on 
doctrinal and moral topics. Peter de Goussainville 
published a new edition of all his works, 1677, fol., 
with notes and various readings, which is inserted in 
the twenty-fourth volume of the Bibl. Patr. A work of 
his on Canon Law and Process has lately been discovered, 
of which an account is given in the Zeitschrift fiir 
Geschichtliche Rechtswissenschaft, vol. vii. p. 207. — 
Cave. Lyttelton. Moreri. 


Peter, surnamed Chrysologus, a celebrated Italian pre- 
late of the fifth century, was born at Forum Cornelii, 
(Imola) ; and also educated at his native place, where 
he became deacon to Cornelius the Bishop. Without 
noticing the legendary tales which are related concerning 
him, we have only to state, that he was elected Bishop of 
Ravenna in the year 483, and died before 451. His 
F 3 


eloquence was greatly admired ; whence he had the sur- 
name of Chrysologus, meaning golden speaker. What 
remains of his productions consists chiefly of Sermons, 
or Homilies, containing short explanations of portions 
of the sacred Scriptures, accompanied with moral reflec- 
tions. They are drawn up in a perspicuous and pleasing 
style ; and are distinguished by a happy union of con- 
sciousness and elegance. They were collected together 
two hundred and fifty years after his death, by Felix, 
one of his successors in the see of Ravenna, and were 
first printed, to the number of 176, at Cologne, in the 
year 1541. Afterwards they underwent repeated impres- 
sions at the same place, Antwerp, Paris, Lyons, Venice, 
and Bologna, and were inserted in the seventh volume 
of the Bibl. Patr. Six others, on the Lord's Prayer, 
are given by Father D'Achery in his " Spicilegium." 
There is also still extant " A Letter to Eutyches the 
Archimandrite," in which Peter declares against the 
sentiments of that monk, and expresses his approbation 
of the conduct of Flaireneus. It was first published 
by Gerard Vossius at the end of his edition of Gregory 
Thaumaturgus. — Moreri. Cave. 


Peter the Hermit was born in the eleventh century, 
at Amiens, in Picardy. He was a soldier in early life, 
and then retired to a hermitage in the South of France, 
where he devoted himself to austerities ; abstaining 
from flesh meat and bread, but permitting to himself 
the use of wine. The fanaticism of the age evinced 
itself in the love of pilgrimages to Jerusalem, and to 
Jerusalem, in 1093, Peter bent his steps. He viewed 
with horror the barbarity of the Turks and the sufferings 
of the faithful. The desire and the hope of effecting 
the deliverance of the daughter of Zion rose in his 


bosom ; he sought the patriarch, the venerable Simeon, 
and they mingled their tears as they bemoaned the com- 
mon calamity. " The sins of the oriental Christians," 
said Simeon, "have made nought their power; the 
Greeks have, within these few years, lost half their 
empire ; our own hope lies in the strength and piety 
of the nations of the West." The enthusiasm of the 
hermit broke forth, and he offered his aid. " I send thee 
then," said the patriarch, "as the envoy of the Church 
of Jerusalem to her daughter in the West, to entreat of 
her pity and aid for her unhappy parent." The anchorite 
accepted the commission, and received letters for the pope 
and potentates of the W^est. 

Even Heaven itself seemed to the heated imagina- 
tion of the hermit to interpose in his mission. As in 
the evening he poured forth his soul in prayer, in the 
Church of the Resurrection, to God and the saints, to pros- 
per his undertaking, sleep came over his weary frame, and 
in a dream Christ appeared to him, and said, " Arise, 
Peter, haste, and do boldly what thou hast undertaken. 
I will be with thee, for the time is come that the sanc- 
tuary should be cleansed, and my people holpen." He 
awoke full of vigour, went and told his dream to the 
patriarch, and hasted to Antioch to embark for Italy. 

This dream of the hermit has been by many regarded 
as a pious fraud ; for our part we are disposed to view 
it as a reality. There is nothing in the character of 
Peter which should lead us to look on him as a hypocrite, 
but he was a man constitutionally timid, with a very 
excitable imagination. To such a man, when, over- 
whelmed with the magnitude of the task he had 
assumed, and exhausted by fasting and the fervour of 
devotion, he sunk in sleep, nothing was more natural 
than the appearance of such a dream as we have related. 
Ill is he qualified to enter into the spirit of the crusades 
who discerns falsehood and imposture at every step ! 

Peter landed at Bari in ApuHa. Without loss of tima 


he hasted to Rome, and placed in the hands of Pope 
Urban 11. the letter of the patriarch. Urban approved 
of his project, and gave him letters from himself to all 
Christian princes. The hermit, thus furnished with cre- 
dentials, traversed Italy ; he crossed the Alps, and visited 
all parts of France. Mounted on a mule, his head and 
feet bare, his coarse pilgrim's garment bound round 
him with a cord, and a crucifix in his hand, he went 
from province to province, and from town to town. 
He confined his addresses not to the great alone; he 
harangued the assembled people, he set before them with 
all the fire of his eloquence the sufferings of pious 
pilgrims, the profanation of the holy places; he told 
them how the Saviour had deigned to appear to him 
personally ; he read to them the letters of the patriarchs, 
and other Christians ; he even, it is said, shewed them 
one which had fallen from heaven. The benevolence of 
the pious loaded the hermit with gifts, these he bestowed 
on the poor, or employed in providing husbands for 
women who renounced a sinful course of life. Where- 
ever he came he preached peace and concord, and his 
words found obedience as coming from God. Wherever 
he went he was regarded as a saint, and the very hairs 
that fell from his mule were preserved as relics. 

A council was meantime assembled by the pope at 
Piacenza, which was so numerously attended that it 
could not as usual be holden in a church, and a field was 
the scene of deliberation. Ambassadors appeared from 
the Greek emperor, who pourtrayed the power and ferocity 
of the Turks, and the peril of the empire, and implored 
the aid of the Latin Christians. The pope supported 
their prayer, and a large number of those present 
swore to march to the aid of Alexius against the Infidels. 
But Italy was not the place where a spirit of holy enthu- 
siasm could be best excited. The feudal principle was 
not strong in that country, the imperial party was 
numerous, and commerce with the East had taught the 


people to view the Moslems with less abhorrence than 
was felt by those who only knew them by fame. Urban 
therefore resolved to make France, of which country he 
was a native, the scene of his greatest efforts. 

In the year 1095, the pope crossed the Alps. Having 
holden councils in Puy and other places to prepare the 
clergy, he appointed the eighth day after the festival of 
St. Martin (the 11th Nov.) for the meeting of a general 
council of Clermont, in Auvergne, whither the clergy were 
commanded to repair under penalty of the loss of their 
benefices. More than three hundred prelates and abbots 
obeyed the summons of the pontiff, and the number of 
the inferior clergy was proportionably great ; the atten- 
dance of the laity was immense. The town of Clermont 
sufficed not to contain within its wall the prelates, 
princes, ambassadors, and nobles who crowded thither, 
" so that," says an old chronicler, "towards the middle 
of the month of November, the towns and villages 
around were all filled with people, and many were 
obliged to pitch their tents in the meads and fields, 
though the season and the country were full of extreme 
cold." When the ordinary business of the council had 
been gone through, and the Truce of God had been 
again enjoined, the pontiff assembled the people in an 
open square, where he ascended a stage, and took his 
seat on a throne surrounded by his cardinals, with the 
Hermit standing at his side, then arose and addressed 
the people in a very animated discourse, at the con- 
clusion of which, as well as in the course of its delivery, 
the people, melted to tears and glowing with enthusaism, 
shouted "God wills it." Ademar, Archbishop of Puy, 
ran forward with a joyful countenance, and falling at the 
feet of the pontiff craved permission to share in the holy 
war. His example was followed by William, Bishop of 
Orange. Clergy and laity pressed forward to enter on 
the way of the Lord. They all cast themselves on the 
ground, and one of the cardinals read a general confes- 


sion in their names, and the pope bestowed on them the 
absolution of their sins. Each pilgrim affixed a red 
cross to the right shoulder of his garment, hence they 
were called the Crossed (Croises) and the Holy War 
named a Crusade (Croisade). The pope charged the 
clergy, on their return home, to stimulate the warlike 
portion of the people to the holy expedition, and to 
prohibit all others from sharing in it. The prelates 
besought him to be their leader, but he excused himself, 
as there was an anti-pope, and he was still on ill terms 
with the emperor of Germany and the King of France, 
but he promised to join them as soon as peace was 
restored to the Church. Meantime he appointed the 
Bishop of Puy to be his legate in the camp of the 

The crusaders of the better sort were led by Godfrey 
of Bouillon. A promiscuous horde of men and women 
to the number of 60,000, was led by Peter from the 
borders of France, along the banks of the Rhine and 
the Danube. Their progress was marked by pillage and 
disorders of all kinds, and by the massacre of all the 
Jews who fell in their way. As they approached the 
confines of Hungary and Bulgaria the fierce natives of 
those countries rose upon them, and cut them off in such 
numbers, that only a third part, with Peter himself, 
having taken refuge in the Thracian mountains, at 
length escaped to Constantinople. Almost all these 
were afterwards slain by the Turks in the plain of Nice, 
while Peter had prudently withdrawn from the camp, 
and remained in the Greek capital. He, however, 
accompanied the better disciplined army of Godfrey, 
and v^as present at the siege of Antioch in 1097. But 
his fanatical ardour seems now to have deserted him ; 
for during the hardships attending that enterprise he 
attempted to make his escape. He was, however, 
brought back by Tancred, who obliged him to swear 
that he would never desert an expedition of which he 


was the first mover. He afterwards distinguished him- 
seK at the siege of Jerusalem, on which account he has 
obtained immortal renown from the muse of Tasso. 
After the capture of that city he was appointed by the 
patriarch, during his absence in Godfrey's army, to act 
as his yicar-general. Peter died the 7th of July, 1115, 
at the Abbey of Neu-Moutier, near Huy, of which he 
was the founder. — Keightley. 


Maurice Peter, generally known as Peter the Venerable, 
was born in the year 1093, being the descendant of a 
noble house in Arragon. He was dedicated by his 
parents to a monastic life, and received his education 
in the Monastery of Clugni, a house of a so-called 
reformed branch of the Benedictine order. In his 
twenty-eighth year he was made prior of Vezelay, and 
soon after prior of Domnus. He was called to fill the 
vacant place of abbot of Clugni, in the year 1123, and 
was at the same time chosen general of his order. 

The circumstances of his appointment are remarkable 
and illustrate the spirit of the middle ages. The order 
of Clugni originated in a project of conventual refor- 
mation, and had at first the tendency to restore the 
precise and literal observance of the Benedictine rule, 
in all its primitive austerity. The convent was at first 
only distinguished for the severity of its discipline, and 
the frequency of its devotional exercises. The fame of 
this attracted the reverence and the gifts of the people : 
a succession of eminent men had presided over the order, 
whose advice and participation had been solicited by 
popes and sovereigns in affairs of moment. The 
benevolent purposes to which they applied their wealth 
excited general esteem and affection. But the wealth 
^nd power of the order produced their usual results, the 


relaxation of their original severity of discipline, and the 
abandonment of that mechanical system of monkish 
devotion, so wearying to the spirit. The convent richly 
adorned, had now become the seat of arts and learning, 
but with these came also their accustomed and pernicious 
followers — luxury and sensuality. Under the sway of 
Pontius, a young and worldly man, who, in the year 
1109, was chosen abbot of Clugni, the revenues of the 
monastery were squandered, and many disorders and 
abuses inimical to its interests and authority suffered to 
prevail. The case at last became so notorious, as to 
reach the ears of Pope Calixtus the second, who ad- 
monished Pontius of the impropriety of his conduct. 
In consequence of this, the abbot abdicated his post, and 
resolved on undertaking the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. 

It was to his place, declared vacant, that Peter the 
Venerable was appointed. The repentance of Pontius, 
however, seems to have been transient. At the end of 
two years he endeavoured to reinstate himself in the 
supremacy of the order ; and as his character was far 
more suitable to the general inclinations of the monks, 
than that of Peter, who, though far more gentle, was at 
the same time stricter in moral and religious require- 
ments, he found many partizans, and having forced his 
way into the convent during the absence of Peter, he 
seized on the treasures belonging to the monastery, even 
to the splendid ornaments of the church, the costly cruci- 
fixes, and the golden reliquaries, in order to gain the means 
of strengthening his party. These proceedings led to 
the greatest confusion in the order, till at length Pope 
Honorius the second interfered, and by his authority put 
an end to the strife, and in the year 1125 reinstated and 
confirmed the abbot Peter, in his office. But these 
disorders had left many pernicious results in the con- 
dition of the order, which had tended greatly to the 
prejudice of his authority. At this era the Cistercian 
order was extending itself widely, and to its extension 


Bernard contributed far more than the presiding abbot. 
By their rigid ascetic austerity, and their hteral adhe- 
rence to the Benedictine rule, the Cistercian monks were 
pecuHarly distinguished from the luxurious Clugniacs, 
and obtained in consequence the greater veneration. 
The character of humihty and poverty, conveyed by the 
unadorned plainness of their convent and churches, 
presented a remarkable contrast to those of Clugni with 
their manifold decorations and paintings, and this 
diversity of character led to a spirit of rivalry between 
the orders, and which their frequent collisions in their 
efforts for extension had a further tendency to promote. 
The men who had sought the seclusion of the cloister, 
in order that, escaping from the passions and the 
tumults of earth, and dead to the attractions of the 
world, they might live to the Spirit, here gave proof that 
the change of place and external modes of life, were 
insufficient of themselves to change the heart of man, 
(Naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret) and that 
it must be something above nature, and therefore unat- 
tainable by external forms, and unconnected with any 
peculiar localities, which can alone have power to over- 
come nature. The same vain pride and petty jealousies 
which agitate the world, were seen to actuate those who 
had withdrawn from it, and their operation was but the 
more sensibly felt, from the limited sphere on which 
they were now exhibited, and from the restraint which 
had been put on the passions inherent in human 

Even in their external appearence the Cistercians were 
distinguished from their brethren, having exchanged the 
original black garment of the monks for one of white. 
This widened the brea^^h, for the rivals could not now 
meet without immediately recognizing each other. But 
the superiors of the two orders, Bernard of Clairvaux, 
and Peter of Clugni, possessed too much elevation of 
mind, and had formed too just an estimate of the vital 



character of religion, to suffer themselves to be swayed 
by these passions, or to become enemies on account of 
external differences.. When at any time they were 
alienated by contending interests, the gentle and amiable 
Peter was always ready to make the first advances 
towards reconciliation, and thus their original friendship 
was soon restored. They were united in the bonds of 
mutual esteem and affection, and Peter rejoiced in the 
universal veneration which Bernard attracted ; in affairs 
of moment they were always found to co-operate. They 
had both expressed their views of the reciprocal relation 
of the two orders, in several papers drawn up for the 
purpose of exposing the defects of each, and of clearing 
the way for a just estimate of existing differences ; and 
in the hope of promoting mutual love and due mode- 

The venerable abbot of Clugni, in one of his letters 
written to Bernard to solicit his co-operation in composing 
differences between the rival orders, lays down as a principle 
the fact of differences with regard to external usages 
having at all times existed between different Churches, 
without operating to the hindrance of mutual love, since 
they involved nothing prejudicial either to faith or love. 
And thus it ought to be with the members of both orders, 
since both were striving, through the medium of the 
different practices by which they were severally distin- 
guished, to attain the same object, even eternal life. It 
was true, indeed, that though both Cistercians and 
Clugniacs were governed by the same Benedictine rule, 
they differed in its application, and deviated from the 
letter of the rule ; but since the motive in which all had 
originated was the first thing to be considered, Christian 
love as the soul of all actions must decide as to the 
application of the law. In support of this, he quotes the 
words of the Saviour, " If thine eje be single, thy whole 
body is full of light," and the sublime and faithful saying 
of Augustine, " Habe caritatem, et fac quicquid vis." 


He carries this principle still further in a letter written 
to Bernard, to defend his brethren against the imputa- 
tions of the Cistercians. In order to justify them from 
the reproach of having departed from the Benedictine 
rule, he appeals to the practice of many councils and 
popes, whereby the old ecclesiastical laws had been 
modified and altered, so as to adapt them to the circum- 
stances and exigencies of the times. Then, assuming 
his opponent to have answered this by the allegation of 
greater authority and sanctity; he rejoins that his order 
also numbered among its members, men who were 
honoured by the Church as saints ; but that the ques- 
tion here was not one of sanctity, but of authority, and 
that in this respect the authority of the abbots of Clugni 
was as absolute in their order, as that of bishops in their 
particular sees, or of popes in the Church at large. In 
general, however, neither sanctity nor authority suBced 
for the justification of these changes, since the holiness 
and authority of the successors might not be brought 
into consideration with the holiness and authority of 
those whom they had succeeded ; either the former 
practice needed to be changed, or that which has 
superseded it must be evil. It was requisite then to 
have a rule by which these changes might be judged, 
and by which the earlier and later revelations of God 
and the laws of the Church might, where they differed in 
the letter, be made to agree in the spirit, and this rule is 
love. Love is free in all her actions, and is occupied in 
ministering to the welfare of mankind, according to the 
various wants, and the differing circumstances of divers 
times ; it is for her, therefore, to give and to change 
laws. The lawgivers of the Church are but the sec- 
retaries of this love, for this love is the Holy Ghost, 
and although her laws may vary, yet in her is "no 
variableness, nor shadow of turning," for she remaineth 
ever the same. The Cistercians themselves are the real 
violators of the rule of Benedict, since they infringe th§ 


law of love, by adhering pertinaciousl}', and to the per- 
judice of their brethren, to those outward things, which are 
to be adapted to the different circumstances of mankind. 
(The councils might, indeed, have been called the organs 
of the Holy Ghost if they had been possessed with this 
spirit, this idea of a progressive and self-developing 
Church, for there would then have been no danger of 
their confounding the mutable with the immutable, 
human forms with divine revelations, and of fettering 
the spirit with the letter.) 

We proceed to give some further extracts from his 
letter, on account of the characteristic peculiarities of 
the imputations cast upon the monks of Clugni, with 
the grounds on which these are refuted by Peter. 
" The monks," it was urged against the Clugniacs, 
" should present the image of an apostolic fellowship ; 
they should have no property, but should live by the 
labour of their hands ; they should not possess parish 
churches, tithes, or first-fruits, as do the Clugniacs; for 
these belong of right to the clergy, by whom the churches 
are served." To this, Peter replies, " Who has the 
greater right to the oblations of the faithful ; the monks 
who are continually supplicating God for sinners: or the 
clergy, who, as we see at this time, devote themselves 
entirely to the eager pursuit of earthly things ; to the 
total neglect of their spiritual calling, and the salvation 
of souls?" But, an accusation of a still more formidable 
character was brought against the Clugniacs, that of having 
indiscriminately received as gifts — castles, townships, 
peasants, serfs, maidens, tolls, and of having defended 
themselves in the possession of the same without scruple 
against all aggressors. To this, Peter replied, " That 
these possessions were turned to far better account, and 
the peasants far better treated by the monks, than they 
had previously been. The manner in which the tem- 
poral lords exercise their power over their bond serfs, is 
a matter of notoriety. Not content with their customary 


and bond service, they appropriate to themselves the 
goods with the persons, and the persons together with 
the goods ; and thus it is, that after having made the 
usual deductions, they come and plunder these unhappy 
people three or four times in the year, or as oft as they 
will ; they oppress them with innumerable services, laying 
upon them heavy burdens, grievous to be borne, so that 
at last they force them to abandon their native homes, 
and to seek shelter in a foreign land. And what is still 
more abominable, they do not scruple to sell the men 
whom Christ hath made free, and purchased at the cost 
of His own blood, in exchange for so vile a thing as gold. 
The monks, on the contrary, only avail themselves of their 
bond and moderate service, in order to procure the neces- 
saries of life ; and instead of vexing them with deduc- 
tions, they sustain them in poverty, from their own stores ; 
in a word, they treat their vassals as brothers and sisters." 
In another letter he writes to Bernard : — " It has long 
grieved me sore, that men, who to this very hour are in 
hunger and thirst, in cold and nakedness, labouring with 
their hands, and in all things following the holy Paul, 
should yet, while they perform the weightier matters, 
leave the lighter undone. And thou art one of those. 
Thou keepest the hard commands of Christ, in fasting, 
watching, weariness, and labour, and yet thou disre- 
gardest that easy one, of love." He then calls upon 
Bernard to exert his influence with the Cistercians so far 
as at least to induce them to receive their brethren of 
Clugni into their convents, even although they should 
persist in the use of the customs and the dress which 
had first given rise to their divisions, that so by frequent 
interchange of good offices, mutual love might be re- 
stored. He had himself made this concession fifteen 
years before, with regard to all the convents of his order, 
excepting that of Clugni, and he now offered to extend 
the privilege to that chief convent, if his request were 
complied with. 

G 3 


In the year 1140, Peter afforded an asylum to Peter 
Abelard, as we have seen in the hfe of that too cele- 
brated person. 

So high was his reputation for wisdom and prudence, 
that, in the year 1145, Pope Eugenius sent for him into 
Italy, in order to endeavour, by his admonitions and 
councils, to reconcile the hostile factions which had in- 
volved the Tuscan territories in civil war ; but their 
obstinacy and inveterate enmity rendered all his efforts 
for that purpose ineffectual. In the year 1150, having 
occasion to take a journey to Rome, on business relating 
to his monastery, he was received there with the highest 
honours by Pope Eugenius, and the Roman citizens. 
He died at Clugni, in 1156, when he was about 63 years 
of age. 

He acquired the surname of Venerable from the great 
seriousness and gravity of his demeanour. He procured 
the Koran to be translated out of the Arabic into Latin, 
and wrote a treatise in four books against the Mahome- 
tans. He was also the author of several other polemical 
pieces, against the Jews, Petrobrusians, &c., and various 
miscellaneous writings, in prose and verse. His works 
were first published at Ingoldstadt, in 1546; and after- 
wards at Paris, w^ith the notes of Duchesne and Marrier, 
in the year 1614. The edition last mentioned has been 
inserted in the 22nd vol. of the Bibl. Patr. Two of 
his Letters, not before edited, were printed by Father 
Mabillon, in the 2nd vol. of his Analecta ; and a third 
by DAchery, in the 2nd vol. of his Spicileg. (Com- 
pare the lives of St. Bernard and of Abelard.) — Cave. 
Neafiders Life of Bernard. 


CoMESTOR" Peter, or Peter the Eater, was a native'of 
TroyeS; in Champagne, where he flourished in the 12th 


century. He was Canon and afterwards Dean in the 
Cathedral Church in his native city, whence he was 
removed to the Deanery of Notre Dame, in Paris. This 
benefice he resigned to enter a regular Canon of St. 
Victor, in Paris. He died in 1198, having directed the 
following epitaph to be placed on his tomb : — 

Petrus eram, quern Petra tegit, dictusque Comestor. 
Nunc comedor. Vivus docui, nee cesso docere 
Mortuus ; ut dicant, qui me vident incineratum, 
" Quod sumus, iste fuit, erimus, quandoque quod hie est." 

Geraldus Cambrensis was one of his pupils, and he 
inspired his pupil with his own hatred of the monks. 
In a manuscript of that author, preserved in the archie- 
piscopal library at Lambeth, he tells us that he heard 
Peter declare before his whole school, in which many 
persons of distinguished literature were present, that 
the old enemy, meaning the devil, never insidiously 
devised a more injurious measure against the Church 
of God, than the law which enjoined a vow of celibacy on 
the clergy. He openly and truly censured other sins in 
practice and errors in doctrine prevalent in the middle 
ages. He was the author of Historiae Ecclesiasticse Lib. 
XVI., containing a summary of sacred history, from the 
beginning of Genesis to the end of the Acts of the 
Apostles, intermixed with numerous passages fiom 
profane history, and some fabulous narrations. It was 
fii'st published at Reutlingen, in 1473, and afterwards 
underwent repeated impressions at Strasburg, Basle, 
Lyons, and other places. He also wrote. Sermons ; and 
a work entitled, Catena Tempor^n:'. &c,, consisting of 
an indigested compilation of universal history, published 
at Lubeck in 1475, in 2 v. Is. fol. ; of which a French 
translation was printed at Paris, in 1488, in 2 vois. folio, 
under the title of Mer des Histoires. — Cave. Dupin. 

68 PETIT. 


Matthew Didier Petit was born at St. Nicholas, in 
Loraine, in 1659, and was educated at the Jesuit College 
at Nancy. He took the monastic habit as a Benedictine 
in his seventeenth year. In 1682, he was appointed 
lecturer in philosophy and Divinity, by the chapter 
general of the congregation of St. Vannes and St. 
Hydulphus, to which he belonged. He afterwards 
presided over an academy in which certain monks of 
the Benedictine order engaged, under his direction, to 
read all the fathers of the Church. As is the case with 
most students of the fathers, they commenced with 
Dupin's ecclesiastical writers, to whom the readers of 
these volumes are so much indebted. Petit-Didier wrote 
notes on this celebrated work and published them under 
the title of Piemarks on the first volumes of M. Dupin's 
Bibliotheque Ecclesiastique, in 3 vols, 8vo, the first of 
which appeared in 169JI, and the third in 1696. He 
afterwards published an answer to the Dialogues between 
Cleander and Eudoxus, written against the celebrated 
Provincial Letters of Pascal, and attributed to father 
Daniel, the Jesuit. This answer is under the form of 
seventeen letters, with the title of, An Apology for the 
Provincial Letters of Lewis Mental te, against the last 
Reply of the Jesuits, &c., IQmo. About 1700 he pub- 
lished in Latin, Critical, Historical, and Chronological 
Dissertations on the Sacred Scriptures of the Old Testa- 
ment, in 4to. In 1715, he was chosen Abbot of Senones. 
In 1724, he published A Theological Treatise in Defence 
of the Authority and Infallibility of the Pope, 12mo. 
This piece was attacked by different writers, Romanist 
and Protestant, and defended by him in several tracts. In 
1725, he visited Rome, where he was favourably received 
by Benedict XIII. , on account of his writings, in which 
he had maintained the infallibility and highest preten- 


sions of the papal see, and declared hostility against 
the liberties of the Galilean Church. As a reward for 
such obsequiousness, in 1726 the Pope nominated him 
Bishop of Macra, in partibus infidelium. He died in 
1728, and was succeeded by Calmet. He is supposed to 
have been the author of an Historical and Dogmatical 
Treatise on Ecclesiastical Privileges and Exemptions, 
which was printed at Metz, in 1699, in 4to. — Moreri. 


Christopher Pezelius w^as born in the year 1539, at 
Plauen, in the Voightland. He is chiefly distinguished 
for the part he took with certain of the Saxon theologians 
for changing the doctrine of his Church (the Lutheran) on 
the subject of the Eucharist. They wished to introduce 
the Calvinistic view and were called Crypto-Calvinists. 
He shewed great zeal ih the cayse and composed a Cate- 
chism. He was, of course, subject to prosecution, and 
retired to Egra, in Bohemia, and afterwards became 
principal of a seminary at Siegen, and finally Pastor of 
Herbon. How long he retained that situation we are 
not informed, but we find that he was professor of 
divinity at Bremen, in the year 1588, and was also 
superintendent of the Churches in that district. These 
posts he held till his death in 1604, when he was about 
65 years of age. He was the author of Commentarium 
in Genesin, 1599, 8vo; Enarratio priorum Capitum 
Evangelii Johannis, 1586, 8vo; Compendium Theo- 
logise ; Epitomen Philosophise Moralis ; Mellificium 
Historicum, forming a large commentary on Sleidan's 
treatise De quatuor monarchiis, 1610, 4to, in two parts, 
to which a third was afterwards added by Lampidus ; 
Consilia et Judicia Theol. Philippi Melanchthonis, 
consisting of extracts from Melanchthon's works, with 
objections and answers on subjects of a theological 

70 PFAFF. 

nature, the whole intermixed with Schoha, and extend- 
ing to seven or eight octavo vokimes ; besides a multi- 
tude of controversial pieces. — Bayle. Mureri. 


Christopher Matthew Pfaff was born at Stuttgard, in 
1G86, and was educated at Tubingen, where his father, 
John Christopher Pfaff, author of a dissertation De 
AUegatis Veteris Testamenti, was Divinity professor. 
In early life he travelled at the expense of the Duke of 
Wurtemberg, and, among other places, visited the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. 

In 1717, he was appointed Professor of Divinity at 
Tubingen, being the colleague of his father, w'hom he 
succeeded as Dean of the Church. Afterw^ards he be- 
came chancellor, and first professor of Divinity in the 
university ; and the emperor made him a count-palatine, 
and gave him the extraordinary power of creating doctors 
of Divinity. In 1727, he was nominated Abbot of 
Laureac; and in 1731 he was appointed a member of 
the Royal Academy at Berlin. 

He published, Dissertatio critica de genuinis Librorum 
Novi Testamenti Lectionibus, ope Canonum quorundam 
feliciter indagandis; ubi et inter alia de Joannis Millii 
Collectione variarum Novi Testamenti Lectionum modeste 
disseritur, 1709, 8vo ; Firmiani Lactantii Epitome In- 
stitutionum divinarum, &c., anonymi Historia de Hseresi 
Manichaeorum, &c., ex Codicib. Taurinens, 1713, 8vo ; 
Sancti Irenaei Episcopi Lugdunensis, Fragmenta Anec- 
dota, ex Biblioth. Taurin. eruta, Latina Versione et Notis 
illustrata, &c., 1715, Svo ; Primitise Tubigenses ; Insti- 
tutiones Theologiae dograaticae et moralis ; Introductio 
in Historiam Theologiae literariam, 1718, 4to, and after- 
wards greatly enlarged ; Syntagma Dissertationum 
Theologicarum, 1720, Svo; Institutiones Historiae 


Ecclesiasticse, cum Dissert, de Liturgiis, 17'21, 8vo ; 
Notse Exegeticae in Evangelium Matthsei, 1721, 4to ; 
Historia Formulae Consensus Helveticae, 1722, 4to ; 
Collectio Scriptorum Irenicorum de Unione inter 
Protestantes faciendum ; Ecclesiae Evangelicae Libri 
Symboli, cum variantibus Lectionibus et Notis, 1730, 
8vo; numerous critical remarks and observations in the 
edition of the German Bible printed at Tubingen in 
1729; Dissertationes anti-Bselianse tres ; and various 
other controversial treatises. He died in 1760. — Moreri. 


Augustus Pfeiffee was born in 1640, at Lauenburg, in 
Lower Saxony. He received his primary education at 
Lauenburg, and thence proceeded to Hamburg and 
Wittemberg. At the latter place, in 1668, he was 
appointed professor of oriental languages. After pas- 
sing through various preferments, he was, in 1690, 
elected superintendent of the Churches in the district 
©f Lubeck ; which station he held till his death, in 1698. 
He was the author of a variety of works, in sacred criti- 
cism and Jewish antiquities, the principal of which are, 
Critica Sacra, de sacri Codicis Partitione, Editionibus 
variis Linguis orientalibus, Puritate Fontium, Interpre- 
tatione sacrse Scripturse legitima, Translationibus, Masora, 
Cabala, &c. ; Tres Dissertationes de Targumim, sive 
Paraphrasibus Chaldaicis Vet. Test, de Massora, sive 
Critica Sacra Hebraeorum, de Trihseresio Judaeorum, 
sive de Pharisaeis, Sadducaeis, et Essaeis, &c. ; Sciagraphia 
Systematis Antiquitatum Hebraicarum, Lib. VIII. ; 
Thesaurus Hermeneuticus, seu de legitima Scripturae 
Sacrae Interpretatione Tractatio ; Decades duae selectae 
Positionum philologicarum de antiquis Judaeorum 
Ritibus et Moribus; Dubia vexata sacrae Scripturae 
sive Loca difficiliora Veteris Tcstamenti succincte decisa 


quatuor Centuriis ; Commentarius in Obadiam, praeter 
genuini Sensus Evolutionem et Collationem, exhibens 
Versionem Latinam et Exaraen Commentarii Don. Isaaci 
Abrabarnelis, &c. ; Praelectiones in Jonae Propbetiam 
recognitae et in justum Commentarium redactse. Several 
of the preceding articles were afterwards collected to- 
gether, and published in 1704, in 2 vols, 4to. — Moreri. 
Le Long. 


Julius Pflug was born about the year 1490, but the 
place of his birth is unknown. He was Bishop of 
Naumberg in the Palatinate. He is chiefly distin- 
guished for being one of the three divines employed 
by Charles V. in drawing up the famous project of the 
Interim. He presided as his representative in the Diets 
of the empire at Ratisbon. He died in 1564. He was 
the author of Institutio Christiana Ecclesise Numbur- 
gensis ; De Reipublicse Institutione ad Principes et 
Populum Germanise ; De Institutione Hominis Chris- 
tiani ; De Justicia et Salute Christiani Hominis ; De 
vero Dei cultu ; De Creatione Mundi ; and several 
doctrinal and controversial treatises in Latin and 
German. — Moreri. 


Of PHILOSTORGIUS, Mr. Dowling, in his introduction to 
the critical study of ecclesiastical history, writes thus : — 
Though the Arian controversy was terminated in the 
east by the end of the fourth century, it was but natural 
that some of the zealous adherents of the sects which 
had so long distracted Christendom, should give expres- 
sion to the sentiments of vexation and disappointment 
with which they regarded the triumph of their orthodox 


opponents. Among the writers whose zeal thus prevailed 
over their prudence was Philostorgius, who appears to 
have been the first to discover the value of Ecclesiastical 
History as a controversial weapon, and to employ it in 
a regular and systematic attack on the doctrines of the 
Church. He was a native of Cappadocia, and was born 
in 368. He entertained the opinions of Eunomius, and 
regarded the Semi-Arians with no less hostility than the 
friends of Athanasius. He began his work with the rise 
of Arianism, in the beginning of the fourth century, and 
brought it down to the year 425. It no longer exists 
entire. But the very copious extracts, which we owe to 
Photius, though they give us no adequate notion of 
what it was as a whole, nor enable us to judge for our- 
selves of its literary merits, amply confirm his remark' 
that it " is less a history than an encomium upon the 
heretics, and a mere accusation and vituperation of the 
orthodox." Great, however, as are the prejudices of 
Philostorgius, it is highly satisfactory to have the Arian 
view of the great events of this period ; and the remains 
of his work, whatever may have been its actual merit, 
are of no inconsiderable value for illustrating the history 
of the fourth century. 


Phtlotheus was a native of Greece in the fourteenth 
century, and lived as a monk, first at Mount Sinai, and 
afterwards at Mount Athol. Of the last named monastery 
he became abbot. He was consecrated Archbishop of 
Heraclea, and in 1355 was appointed Patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. He died about 1371. He was the author 
of Ordo sacri Ministerii, published in Greek and Latin, 
by James Gear, in his Ritulale Grsecor., and inserted in 
the xxvith vol. of the Bibl. Patr. ; De Praeceptis Domini 
Capitula XXI., edited in Greek and Latin, by Peter 
Ponssines, in his Thesaur. Ascet. ; Sermo encomiasticus 



in tres Hierarcbas, Basilium, Gregorium Theologum, et 
Joannem Chn-sostomum, published in Greek and Latin, 
by James Pontanus, together with the Dioptra of Phibp 
the Solitary, and inserted in the second yob of Fronton 
du Due's Auctuar. Patr. ; two Orations, one, De Cruce, 
and the other, In tertiam Jejuniorum Dominicam, edited 
in Greek and Latin by Gesner, in the second vob of his 
treatise De Cruce. — Biofj. Universelle. 


John Philpot was born in 1511, at Compton, in Hamp- 
shire, and was educated at the two St. Mary Winton 
Colleges of William of W3dveham. He was admitted 
fellow of New^ College in 1534, and in 1541 he forfeited 
liis fellowship " because of absence, being then on his 
travels." Italy was the country into which he travelled, 
and he dwelt principally at Rome. When Philpot 
returned to England, he gave unequivocal evidence that 
liis religious views were totally different from those in 
which he had been nurtured. This change had begun 
to work for several years before he travelled to Italy : 
it was matured and deepened by his residence in that 
country, and its plain fruits appeared, when, upon his 
return, he read lectures upon St. Paul's Epistle to tlie 
Iiomans in the Cathedral of Winchester, "which, though 
gratis," says Anthony Wood, " were not acceptable to 
tho Cathedral clergy or the citizens of that place." 
'J'here is no record to fix the period at which ho entered 
into holy orders ; it is pretty clear that he had not taken 
that step before he went abroad ; and it is probable that 
he did not long defer it after his return, because he 
seems to have come back with all his doubts removed, 
and his mind finally made up as to the principles which 
he would advocate. 

The advancement of Philpot to the Archdeaconry of 

PHILPOT. - 75 

Winchester took place in the reign of Edward the Sixth ; 
but the precise time cannot be ascertained. His prede- 
cessor was William Bolen, who had succeeded to the 
office in 1528, upon the resignation of Richard Pates, 
who became Bishop of Worcester, Bolen held the 
office of Archdeacon for twenty years ; a duration which 
was in affecting contrast to the brief and suffering space 
permitted to his successor. It appears that Bishop 
Gardiner had nominated him, prospectively, to the office 
of Archdeacon ; a promise which we might be inclined 
to suppose had been given many years before ; since it 
^vould appear improbable that that prelate would have 
shewn any favour to him after his principles had become 
so changed as they w^ere on his return from Italy. But 
however this may be, the nomination which Gardiner 
had given him, it was left to his successor to make good. 
If Gardiner had been mistaken in his man, not so 
Bishop Ponet, who found inPhilpotall he desired. But 
the Archdeaconry was not to be a resting-place for his 
feet. A misunderstanding arose between him and the 
Bishop, through the malicious interference of one of that 
prelate's officials. Let Strype tell the story of this 
quarrel: "There was," writes that historian, "in the 
latter end of King Edward, an unhappy difference 
started between Ponet, the learned Bishop of Winton, 
and Philpot; fomented and devised by Cook the register, a 
man that hated pure religion, He informed the said 
Bishop, whether true or false I know not, that there was 
a yearly pension due to him from the Archdeacon, This 
was causing contention amongst them, hence intolerable 
troubles arose, and slanders in that diocese to them both ; 
while so good a Bishop, at the setting on of so rank a 
knave, could find in his heart to vex his brother, so con- 
spicuous both for learning and for life. Another instance 
of Cook's malice towards the Archdeacon was this : Cook, 
having married a lady, rode with more men than the 
Archdeacon himself; and taking this opportunity of 


number of attendance, once forestalled the way between 
Winchester and Mr. Philpot's sister's house, about three 
miles from the said citj, whither he was going; and, 
lying in wait for him, set his men upon him and sore 
beat him, overdone by number ; for otherwise the Arch- 
deacon had as lusty a courage to defend himself, as in 
disputation against Popish prelates to impugn their 
doctrine. But though he was thus beaten, hurt and 
wounded, yet remedy could he have none in the spiritual 
court, the Bishop, as well as this his register, being in 
contest with him." 

In the year 1553, Mary ascended the throne, and the 
convocation met on the tenth of October. 

When the business of the convocation commenced, 
(either on the 16th or 18th of October, 1553) two ques- 
tions were first proposed for consideration, the forty-two 
Articles, and the Book of Common Prayer : and with 
the former question was associated the Catechism which 
had been published a short time before King Edward s 
death. On Friday the 20th of October, Weston the 
prolocutor, presented to the house two bills, which had 
ah'eady obtained his own signature ; in the one of 
which, treating of the Catechism, that formulary was 
described as " pestiferous and full of heresies," as 
having been " foisted upon the last synod fraudulently, 
and therefore that the present synod disowned it." It 
was for his firm refusal to sign the document which 
branded a Catechism that had both truth and synodal 
authority on its side, quite as much as for his resistance 
to transubstantiation and the mass, that Philpot, at the 
close of this convocation, was visited with the penalties 
which lighted on his head. 

He was apprehended and, after various Examinations 
before Bonner and a rigorous imprisonment of eighteen 
months, was condemned to be burnt in Smithfield. 

We have his own account of his Examinations, and it is 
one of the most interesting documents of Antiquity throw- 


ing much light on the manners of the times. Philpot's 
ready wit and learning are very remarkable, though his 
temper was evidently too disputatious. His opponents 
seem to have reiterated the same arguments and asser- 
tions and do not appear to advantage. But it is 
evident that though they had determined to burn him 
if he did not recant ; they all of them wished to save 
him. Bonner, on one occasion said to him, " I per- 
ceive you are learned : I would have such as you be 
about me. But you must come and be of the Church ; 
for there is but one Church." Philpot replied, " God 
forbid I should be out of the Church ! I am sure 
I am within the same ; for I know, as I am taught 
by the Scripture, that there is but one catholic Church, 
one dove, one spouse, one beloved congregation, out of 
the w'hich there is no salvation," 

it appears that he did not carry the notion of the royal 
supremacy to an extreme, from the following colloquy 
between him and Dr. Cook. Being asked by Mr. 
Cholmley, " Will you not agree that the queens 
majesty may cause you to be examined of your faith ?" 
Philpot answered, " Ask you of master doctor Cook, 
and he will tell you that the temporal magistrates have 
nothing to do with matters of faith, for determination 
thereof. And St. Ambrose saith, that the things of God 
are not subject to the power and authority of princes." 
Cook exclaimed, " No ! may not the temporal power 
commit you to be examined of your faith to the bishop !" 
Philpot rejoined, " Yea, sir, I deny not that. But you 
will not grant, that the same may examine any of their 
own authority." 

Again, Bonner asking him why he had not replied to 
the queen's commissioners, Philpot replied, " For that 
they were temporal men, and ought not to be judges 
in spiritual causes, whereof they demanded me, without 
shewing any authority whereby I was bound to answer 
them; and hereupon they committed me to your prison." 
H 3 


The following conversation is of mucli interest : — 

Bonner, — " Is there any more Churches than one 
Catholic Church? And. I pray you, tell me into what 
faith you were bajDtized ?" 

Philpot, — " I acknowledge One Holy Catholic and 
Apostolic Church, whereof I am a member (I praise 
God,) and am of that catholic Church of Christ where- 
unto I was baptized." 

Coventry, — " I pray you, can you tell what this word 
' catholic' doth signify? shew, if you can." 

Philpot, — "Yes, that I can, I thank God. The 
catholic faith, or the catholic Church, is not as now a 
days the people be taught, to be that w'hich is most 
universal, or of most part of men received, whereby 
you do infer our faith to hang upon the multitude, 
which is not so ; but I esteem the catholic Church to 
be as St. Augustine defineth the same: 'We judge,' 
saith he, ' the catholic faith, of that which hath been, 
is, and shall be.' So that, if you can be able to 
prove that your Faith and Church hath been from the 
beginning taught, and is, and shall be, then you 
may count yourselves Catholic : otherwise not. And 
catholic is a Greek word, compounded of Kara, which 
signifieth after, or according, and oAov, a sum, or 
principal, or whole. So that catholic Church, or catho- 
lic Faith, is as much to say, as the first, whole, 
sound, or chiefest faith." 

Bonner, — " Doth St. Augustine say so as he allegeth 
it? or doth he mean as he taketh the same? How say 
you, master Curtop ?" 

Curtop, — " Indeed, my lord, St. Augustine hath such 
a saying, speaking against the Donatists, that the 
catholic faith ought to be esteemed of things in time 
past, and as they are practised according to the same, 
and ought to be through all ages ; and not after a new 
manner, as the Donatists began to profess." 
. Philpot, — " You have said well, master Curtop, and 


after the meaning of St. Augustine, and to confirm that 
which I had said for the signification of catholic." 

Coventry, — " Let the book be seen, my lord." 

Bonner, — " I pray you, my lord, be content, or in 
good faith I will break even off, and let all alone. Do 
you think the catholic Church (until it was within these 
few years, in the which a few upon singularity have 
swerved from the same) have erred ?" 

Philpot, — " I do not think that the catholic Church 
can err in doctrine ; but I require you to prove this 
Church of Rome to be the Catholic Church." 

Curtop, — " I can prove that Irenpeus (which was 
within a hundred years after Christ) came to Victor, 
when Bishop of Rome, to ask his advice about the 
excommunication of certain heretics ; the which he 
would not have done (by all likelihood) if he had not 
taken him to be supreme head." 

Coventry, — " Mark well this argument. How are you 
able to answer the same? Answer, if you can." 

Philpot, — " It is soon answered, my lord, for that it 
is of no force ; neither this fact of Irenseus maketh no 
more for the supremacy of the Bishop of Rome than 
mine hath done, which have been at Rome as well as 
he, and might have spoken with the pope, if I had list : 
and yet I would none in England did favour his supre- 
macy more than I." 

St. Asaph, — " You are the more to blame, by the faith 
of my body, for that you favour the same no better, since 
all the catholic Church (until these few years) have taken 
him to be the supreme head of the Church, besides this 
good man Irenaeus." 

Philpot, — " That is not likely, that Irenseus so took 
him, or the priaiitive Church : for I am able to shew 
seven general councils after Irenaeus's time, wherein he 
was never so taken ; which may be a sufi&cient proof, 
that the catholic primitive Church never took him for 
supreme head." 


The other Bishop, — " This man will never be satisfied 
say what we can. It is but folly to reason any more with 

Philpot, — " Oh, my lords, would you have me satisfied 
with nothing ? Judge, I pray you, who of us hath better 
authority, he which bringeth the example of one man 
going to Rome, or I that by these many general councils 
am able to prove, that he was never so taken in many 
hundred years after Christ, as by the Nicene, the first 
and second Ephesine, the Chalcedonian, the Constan- 
tinopolitan, the Carthaginian, and that at Aquileia." 

Coventry, — " Why will you not admit the Church of 
Rome to be the catholic Church ?" 

Philpot, — " Because it followeth not the primitive 
catholic Church, neither agreeth with the same, no more 
than an apple is like a nut." 

Coventry, — " Wherein doth it dissent ?" 

Philpot, — " It were too long to recite all ; but two 
things I will name, the supremacy and transubstantia- 

Curtop, — " As for transubstantiation, albeit it was set 
forth and decreed for an article of faith not much above 
three hundred years, yet it was always believed in the 

Bonner, — " Yea, that was very well said of you, master 

Philpot, — " Ye have said right, that transubstantia- 
tion is but a late plantation of the Bishop of Rome ; 
and you are not able to shew any ancient writer, that 
the primitive Church did believe any such thing." 

And with this Curtop shrank away. And immediately 
after the ambassador of Spain came in, to whom my 
Lord of London went, leaving the other with me. 

On the Eucharist we may quote the following passage : 
Philpot, — " My Lord of London may be soon answered, 
that the saying of St. John is, that the humanity of 
Christ, which He took upon Him for the redemption of 


man, is the bread of life, whereby our bodies and souls 
be sustained to eternal life, of which the sacramental 
bread is a lively representation and an effectual coapta- 
tion to all such as believe on His passion. And as 
Christ saith in the same sixth of John, ' I am the bread 
that came down from heaven ;' but He is not material 
natural bread neither; likewise the bread is His flesh, 
not natural or substantial, but by signification, and by 
grace in the Sacrament. 

'* And now to my Lord Riche's argument. I do not 
deny the express words of Christ in the Sacrament. 
'This is My body,' but I deny that they are naturally 
and corporally to be taken : they must be taken sacra- 
mentally and spiritually, according to the express decla- 
ration of Christ, saying that the words of the sacrament 
which the Capernaites took carnally, as the Papists now 
do, ought to be taken spiritually and not carnally, as they 
falsely imagine, not weighing what interpretation Christ 
hath made in this behalf, neither following the institution 
of Christ, neither the use of the apostles and of the 
primitive Church, who never taught neither declared any 
such carnal manner of presence as is now exacted of us 
violently, without any ground of Scripture or antiquity, 
who used to put out of the Church all such as did not 
receive the sacrament with the rest, and also to burn 
that which was left after the receiving, as by the canon 
of the apostles, and by the decree of the Council of 
Antioch may appear." 

And, again, another passage may be quoted to the 
same effect : — Chedsey, — " Why, then you would not 
have it to be the body of Christ, unless it be received ?" 

Philpot, — " No, verily, it is not the very body of Christ 
to any other, but such as condignly receive the same after 
His institution." 

London, — " Is not a loaf a loaf, being set on the 
table, though no body eat thereof?" 

Philpot,—" It is not like, my lord : for a loaf is a loaf 


before it be set on the table ; but so is not the sacrament 
a perfect sacrament, before it be duly administered at the 
table of the Lord." 

London, — " I pray you, what is it in the mean while, 
before it is received?" 

Philpot, — " It is, my lord, the sign begun of a holy 
thing, and yet no perfect sacrament until it be received. 
For in the sacrament there be two things to be considered, 
the sign, and the thing itself, which is Christ and His 
whole passion ; and it is that to none but to such as 
worthily receive the holy signs of bread and wine, accord- 
ing to Christ's institution." 

Windsor, — " There were never any that denied the 
words of Christ, as you do. Did not He say, ' This is 
My Body ?' " 

Philpot, — " My lord, I pray you, be not deceived. 
We do not deny the words of Christ : but we say, these 
words be of none effect, being spoken otherwise than 
Christ did institute them in His Last Supper, For an 
example : Christ biddeth the Church ' to baptize in the 
Name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy 
Ghost :' if a priest say these words over the water, and 
there be no child to be baptized, these words only pro- 
nounced do not make baptism. And again, baptism 
is only baptism to such as be baptized, and to none 
other standing by." 

Chamberlain, — " I pray you, my lord, let me ask him 
one question. What kind of presence in the sacrament 
(duly ministered according to Christ's ordinance) do you 
allow r 

Philpot, — " If any come worthily to receive, then do 
I confess the presence of Christ wholly to be, with all 
the fruits of His passion, unto the said worthy receiver, 
by the Spirit of God, and that Christ is thereby joined 
to him and he to Christ." 

Chamberlain, — " I am answered," 

London, — " My lords, take no heed of him, for he 


goeth about to deceive you. His similitude, that lie 
bringeth in, of baptism is nothing like the sacrament 
of the altar. For if I should say to Sir John Bridges, 
being with me at supper, and having a fat capon, ' Take, 
eat, this is a fat capon,' although he eat not thereof, is 
it not a capon still? And likewise of a piece of beef, 
or of a cup of wine ; if I say, ' Drink, this is a cup of 
wine,' is it not so, because he drinketh not thereof?" 

Philpot, — "My lord, your similitudes be too gross for 
so high mysteries as we have in hand, as, if I were your 
equal, I could more plainly declare ; and there is much 
more dissimilitude between common meats and drinks, 
than there is between Baptism and the Sacrament of 
the Body and Blood of Christ. Like must be compared 
to like, and spiritual things with spiritual, and not 
spiritual things with corporal things. And meats and 
drinks be of their own natures good or evil ; and your 
words, commenchng or discommending, do but declare 
what they are. But the sacraments be to be considered 
according to the word which Christ spake of them ; of 
the which, ' Take ye, and eat ye,' be some of the chief, 
concurrent to the making of the same, without the 
which there can be no sacraments. And therefore in 
Greek the Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ is 
called KOLvcovia, i.e. communion; and likewise in the Gos- 
pel Christ commanded, saying, ' Divide it among you,'" 

The following is the account given us of his death : 
" Upon Tuesday, at supper, being the 7th of December, 
there came a messenger from the sheriffs, and bade mas- 
ter Philpot make him ready, for the next day he should 
suffer, and be burned at a stake vrith fire. Master 
Philpot answered and said, ' I am ready : God grant 
me strength, and a joyful resurrection?' And so he 
went into his chamber, and poured out his spirit unto 
the Lord God, giving Him most hearty thanks, that 
He of His mercy had made him worthy to suffer for 
His truth. 


" In the morning the sheriffs came, according to the 
order, about eight of the clock, and called for him, and 
he most joyfully came down to them. And there his 
man did meet him, and said, 'Ah! dear master, farewell.' 
His master said unto him, ' Serve God, and He will 
help thee.' And so he went with the sheriffs to the 
place of execution ; and when he was entering into 
Smith field, the way was foul, and two officers took him 
up to bear him to the stake. Then he said merrily, 
'What! will ye make me a pope? I am content to 
go to my journey's end on foot.' But first coming into 
Smithfield, he kneeled down there, saying these words, 
' I will pay my vows in thee, Smithfield ! ' 

"And when be was come to the place of suffering, 
he kissed the stake, and said, ' Shall I disdain to 
suffer at this stake, seeing my Redeemer did not re- 
fuse to suffer a most vile death upon the cross for me ?' 
And then with an obedient heart full meekly he said 
the 106th, the 107th, and the 108th Psalms. And 
when he had made an end of all his prayers, he said 
to the officers, 'What have you done for me?' — and 
every one of them declared what they had done ; and 
he gave to every of them money, 

" Then they bound him to the stake, and set fire unto 
that constant martyr, who on the 18th day of December, 
in the midst of the fiery flames, yielded his soul into 
the hands of Almighty God, and full like a lamb gave 
up his breath, his body being consumed into ashes. 

" Thus hast thou, gentle reader, the life and doings 
of this learned and w^orthy soldier of the Lord, John 
Philpot, with all his examinations that came to our 
hand, first penned and written with his own hand, being 
marvellously preserved from the sight and hand of his 
enemies ; who by all manner of means sought not only 
to stop him from all writing, but also to spoil and deprive 
him of that which he had written ; for the which cause 
he was many times stripped and searched in the prison 


of his keeper: but yet so happily these his writings 
were conveyed and hid in places about him, or else his 
keeper's eyes so blinded, that, notwithstanding all this 
malicious purpose of the bishops, they are yet remaining 
and come to light." 

He wrote : — Epistolae Hebraicse ; De Proprietate Lin- 
guarum ; An Apology for Spitting upon an Arian, with 
an invective against the Arians ; Supplication to King 
Philip and Queen Mary; Letters to Lady Vane ; Letters 
to the Christian Congregation, that they abstain from 
Mass ; Exhortation to his Sister ; and. Oration. These 
are all printed by Fox, except the last, which is in the 
Bodleian Library. He also wrote : — Translations of 
Calvin's Homilies ; Chrysostom against Heresies ; and 
Coelius Secundus Curio's Defence of the old and ancient 
Authority of Christ's Church ; and, Vera Expositio Dis- 
putationis institutae mandato D. Mariae Reginae Ang. 
&c. in Synodo Ecclesiastico, Londini, in comitiis regni 
ad 18 Oct., anno 1553 ; printed in Latin at Rome, 1554, 
and in English at Basle. — Examination and Writings of 
Archdeacon Philpot, by the Parker Society. 


Photius, a man of most profound and universal erudition, 
and of ambition equally great, was born of a Patrician 
family at Constantinople, where he received his educa- 
tion. He flourished in the ninth century. Devoting 
himself in early life to the service of the state, and 
supported by the wealth and interest of his family, 
after passing through some inferior situations, and be- 
coming captain of the guards, he was appointed secretary 
of state, under the Emperor Michael III. He now 
found a patron in the Csesar Bardas, the emperor's 
uncle. Through the influence of Bardas, Ignatius the 
Patriarch of Constantinople, having been degraded from 



his dignity on a charge of treason and sent into exile, 
Photius, though a layman, was appointed his successor. 
In the space of six days, Photius was ordained deacon 
and priest, and on Christmas day, 858, he was conse- 
crated by Gregory, Bishop of Syracuse, though that 
prelate had been deposed by the Pope of Rome, so far 
as the Pope of Rome had power to depose him. 

The jealousy between the Greek Church and the 
Latin Church was now at its height, and the imperti- 
nent claims of the Pope of Rome, and the ambition 
of the Romish court, w^ould have rendered a good under- 
standing between the two Churches impracticable ; but 
the first open rupture was that which was occasioned 
by the consecration and subsequent transactions of Pho- 
tius. His ordination ^Yas hasty, his rise irregular, and 
his abdicated predecessor was supported by public com- 
passion and the obstinacy of his adherents. Although 
Ignatius was as strongly opposed as Photius to the lofty 
pretensions of the Pope of Rome, yet the adherents of 
the former, in the madness of party zeal, appealed to 
Nicholas L, one of the proudest and most aspiring of 
the Roman Pontiffs. He at once availed himself of the 
welcome opportunity of judging and condemning his 
rival in the East. Photius, however, knew his own 
position, and determined to maintain it, and so far was 
he from caring for the excommunication of the Bishop 
of Rome, that he returned the compliment, and in a 
Council assembled at Constantinople, in the year 866, 
he declared Nicholas unworthy both of the place he held 
in the Church, and also of being admitted to the com- 
munion of Christians. 

The Roman pontiff alleged a specious pretext for his 
appearing in this matter with such violence, and exciting 
such unhappy commotions in the Church. This pretext 
was the innocence of Ignatius. This, however, was but 
a mere pretext ; ambition and interest were the true, 
though secret springs, that directed the motions of 


Nicholas, who would have borne with patience, nay, 
beheld with indifference the unjust sufferings of Ignatius, 
could he but have recovered from the Greeks the pro- 
vinces of lUyricum, Macedonia, Epirus, Achaia, Thessalj, 
and Sicily, which the emperor and Photius had removed 
from the jurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff. Before he 
engaged in the cause of Ignatius, he sent a solemn 
embassy to Constantinople, to demand the restitution 
of these provinces; but his demand was rejected with 
contempt. And hence, under pretence of avenging the 
injuries committed against Ignatius, he indulged without 
restraint his own private resentment, and thus covered 
with the mask of justice the fury of disappointed ambi- 
tion and avarice. 

While things were in this troubled state, and the 
flame of controversy was growing more violent from day 
to day, Basil, the Macedonian, who, by the murder of 
his predecessor, had paved his way to the imperial 
throne, calmed at once these tumults, and restored peace 
to the Church, by recalling Ignatius from exile to the 
high station from which he had been degraded, and by 
confining Photius in a monastery. This imperial act 
of authority was solemnly approved and confirmed by a 
council assembled at Constantinople, in the year 869, 
in which the legates of the Roman Pontiff, Adrian II., 
had great influence, and were treated with the highest 
marks of distinction. The Latins acknowledge this 
assembly as the eighth mcumenical council, and in it the 
religious contests between them and the Greeks were 
concluded, or at least hushed and suspended. But the 
controversy concerning the authority of the Roman Pon- 
tiffs, the Hmits of their ghostly empire, and particularly 
their jurisdiction in Bulgaria, still subsisted; nor could 
all the efforts of Papal ambition engage either Ignatius 
or the emperor to give up Bulgaria, or any other pro- 
vince to the See of Rome. 

The contest that had arisen between the Greeks and 


Latins concerning the elevation of Photius, was of such 
a nature as to admit of an eas_y and effectual remedy. 
But the haughty and ambitious spirit of this learned 
and ingenious patriarch fed the flame of discord instead 
of extinguishing it, and unhappily perpetuated the 
troubles and divisions of the Christian Church. In the 
year 866, he added to the See of Constantinople the 
province of Bulgaria, with which the Pontiff Nicholas 
had formed the design of augmenting his own spiritual 
dominions, and was most bitterly provoked at missing 
his aim. Photius went yet further, and entered into 
measures every way unworthy of his character and sta- 
tion ; for he not only sent a circular letter to the oriental 
patriarchs to engage them to espouse his private cause, 
as the public and momentous cause of the Church, but 
drew up a most violent charge of heresy against the 
Roman Bishops, who had been sent among the new 
converted Bulgarians, and against the Church of Rome 
in general. The articles of corrupt doctrine, or heresy, 
which this imperious and exasperated prelate brought 
against the Romans, were as follows : — First, That they 
fasted on the Sabbath, or seventh day of the week. 
Secondly, That in the first week of Lent they permitted 
the use of milk and cheese. Thirdly, That they pro- 
hibited their clergy to marry, and separated from their 
wives such as were married, when they went into orders. 
Fourthly, That they maintained that the bishops alone 
were authorized to anoint with the holy chrism baptized 
persons, and that they, of consequence, who had been 
anointed by presbyters, were obliged to receive that 
unction a second time from the hand of a bishop. 
Lastly, That they had adulterated the symbol or creed 
of Constantinople, by adding to it the words Jilloque, 
i. e. and from the Son, and were therefore of opinion that 
the Holy Spirit did not proceed from the Father only, 
but also from the Son. Nicholas L, finding the Romish 
Church thus attacked, sent the articles of this accusation 


to Hincmar, and the other Galilean Bishops in the year 
867, desiring them to assemble their respective suffra- 
gans in order to examine and answer the reproach of 
Photius. Pursuant to this exhortation of the pontiff, 
Odo, ^neas, and Ado, Bishops of Beauvais, Paris, and 
Vienne, as also the celebrated Ratramn, stept forth 
gallantly into the field of controversy against the Greeks, 
answered one by one the accusations of Photius, and 
employed the whole force of their erudition and zeal 
in maintaining the cause of the Latin Churches. 

Upon the death of Ignatius, which happened in the 
year 878, the emperor took Photius into favour, and 
placed him again at the head of the Greek Church in 
the patriarchal dignity from whence he had fallen. This 
restoration of the degraded patriarch was agreed to by 
the Pioman Pontiff John VIII., upon condition, however, 
that Photius would permit the Bulgarians to come under 
the jurisdiction of the See of Rome. The latter pro- 
mised to satisfy in this the demands of the pontiff, to 
which the emperor also seemed to consent; and hence 
it was that John VIII. sent legates to the council whicli 
was held at Constantinople, a. d. 879, by whom he 
declared his approbation of the acts of that assembly, 
and acknowledged Photius as his brother in Christ. 
The promises, however, of the emperor and the patri- 
arch, were far from being accomplished ; for after this 
council, the former, most probably by the advice, or at 
least with the consent of the latter, refused to transfer 
the province of Bulgaria to the Ptoman Pontiff; and 
it must be confessed that this refusal was founded upon 
most weighty and important reasons. The Pontiff, 
notwithstanding, was highly irritated at this disappoint- 
ment, and sent Marinus to Constantinople in the cliar- 
acter of legate, to declare that he had changed his mind 
concerning Photius, and that he entirely approved of the 
sentence of excommunication that had been formerly 
given against him. The legate, upon delivering this 


disagreeable message, was cast into prison by the em- 
peror, but was afterwards set free; and being raised 
to the pontificate upon the death of John VIII., recalled 
the remembrance of this injurious treatment, and levelled 
a new sentence of condemnation against Photius. 

This sentence was treated with contempt by the 
haughty patriarch : but about six years after this period, 
he experienced anew the fragility of sublunary grandeur 
and elevation, by a fall which concluded his prosperous 
days. For in the year 886, Leo, surnamed the Philoso- 
pher, the son and successor of Basil, deposed him from 
the patriarchal see, and confined him in an Armenian 
monastery, where he died in the year 891. The death 
of Photius, who was tVie author of the schisms that 
divided the Greeks and Latins, might have been an 
occasion of removing these unhappy contests, and of 
restoring peace and concord in the Church, if the Roman 
Pontiffs had not been regardless of the demands of 
equity as well as of the duty of Christian moderation. 
But these imperious lords of the Church indulged their 
vindictive zeal beyond all measure, and would be satis- 
fied with nothing less than the degradation of all the 
priests and bishops, who had been ordained by Photius. 
The Greeks, on the other hand, were shocked at the 
arrogance of these unjust pretensions, and would not 
submit to them on any conditions. Hence a spirit of 
resentment and irritation renewed the spirit of dispute, 
w^hich had been happily declining ; religious as well 
as civil contests, were again set on foot ; new contro- 
versies were added to the old, until the fatal schism 
-took i^lace, which produced a lasting and total separation 
between the Greek and Latin Church. 

Whatever may have been the merits or the demerits 
of Photius in his public capacity, learning is under great 
obligations to him. His work, entitled, Myriobiblon, 
is a kind of abstract and critical judgment of 279 
different writers in the departments of history, oratory, 


grammar, philosophy, theology, &g., of many of whom 
no other memorial exists. Fabricius (Biblioth. Grseca, 
V. 35) gives an accurate list of the works noticed by 
Photius. Another of his works is entitled, Nomocanon, 
being a collection of the canons of the councils, and 
canonical epistles, and the imperial laws concerning 
ecclesiastical matters. His Myriobiblon, or Bibliotheca, 
was first printed by Hoschelius in 1601 ; the best edition 
is that of Piouen, Gr. et Lat. fol. 1653. Imm. Bekker 
published the Greek text, corrected after a Venetian 
and three Paris MSS., with an index, Berlin, 1824, 
2 vols. 4 to. His Nomocanon was printed with the 
Commentaries of Balsamon at Paris, Gr. et Lat. 4to, 
1615. There are also 253 Letters of Photius, which 
were published in 1651, fob, with a Latin version and 
notes, by Puchard Mountagu, Bishop of Norwich, from 
a MS. in the Bodleian Library. There are other small 
pieces of Photius that have been printed, and not a 
few still extant in manuscript only. The most remark- 
able is a very considerable fragment of a Greek lexicon 
in which the greater part of the alphabet is complete. 
The various MSS. of this Lexicon, in different libraries 
on the continent, are mere transcripts from each other, 
and originally from one, venerable for its antiquity, 
which was formerly in the possession of the celebrated 
Thomas Gale, and which is now deposited in the library 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. A copy of this Lexicon, 
at Florence, was transcribed about the end of the six- 
teenth century, by Richard Thompson, of Oxford. Per- 
son had transcribed and corrected this Lexicon for the 
press ; and, after his transcript had been consumed 
by fire, he began the task afresh, and such were his 
incredible industry and patience, that he completed 
another copy, which was printed in 1822, 2 vols. 8vo, 
London, under the superintendence of Dobree. An 
edition of this Lexicon was also published at Leipsic, 
in 1808, by Godfrey Hermann, from two MSS., both 


of them very inaccurate. Photius also wrote a Treatise, 
Adversus Latinos de Processione Spiritus Sancti, and 
other theological and controversial works, several of 
which are still unpublished ; among others, one against 
the Paulicians, of which Montfaucon gives some frag- 
ments in his Bibliotheca Cosliniana; and, Amphilochia, 
being Answers to Questions relative to various Passages 
in the Scriptures, with an Exposition of the Epistles 
of St. Paul. — Mosheim. Dupin. 


Benedict Pictet was born at Geneva, in 1655. In his 
youth he travelled, but having returned to his native 
town, he became in 1680, minister of the Church of 
St. Gervas, and in 1686, professor of Divinity. One 
of the most extroardinary events connected with his 
history is that in 1706, the Society for propagating the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts admitted him as one of its 

He died in 17*24. He was of a mild and tolerant 
disposition, and a father to the poor. 

His principal works are : — Theologia Christiana, 3 
vols, 4to; the best edition of which is that of 1721 ; 
Christian Morality, or The Art of Living Well, 8 vols, 
12mo; The History of the Twelfth and Thirteenth 
Centuries, intended as a continuation of that of Le 
Sueur ; but the supplementary work is more esteemed 
than the original ; and, A Treatise against Indifference 
in Religion. — Moreri. 


James Pilkington was born in 1520, at Rivington, in 
Lancashire. At an early period he was sent to Cam- 


bridge, and became a member of St. John's College, of 
which college he became master in 1558. He was very 
active in encouraging the Study of Greek in the university. 
By King Edward VI. he was presented to the Vicarage 
of Kendal in Westmoreland. At the Visitation of Cam- 
bridge held by the royal commissioners in 1549, the 
subject of Transubstantiation was discussed, and it was 
"learnedly determined" by Ridley, Bishop of Rochester, 
and one of the visitors. Alban Langdale, a papist, 
attacked this determination, and Pilkington published 
a book in which he shewed how Ridley's determination 
at that time gave great satisfaction to the students. 
Where, giving account of this matter, he writes, that 
Dr. Ridley, Bishop of Rochester, came in visitation to 
Cambridge, and because the doctrine of the sacrament 
seemed then strange to many, he propounded this 
proposition at that time to the whole university to dis- 
pute upon, That it could not be proved by any ancient 
writer, Greek or Latin, which lived a thousand years 
since, or within five hundred years after Christ, that 
the substance of the bread was changed in the sacra- 
ment to the substance of Christ's Body. Disputation 
being ended, the bishop made all things so clear in his 
determination, that they were so convinced, that some 
of them would have turned Archbishop Cranmer's book 
of that subject into Latin, &c. 

During the Marian persecution he left the country, 
and went first to Zurich, and afterwards to Basle. On 
the death of Mary, we find his name the first attached 
to a document of great moderation, written by the 
English divines at Frankfort, in answer to a violent 
letter from the exiles who were at Geneva. This docu- 
ment was dated on the 3rd of Januay, 1559, and imputed 
" That it would not be in either of their hands to 
appoint what ceremonies should be, but in such men's 
wisdoms as should be appointed to the devising of the 
same; and which should be received by common consent 


of parliament : and therefore it would be to small pur- 
pose to contend about them. Wherefore as they, [viz. 
of the Church at Frankfort,] trusting they should not 
be burdened with unprofitable ceremonies, purposed to 
submit themselves to such orders as should be estab- 
lished by authority, (not being of themselves wicked,) 
so they would wish them [of Geneva] to do the same. 
And that whereas all reformed Churches differed among 
themselves in divers ceremonies, and yet agreed in the 
unity of doctrine they saw no inconvenience, if they 
used some ceremonies diverse from them ; so that they 
agreed in the chief points of their religion. Notwith- 
standing, thai^ if any should be intruded that should 
be offensive, they, [of Frankfort,] upon just conference 
and deliberation upon the same at their meeting with 
them in England, (which they trusted by God s grace 
would be shortly,) would brotherly join with them, to be 
suitors for the reforming and abolishing of the same." 

We find Pilkington many years after when Bishop of 
Durham, writing in the same tone of moderation in a 
letter addressed to Eodolph Gualter. He laments the 
state of the times, saying : — " But here, I pray you, 
pause awhile with me, and mourn over this our Church 
at this time so miserably divided, not to saj, wholly rent 
in pieces. Commend her to the Lord your God, and 
entreat Him that, having compassion upon us. He may 
T61*y soon provide some godly remedy for the healing of 
her wounds, that she may not be utterly destroyed. Your 
prudence has heard, I well know, and that often enough 
to weary you, of that unhappy dispute among some of 
our friends respecting the affair of the habits and the 
dress of the clergy, and how great a disturbance it has 
excited ; but it has now so broken out afresh, nay more, 
that which heretofore lurked in dissimulation has now 
so openly discovered itself, that not only the habits, but 
our whole ecclesiastical polity, discipline, the revenues of 
the bishops, ceremonies or public forms of worship. 


liturgies, vocation of ministers, or the ministration of 
the Sacraments, — all these things are now openly attacked 
from the press, and it is contended with the greatest 
bitterness, that they are not to be endured in the Church 
of Christ. The doctrine alone they leave untouched ; 
as to everything else, by whatever name you call it, they 
are clamourous for its removal. The godly mourn, the 
Papists exult, that we are now fighting against each other 
who were heretofore wont to attack them with our united 
forces ; the weak know not what or W'hom to believe ; the 
godless are altogether insensible to any danger; the 
Piomish priesthood are gaping for the prey, and are like 
bellow^s carefully blowing up the flame, that the mischief 
may increase. It is lamentable to behold, and dreadful 
to hear of such things taking place among those who 
profess the same religion ; and yet the entire blame is 
laid upon the Bishops, as if they alone, if they chose, 
v/ere able to eradicate all these evils. We endure, I 
must confess, many things against our inclinations, and 
groan under them, which if we wished ever so much, no 
entreaty can remove. We are under authority, and 
cannot make any innovation without the sanction of the 
queen, or abrogate anything without the authority of the 
laws ; and the only alternative allowed us is, whether we 
will bear with these things or disturb the peace of the 
Church. I wish all parties would understand and follow 
your wholesome advice in your preface to the Epistle to 
the Corinthians, respecting the variety of rites and dis- 
cipline in individual Churches. But these men are 
crying out that nothing is to be endured in the rites of 
the Church, which is later than the times of the apostles, 
and that all our discipline must be derived from thence, 
and this at the peril of the soul and our salvation." 

On the accession of Elizabeth, Pilkington returned 
to England, and in February 1561, was consecrated 
Bishop of Durham. In 1562, he is said to have been 
queen's reader of divinity lectures. During this prelates 


time, not only the cause of religion, but also political 
matters, called the queen's attention towards Scotland, 
and the borders were frequently the scene of military 
operations. During these commotions, the queen having 
seized the Earl of Westmoreland's estates within the 
Bishopric of Durham, Pilkington instituted his suit, in 
which it was determined, that " where he hath jura 
regalia, he shall have forfeiture of high treason." By 
an act of parliament, made in the 13th year of Elizabeth, 
1570. c. 16, "The convictions, outlawries, and attain- 
ders of Charles, Earl of Westmoreland, and fifty-seven 
others, attainted of treason, for open rebellion in the 
north parts, were confirmed ;" and it was enacted, '-That 
the queen, her heirs, and successors, should have, for 
that time, all the lands and goods which any of the 
said persons attainted within the Bishopric of Durham 
had, against the bishop and his successors, though he 
claimeth jura regalia, and challengeth all the said for- 
feitures in right of his church." So that the see was 
deprived of the greatest acquisition it had been entitled 
to for many centuries. 

He wrote : — A Commentary of Aggeus (Haggai) the 
Prophet, 1560, 8vo ; A Sermon on the Burning of St. 
Paul's Church, in London, in 1561, 1563, 12mo; Com- 
mentaries on Ecclesiastes, the Epistles of St. Peter, 
and of St. Paul to the Galatians ; and, A Defence of the 
English Service. After his death, his Exposition on 
Nehemiah was published, 1585, 4to. He left in manu- 
script Statutes for the Consistory. He died Jan. 23rd, 
1575, in the fifty-fifth year of his age, and was buried at 
Auckland; but his remains were afterwards removed, 
and interred in the choir of Durham Cathedral. — Strype. 
Zurich Letters. 


John Piscator, or Fischer, was born at Strasburg, in 


1546, and received his education in his native place, from 
which he withdrew on his becoming a Calvinist, and, in 
1584, he became theological Professor at Herborn, in 
Welterau. He died in 1626. In his late years he 
inclined to Arminianism. 

Piscator made an almost entirely new translation of 
the Bible, from the original languages into German, 
which was published at Herborn ; and was followed, in 
1608, by An Apology for that version, in 4to. 

He was the author of Commentaries, in Latin, upon 
all the books of the Old and New Testaments, 1601 — 
1616, in 24 vols. Svo, which were collected together, 
and published in 1643 — 1645, in 4 vols. fol. He was 
also the author of Analysis Logica Epistolarum Pauli 
ad Roman. Corinth. Galat. Ephes. &c. 1590, Svo; Index 
in Libros Biblicos Veteris Testamenti, 1622, in 6 vols. 
Svo ; Scripta adversaria de Causa Meritoria Justifica- 
tionis, 1590, Svo; together with practical and contro- 
versial treatises, &c. — Biog. Univemelle. 


Joshua de la Place was born in 1596, and educated at 
Saumur, of which university he became, in 1633, theo- 
logical Professor. He died in 1665. 

He wrote : — An exposition of the Song of Songs ; A 
Treatise on Types ; A Treatise concerning the Imputa- 
tion of Adam's first Sin ; On the Order of the Divine 
Decrees ; On Free-will ; A Compendium of Divinity ; 
Dialogues between a Father and his Son, relative to a 
Change of Religion; A Treatise concerning the Invo- 
cation of Saints ; and An Examination of the Reasons 
for and against the Sacrifice of the Mass, &c. A collec- 
tion of all his works was published at Franeker in 1699 
and 1703, in 2 vols. 4to. — Moreri. 


John de la Placette was born in 1639, at Pontac, in 



Beam, and was for some time a Protestant minister 
in the Church of Orthes, in Beam ; he removed to Naye, 
and at the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes he became 
minister of the parish Church at Copenhagen. In 1711, 
he removed to the Hague, and afterwards to Utrecht, 
where he died in 1718. 

He wrote : — New Moral Essays ; A Treatise on Pride ; 
A Treatise on Conscience, — this was translated into 
English bv Basil Kennett, under the title of The 
Christian Casuist ; A Treatise on Good Works in 
general ; A Treatise on Oaths ; Various Treatises 
on Matters of Conscience ; The Death of the Just, or, 
the Manner of dying well ; A Treatise on Alms ; A 
Treatise on Games of Chance; A Compendium of 
Christian Morality ; Christian Pieflections on several 
moral Subjects ; and, A Treatise on Divine Faith. — 


Edwaed Pocook was bom at Oxford, in 1604. He was 
educated at the Free-school of Thame, ^and at Magdalen 
Hall, and Corpus Christi College, Oxford, of which latter 
he afterwards became fellow. At the university he ap- 
plied himself to the study of the Eastern languages, 
which at that time were taught privately at Oxford by 
Matthew Pasor. He found also another able tutor for 
Eastern literature in the Rev. William Bedwell, vicar of 
Tottenham, near London, whom his biographer praises 
as one of the first who promoted the study of the Arabic 
language in Europe. And now the statutes of the 
college providing that he should speedily take orders, 
he commenced the study of theology. He followed 
the plan suggested by James I., who directed this study 
to be pursued, not by insisting on modern compendiums 
and tracts of divinity, but by applying himself chiefly 
to fathers and councils, ecclesiastical historians and 


other ancient writers, together with the sacred text, 
the word of God. For though he perused the books 
of some late writers in divinity, it was not, we find, 
to form his notions on matters of reUgion, according to 
their conceptions and opinions, but to take their direc- 
tion about several pieces of antiquity, in order to a 
general knowledge of their nature and excellency, and 
to distinguish the genuine from such as are of doubtful 
original, or manifestly spurious. This, in particular, we 
learn from some papers begun to be written by him, 
September 7, 1629, was the use he made of a treatise 
of some account, then reprinted at Oxford, namely, 
Ger. Vossius's Theses Theologicse, out of which he 
collected several things of this nature and of no other. 
But amidst his theological studies it was impossible 
for him to lay aside all regard for those Eastern lan- 
guages to which his mind was so addicted, and on 
which he had bestowed so much time and pains. He 
therefore, about this time, pursued a design wherein 
both were joined together, and that was, the fitting for 
the press those parts of the Syriac version of the New 
Testament, which had never yet been published. Igna- 
tius, the Jacobite patriarch of Antioch, had, in the last 
age, sent Moses Meridin^us, a priest of Mesopotamia, 
into the west, to get that version printed, in order to the 
carrying back a sufficient number of copies for the use 
of his Churches. And this work, by the care and dili- 
gence of Albertus Widmanstadius, was very well per- 
formed at Vienna, a. d. 1555. But the Syriac New 
Testament thus brought out of the East, and followed 
in that impression, wanted the second epistle of St. 
Peter, the second and third epistles of St. John, the 
epistle of St. Jude, and the whole book of the Revela- 
tion: because, as a learned man conjectures, those parts 
of Holy Scripture, though extant amongst them, were 
not yet received into the canon, by those Oriental 
Churches. This defect no body took care to supply, 

100 POCOCK. 

till that very learned person Ludovicus de Bieu, on 
the encouragement and with the assistance of Daniel 
Heinsius, set about the Revelation ; being furnished 
with a copy of it, which had been given with many 
other manuscripts, to the university of Leyden by the 
famous Joseph Scaliger. That Version of the Apo- 
calypse was printed at Leyden in the year 1627, but 
still the four Epistles were wanting, and those Pocock 
undertook, being desirous that the whole New Testa- 
ment might at length be published in that language, 
which was the vulgar tongue of our Blessed Saviour 
Himself, and His holy Apostles. A very fair manuscrij)t 
for this purpose he had met with in that vast treasure of 
learning the Bodleian library ; containing those epistles, 
together with some other parts of the New Testament. 
Out of this manuscript, following the example of de 
Dieu, he transcribed those epistles in the Syriac cha- 
racter ; the same he likewise set down in Hebrew letters, 
adding the points, not according to the ordinary, but the 
Syriac rules, as they had been delivered by those learned 
Maronites, Amira and Sionita. He also made a new 
translation of these epistles out of Syriac into Latin, 
comparing it with that of Etzelius, and shewing upon 
all considerable occasions, the reason of his dissent from 
him. Moreover, he added the original Greek, concluding 
the whole with a good number of learned and useful 

This was published at Leyden in 1630. Meanwhile, 
in December, 1629, Pocock had been ordained by Corbett, 
Bishop of Oxford, and was appointed chaplain to the 
English merchants at Aleppo, where he arrived in Oct. 
1630, and remained for nearly six years. Being a man 
of meek and humble temper, and naturally in love with 
retirement and peace, he did not (as many travellers 
do) carry with him a violent desire of viewing strange 
countries. Nay, he was so far from being delighted either 
with what he had already seen, or the place where he was 

pococK. lor 

now settled ; that, in a letter, written about two months 
after his arrival to Mr. Thomas Greaves, a very studious 
young man, then scholar of Corpus Christi, he gave but 
a very melancholy account of himself. "My chief 
solace," said he, " is the remembrance of my friends, 
and my former happiness, when I was among them. 
Happy you that enjoy those places where I so often 
wish myself as I see the barbarous people of this 
country. I think that he that hath once been out of 
England, if he get home, will not easily be persuaded 
to leave it again. There is nothing that may make a 
man envy a traveller." However, being abroad, he 
resolved that his natural aversion for such a kind of 
life should not make him neglect the doing anything 
in the post he was in, which was either his duty to 
God, or might answer the expectation of good and 
learned men. 

Above all other things he carefully applied himself to 
the business of his place as chaplain to the factory; 
performing the solemn duties of religion in that decent 
and orderly manner which our Church requires. He 
was diligent in preaching, exhorting his countrymen 
in a plain, but very convincing way, to piety, temper- 
ance, justice, and love, which would both secure to them 
the favour and protection of the Almighty, and also 
adorn their conversation, rendering it comely in the 
sight of an unbelieving nation. And what he laboured 
to persuade others to he duly practised himself, pro- 
posing to his hearers, in his own regular and unspotted 
life, a bright example of the holiness he recommended. 

As he was seldom or never drawn from the constant 
performance of these duties of his charge by a curiosity 
tempting him to the view of other places of that country, 
so he would not omit what belonged to his office, even 
when attended with a very affrightening danger. For 
in the year 1034, as the plague raged furiouslj^ in 
Aleppo, and many of the merchants fled two days 

103 POCOCK. 

journey from it, and dwelt in tents on the mountains ; 
he had that holy confidence in the Providence of God, 
and that readiness to meet His good pleasure, whatever it 
should be, that though he visited them that were in the 
country, he, for the most part, continued to assist and 
comfort those who had shut up themselves in the city. 
And indeed, the mercy of God (as he most thankfully 
acknowledged in a letter sent a little after to a friend 
in Oxford) was signally manifested, at the time, towards 
him, and all our nation belonging to that factory. 
For though the pestilence wasted beyond the example 
of former times, not ceasing, as usually, at the entrance 
of the dog-days, all the English were preserved, as well 
they that continued in the town as they that fled from 
it. God covered them with His protection, and was 
their shield and buckler against that terrible destruc- 
tion : *' A thousand fell at their side, and thousands at 
their right hand, and yet it did not come nigh them." 
But he knew the advantages as well as the disadvan- 
tages of his position, especially as they related to bis 
favourite studies. He immediately engaged a master 
in the Arabic tongue, and a servant of the nation for 
the purpose of familiar converse in it ; and he under- 
took the translation of several Arabic books, among 
which was a collection of 6000 proverbs. Having re- 
ceived a commission from Dr. Laud, then Bishop of 
London, for the purchase of Greek coins, and Greek 
and oriental manuscripts, he employed himself in its 
execution; nor amidst these literary labours did he 
neglect the proper duties of his office, but discharged 
them with great fidelity, even when they exposed him 
to imminent danger from the plague. In 1636, being 
informed by Laud of his intention of nominating him 
the first professor of the Arabic lecture founded by that 
munificent prelate at Oxford, he returned to occupy a 
place so conformable to his wishes. To this, after taking 
the degree of B.D., he was formally appointed in August, 

POCOCK. 103 

and he opened his lectures with an eloquent Latin 
oration on the nature and use of the Arabic tongue. 
The solicitations and generous offers of his friend Mr. 
John Greaves to procure him as a companion -in a 
journey into the east, induced him, however, after obtain- 
ing leave of absence, to embark with that learned mathe- 
matician, in 1637, for Constantinople. During his stay 
in that city he employed himself in perfecting his know- 
ledge of the oriental tongues, and in purchasing manu- 
scripts for Archbishop Laud, and he also ojB&ciated as chap- 
lain to the English ambassador. In 1640, he set out on 
his return, and passing through Paris, had an interview 
with the illustrious Grotius, who was much gratified on 
being consulted by him on an Arabic translation of his 
noted book De Veritate Christiange Religionis. While 
at Paris, and on the road, he heard of the commotions 
in England, and on his arrival he found his liberal 
patron, Laud, a prisoner in the Tower. Here he imme- 
diately visited the archbishop, and their interview was 
affecting on both sides. Pocock then went to Oxford, 
where he found that the archbishop had settled the 
Arabic professorship in perpetuity by a grant of lands. 
He now resumed his lecture and his private studies. 
In 1641 he became acquainted with Selden, who was at 
this time preparing for the press some part of Euty- 
chius's Annals, in Latin and Arabic, which he published 
the year following, under the title of Origines Alexan- 
drinae ; and Pocock assisted him in collating and extract- 
ing from the Arabic MSS. at Oxford. 

In 1643, he was presented by his college to the living 
of Childry, in Berkshire ; and he set himself with his 
utmost diligence, to a conscentious performance of all the 
duties of his cure ; labouring for the edification of those 
committed to his charge, with the zeal and application of a 
man, who thoroughly considered the value of immortal 
souls, and the account he was to give. He was constant 
in preaching, performing that work twice every Lord's 

104 POCOCK. 

Day. And because the addition of catechizing, which 
he would not neglect, made this a burthen too heavy 
to be always borne by himself, he sometimes procured 
an assistant from Oxford, to preach in the afternoon. 
His sermons were so contrived by him, as to be most 
useful to the persons that were to hear them. For 
though such as he preached in the University were very 
elaborate, and full of critical and other learning ; the 
discourses he delivered in his parish, were plain and 
easy, having nothing in them, which he perceived to 
be above the capacities, even of the meanest of his 
auditors. He commonly began with an explanation of 
the text he made choice of, rendering the sense of it as 
obvious and intelligible, as might be : then he noted 
whatever was contained in it relating to a good life ; 
and recommended it to his hearers, with a great force 
of spiritual arguments, and all the motives, which ap- 
peared most likely to prevail with them. And as he 
carefully avoided the shew and ostentation of learning ; 
so he would not, by any means, indulge himself in the 
practice of those arts, which at that time were very 
common, and much admired by ordinary people. Such 
were distortions of the countenance and strange gestures, 
a violent and unnatural way of speaking, and affected 
words and phrases, which being out of the ordinary way, 
were therefore supposed to express somewhat very 
mysterious, and, in a high degree, spiritual. Though no 
body could be more unwilling than he was to make 
people uneasy, if it was possible for him to avoid it ; 
yet neither did his natural temper prevail with him, 
nor any other consideration tempt him, to be silent, 
where reproof was necessary. With a courage, there- 
fore, becoming an ambassador of Jesus Christ, he 
boldly declared against the sins of the times ; warning 
those w^ho were under his care, as against all profane 
and immoral practices, so against those schisms and 
divisions, which were now breaking in upon the Church, 

POCOCK. 105 

and those seditions which aimed at the subversion of 
the state. His whole conversation too was one con- 
tinued sermon, powerfully recommending, to all that 
were acquainted with him, the several duties of Chris- 
tianity. For as he was " blameless and harmless, and 
without rebuke ; " so his unaffected piety, his meekness 
and humility, his kind and obliging behaviour, and great 
readiness, upon every occasion, to do all the good he was 
capable of, made him shine as " a light in the world." 

A minister that thus acquitted himself, one would 
think, should have met with much esteem, and all 
imaginable good usage from his whole parish ; but the 
matter was otherwise ; he was one of those excellent 
persons, whom the brightest virtue has not been able 
to secure from an evil treatment ; yea, that upon ac- 
count, even of what was highly valuable in them, have 
been contemned, reproached, and injuriously handled. 
Some few, indeed, of those under his care, had a just 
sense of his worth, and paid him all the respect that 
was due to it ; but the behaviour of the greater number 
was such, as could not but often much discompose and 
afflict him. His care not to amuse his hearers, with 
things which they could not understand, gave some of 
them occasion to entertain very contemptible thoughts 
of his learning, and to speak of him accordingly. So 
that one of his Oxford friends, as he travelled through 
Childry, inquiring, for his diversion, of some people, 
who was their minister, and how they liked him, 
received from them this answer : " Our parson is one 
Mr. Pocock, a plain, honest man ; but master," said 
they, "he is no Latiner." His avoiding, as he preached, 
that boisterous action, and those canting expressions, 
which were then so very taking with many lovers of 
novelty, was the reason that not a few considered him 
as a weak man, whose discourses could not edify, being 
dead morality, having nothing of power and the spirit : 
but his declaring against divisions, sedition, and rebel- 

106 POCOCK. 

lion, was most offensive, and raised the greatest clamour 
against him. Because of this, such in his parish, as 
had been seduced into the measures of them who were 
now endeavouring the overthrow both of Church and 
state, were ready, upon every occasion, to bestow on him 
the ill names then so much in use, of, " a man addicted 
to railing and bitterness ; a malignant and one Popishly 
affected." But disesteem and reproachful language were 
not the only grievances which this good man suffered 
under. That income, which the laws of God and man 
had made his just right, and which he alwa^-s endea- 
voured to receive with as much peace as might be, was 
thought too much for him, and they studied to lessen it 
in all the ways they could : besides what they called out- 
witting him in his tithes, of the contributions and great 
taxes which were frequently exacted, a sum much beyond 
the just proportion was still allotted to him ; and when 
any forces were quartered in that parish, as considerable 
numbers often were, he was sure to have a double, if not 
a greater, share. 

This usage could not but seem very strange to a man, 
who had been treated with respect and civility, by all sorts 
of persons whom he had hitherto conversed with ; and it* 
was impossible for him to reflect upon such unsuitable 
returns, without a great deal of disquiet, and very melan- 
choly thoughts. The barbarous people of Syria and 
Turkey, whom he formerly complained of, appeared to 
him now of much greater humanity than many of those 
he was engaged to live with. There his exalted virtue 
had won upon Mahometans, and had made even Jew's 
and Friars revere him ; but these charms had, at this time, 
a contrary effect on the pretenders to saintship and purer 
ordinances at home. And he, who, when at Aleppo, 
still longed to be in England, as the most agreeable 
place in the world, now considered an abode in the East 
as a very desirable blessing. Yea, to such a degree of 
uneasiness did the, public calamities, and the particular 

POCOCK. 107 

troubles he was every day exercised with, at length carry 
him, that he began to form a design of leaving his native 
country for ever, and spending the remainder of his days 
either at Alej)po or Constantinople : in which places, 
from his former experience, he thought he might promise 
himself fewer injuries, and more quiet and peace. But 
upon further consideration, and a due use of those 
succours which both reason and religion afforded him, he 
fortified his mind against the force of all such trials, and 
learned " to possess his soul in patience." He very well 
knew,' that it is the part of " a good soldier of Jesus Christ, 
to endure hardship," and that he that has devoted him- 
self to the work of the Gospel, must be ready in " afflictions 
and distresses, by honour and dishonour, by evil report 
as well as good, to approve himself a minister of God." 
He considered too, that his case was not singular, but 
such as was common, at that time, to almost all others 
of the same calling, throughout the nation, who would 
not humour the people in unreasonable things, nor 
descend to unlawful compliances. And he was very 
well satisfied, that all the evil that comes to pass in the 
world, is still overruled by the Providence of that all- 
wise God, who, in the moral as well as the natural world, 
brings light out of darkness, and order out of confusion 
and who will make " all things work together for good to 
them that love Him." Upon such reflections as these, 
therefore, he resolved to stand his ground, and to per- 
severe in a faithful discharge of all the duties he was 
called to, notwithstanding all the difficulties that attended 
it. Having thus laid aside all thoughts of a remove, to 
ease himself of the cares of housekeeping, and the manage- 
ment of a family, and to have the comfort of an agreeable 
partner, amidst the troubles he was exposed to, he 
began to think of a wife. And Providence directed 
him to the choice of a very prudent and virtuous gentle- 
woman, namely, Mary, the daughter of Thomas Burdett, 
Esq., of West Worlham, in Hampshire, whom he mar- 

108 POCOCK. 

ried about the beginning of the year 1646, and by whom 
God was pleased to bless him with nine children, six 
sons and three daughters. 

Immediately after the execution of Archbishop Laud, 
the profits of Pocock's professorship were seized by the 
sequestrators, as part of that prelate's estate. But in 
1647, the salary of the lecture was restored by the inter- 
position of Selden, who had considerable interest with 
the usurpers. In 1648, on the reccommendation of Dr. 
Sheldon and Dr. Hammond, Pocock was nominated 
Hebrew professor, with the canonry of Christ Church 
annexed, by Charles I., then a prisoner in the Isle of 
Wight. In 1649, he published his Specimen Histories 
Arabum. This consists of extracts from the work of 
Abulfaragius, in the original Arabic, together with a 
Latin version and copious notes. In November, 1650, 
he was ejected from his canonry of Christ Church, for 
refusing to take the Engagement, and soon after a vote 
passed for depriving him of the Hebrew and Arabic 
lectures ; but upon a petition from the heads of houses 
at Oxford, the masters, scholars, &c., two only of the 
whole number of subscribers being loyalists, this vote 
was reversed, and he was suffered to enjoy both 

In 1655, a more ridiculous instance of persecution was 
intended, and would have been inflicted, if there had 
not yet been some sense and spirit left, even among 
those who had contributed to bring on such calamities. 
It appears that some of his parishioners had presented 
an information against him to the commissioners ap- 
pointed by Parliament, " for ejecting ignorant, scanda- 
lous, insufficient, and negligent ministers." But the 
connexion of the name of Pocock with such epithets 
was too gross to be endured, and, we are told, filled 
several men of great fame and eminence at that time at 
Oxford with indignation : in consequence of which they 
resolved to wait upon the commissioners, and expostulate 

POCOCK. 109 

with them about it. In the number of those who went 
were, Dr. Seth Ward, Dr. John Wilkins, Dr. John 
WalUs, and Dr. Owen, who all laboured with much 
earnestness to convince those men of the absurdity of 
their proceedings ; particularly Dr. Owen, who endea- 
voured, with some warmth, to make them sensible of 
the contempt that would fall upon them, when it should 
be said, that they had turned out a man for insufficiency, 
whom all the learned, not of England only, but of all 
Europe, so justly admired for his vast knowledge and 
extraordinary accomplishments. The commissioners 
being very much mortified at the remonstrances of so 
many eminent men, especially of Dr. Owen, in whom 
they had a particular confidence, thought it best to extri- 
cate themselves from their dilemma by discharging 
Pocock from any further attendance. In the same year 
he published his Porta Mosis, being six prefatory dis- 
courses of Moses Maimonides's Commentary upon the 
Mishna, which in the original were Arabic, expressed in 
Hebrew characters, together with his own Latin trans- 
lation of them, and a very large appendix of miscella- 
neous notes. In 1657, Walton's celebrated Polyglott 
appeared, in which Pocock had a considerable share. 
He collated the Arabic Pentateuch, and drew up a 
Preface concerning the Arabic Versions of that part of 
the Bible, and the reason of the various readings in 
them. He contributed the loan of some valuable MSS. 
from his own collection, viz. — The Gospels in Persian, 
his Syriac MS. of the whole Old Testament, and two 
other Syriac MSS., together with an Ethiopic MS. of 
the Psalms. In 1668, his translation of the Annals of 
Eutychius, from Arabic into Latin, was published at 
Oxford, in 2 vols, 4to. This was undertaken by Pocock 
at the request of Selden, who bore the whole expense 
of the printing, although he died before it appeared. 
Selden, in a codicil to his will, bequeathed the property 
of the Annales Eutychii to Langdaine and Pocock. 


110 POCOCK. 

Immediately after the Restoration, Pocock was (June, 
1660) replaced in his Canonry of Christ Church, as 
originally annexed to the Hebrew professorship by 
Charles I., and on September 20th, took his degree 
of D.D. In the same year, he was enabled, by the 
liberality of Mr. Boyle, to print his Arabic translation 
of Grotius on the Truth of the Christian Religion. His 
next publication, in 1661, was an Arabic Poem, entitled 
Lamiato'l Ajam, or Carmen Abu Ismaelis Tograi, with 
his Latin translation of it, and large notes upon it, with 
a preface by Dr. Samuel Clarke, architypographus to 
the university, who had the care of the press, and con- 
tributed a treatise of his own on the Arabic prosody. 
Pocock's design in this work was, not only to give a 
specimen of Arabian poetry, but also to make an attain- 
ment of the Arabic tongue more easy to those who 
study it; and his notes, containing a grammatical 
explanation of all the words of this author, were un- 
questionably serviceable for promoting the knowledge of 
that language. In 1663, he published, at Oxford, his 
most useful work, the w^hole of Abulfaragius's Historia 
Dynastiarum, 2 vols, 4to. In 1677, he published his 
Commentary on the Prophecy of Micah and Malachi ; 
in 1685, on that of Hosea; and in 1691, on that of 
Joel, in 1674, he had published, at the expense of 
the university, his Arabic translation of the Church 
Catechism and the Liturgy, i. e. The Morning and 
Evening Prayers, The Order of Administering Baptism 
and the Lord's Supper, and, The Thirty-nine Articles. 
He died on the 10th September, 1691, after a gradual 
decay of some months, in his eighty-seventh year. 

Of this great man, Dr. Twells remarks, " that all his 
words and actions carried in them a deep and unfeigned 
sense of religion and true piety ; God was the beginning 
and the end of his studies and undertakings ; to His 
glory they were devoted, and professedly finished by 
His help, as appears by expressions, sometimes in 

POCOCK. ill 

Arabic and Hebrew, and at other times in English, 
whi^h we find not only in his printed works, but also 
in his note-books, and writings of any account. 

"In his public duties of religion he was very punc- 
' tual ; all the time he resided at Christ Church, which 
was more than thirty years, hs was seldom absent from 
cathedral prayers, oft frequenting them, when he was 
not thought well enough to go abroad upon any otlier 

" In his pastoral capacity, so long as he resided con- 
stantly at Childry, he shewed the greatest diligence and 
faithfulness, preaching twice every Lord's Day, and 
catechizing likewise, when the length of days would 
permit him. Nor was he less exact in discharging the 
private duties of his function, such as visiting sick and 
ancient people, and the like ; and during that part of 
his life in which his attendance upon his professorships 
and canonical residence called him to Oxford for the 
greatest part of the year, he took a most conscientious 
care to supply his absence by an able curate, of whom 
he strictly required the same laborious course of duty, 
and for his encouragement, allowed him fifty pounds 
per annum, besides surplice fees, all which amounted 
to more than a fourth part of the then value of that 

" As a member and a minister of the Church of Eng- 
land, though with all due charity to those, who, on the 
score of conscience, dissented from her, he steadily con- 
formed to her appointments, highly reverenced and ap- 
proved every part of her constitution. In subscribing 
to her articles his hand and heart went together, being 
an enemy to all prevarication, however coloured or pal- 
liated by subtle distinctions. He seemed from his 
youth to have imbibed, among other eminent divines 
of those times, an opinion of the illegality of usury, 
or at least to have entertained scruples about its lawful- 
ness ; but this appeared rather from his constant prac- 

in POLE. 

tice of lending money freely, than from any open avowal 
of his sentiments in that point : his friends could never 
get from him his reasons against usury, and the cause 
of his reservedness was, that the thing being allowed 
by our laws, and not disapproved by the Church, he 
would disturb neither by his private opinion. How 
many uncharitable disputes would be prevented, if every 
Christian was endued with this laudable moderation ! 
But so long as it is fashionable to have no concern 
for the peace of the Church, nor reverence for authority, 
controversies about religion will increase till, without 
some gracious interposition of Providence, they eat out 
out the vitals of it. 

" It would be endless to enumerate all the virtues 
of this excellent man, or to be particular about the 
constancy and frequency of his devotions, with his family, 
and in his closet ; his strict manner of observing pub- 
lic fasts, his undissembled grief at hearing God's name 
profaned, or the Lord's Day unhallowed, or the recital 
of any gross immorality : but above all, his charity 
under each branch of it, giving and forgiving, was most 

"The largeness of a family was, in his judgment, 
no excuse for scanty alms-giving : but besides the poor 
whom he daily relieved at his door, he gave to others 
quarterly allowances. His charitable disposition was 
so notorious, and brought such numbers of necessitous 
objects to him, that Dean Fell, himself a most muni- 
ficent person, used complainingly to tell Dr. Pocock, 
that he drew all the poor of Oxford into the college." 
— Life by Twells. 


Reginald Pole was born in 1500, at Stoverton, or 
Stourton Castle, in Staffordshire. He was cousin to 

POLE. 113 

ttenvy VII., his mother being the daughter of the 
"false, fleeting, perjured Clarence," brother of Edward 
IV., who had married Richard de la Pole, Lord Monta- 
cute. He was educated first by the Carthusians of Shene, 
near Pdchmond, in Surrey, where there was a grammar 
school. He staid there five years ; and then entered 
as a nobleman in Magdalen College, Oxford, w^iere an 
apartment was assigned him in the president's lodg- 
ings. Thomas Linacre and William Latimer were 
his tutors. Few things could prove the necessity of 
a Reformation in the Church more than the fact that, 
when he was only seventeen years of age, being a 
layman, he was nominated by the king, Prebendary 
of Roscombe, in the Cathedral of Salisbury; and held 
with that stall the Prebend of Yatminster Secunda, 
in the same church. Soon after, he had the Deanery 
of Wimburne Minster, together with the Deanery of 
Exeter, conferred upon him. He had graduated in 
1615, but he was not in holy orders, nor had even 
received the first tonsure, till the very day on which 
he was appointed a cardinal by the pope. 

In 1519, the youthful dean visited the University 
of Padua; which, according to Erasmus, was, at that 
time, the Athens of Europe. On his return to England, 
in 1526, he was received at court with every demon- 
stration of esteem and favour by Henry VIII. and Queen 
Catherine. This princess had felt all the horrors of 
the bloody policy by which the death of the Earl of 
Warwick was made a necessary stipulation to her mar- 
riage, and had often signified her forebodings of the 
vengeance which w^ould wait on it. It was apprehended 
that the title of the House of York might one day 
revive in this young prince; and Henry VII. and 
Ferdinand had got rid of those fears, by an expedient 
suited to both their characters; and, by adding the 
mockery of justice to murder, had, on a pretended 
conspiracy, taken aw^ay the life a Prince, whose only 
L 3 

114 POLE. 

guilt was his relation to the crown. The queen had 
already done everything in her power to atone for the 
sin, and repair the injury of so foul a deed. The Coun- 
tess of Salisbury, mother to Reginald Pole, being sister 
to the unfortunate victim of her father's jealousy, she 
committed the care of the Princess Mary's education 
to her; treated her and and all her children with 
remarkable affection ; and was accustomed to say, her 
mind would never be at ease, unless the crown reverted 
again to the Earl of Warwick's family, by a marriage 
of one of his sister's sons to her daughter ; and thus 
some reparation made for the injustice done to the 
brother : and amongst all that lady's numerous off- 
spring, she had ever shewn a predilection to Reginald. 
But, notwithstanding the advantages of such a position, 
and the sunshine of royal favour which encompassed 
him, he resolved to withdraw from it. The court 
was become a scene of intrigue, to which his breast 
was a stranger. He was a constant witness to the 
wanderings of a prince, to whom he had the highest 
obligations, and whom he loved with all the sincerity 
of a loyal and thankful heart: nor would his integ- 
rity allow him to interest himself less in the case 
and honour of the Queen, who was now treated with 
coldness and disregard. However,* that this retreat 
might not give offence, or draw on him his displeasure, 
he alleged a desire of prosecuting his studies, where 
he should meet with fewer avocations ; and obtained 
his majesty's consent to go to the Carthusians at 
Shene, where he had passed several years of his 
youth, and where there was a very handsome house, 
and every thing fitted to his purpose within the inclo- 
sure of tbat monastery. 

The question of the king's divorce, of which an 
account is given in the Life of Cranmer, soon after 
arose, and Pole sympathizing with Catherine of Aragon, 
and naturally wishing to be out of the way, made 

POLE. 1]5 

his desire of completing his theological sudies, a plea 
for his going to Paris, where he remained till October, 

But change of place, did not save him from respon- 
sibility and trouble. The agents of Henry VIII. who 
had determined to consult the universities of Europe, 
respecting the divorce, arrived at Paris, and Pole was 
solicited to concur with them in procuring the decision 
of the University of Paris in the king's favour. As this 
opinion was contrary to Pole's sentiments, he was thrown 
into a perplexity, from which he endeavoured to extricate 
himself by pleading his unfitness for such a business ; 
but he could not thereby escape the king's displeasure. 
After his return, therefore, he thought it advisable again 
to retire to Shene, where he spent two years more, un- 
molested, But Henry's impatience under the delays 
he met with respecting the divorce having brought 
him to the final resolution of throwing himself upon 
the support of his own subjects, it became a step of 
importance to gain over a person of Pole's rank and 
reputation. Both hopes and menaces were therefore 
employed to shake him, and he was persuaded to wait 
upon the king in order to give him all the satisfaction 
in his power. Conscience, however, prevented him from 
concurring in the arguments for the divorce ; and though 
he was dismissed with tokens of regard, yet he thought 
it prudent again to withdraw to the continent. He took 
up his abode successively at Avignon, Padua, and 
Venice, applying assiduously to the study of divinity, 
and cultivating friendships with the most eminent char- 
acters for learning and piety. 

In the meantime Henry had proceeded to extremities 
in his favourite plans. He had divorced Catharine, 
married Anne Boleyn, and retaliated the hostility of 
the Roman See, by declaring himself head of the Eng- 
lish Church. He procured a book to be written in 
defence of this title, by Dr. Sampson, Bishop of Chi- 

116 POLE. 

Chester, which he caused to be transmitted to Pole, 
perhaps hoping that he might be convinced by its argu- 
ments. This, however, was so far from taking place, 
that Pole, now thoroughly imbued with the maxims of 
Rome, forgot all the moderation of his character, and 
drew up a Treatise, " De Unitate Ecclesiastica," in 
which he used very harsh language both to Sampson 
and the king, comparing the latter to Nebuchadnezzar, 
and even exciting the emperor to revenge the injury 
offered to his aunt. He sent his work to Henry, who 
could not fail to be much displeased with its contents, 
as were indeed some of the writer's friends in England. 
Henry dissembled his resentment, and invited Pole to 
come over in order to explain some passages in his 
Treatise for his satisfaction ; but his kinsman was too 
wary to expose himself to the fate of More and Fisher. 

The king now kept no measures with him, but with- 
drew his pension, alienated his preferments, and caused 
a bill of attainder to be passed against him. But Pole 
had now a new sovereign. By Paul III. he was nomi- 
nated a cardinal, and, according to Mr. Hallam, he 
became an active instrument of the pope in fomenting 
rebellion in England. At his own solicitation he was 
appointed Legate to the Low Countries, in 1537, with 
the sole object of keeping alive the flame of the Northern 
Rebellion, and exciting foreign powers as well as the 
English nation to restore Popery by force, if not to 
dethrone Henry. It is difficult, says the historian, 
not to suspect that he was influenced by ambitious 
views in a proceeding so treasonable and so little in 
accordance with his polished manners and temperate 
life. Philips, his able and artful biographer, both 
proves and glories in his treason. 

Upon the failure of these designs, he was sent as 
legate to Viterbo, where he remainded till 1543. In 
that year he was appointed one of the three Papal 
legates to the Council of Trent ; and when it was 

POLE. 117 

actually assembled, he attended upon its deliberations 
as long as his health would permit. He is said to have 
held the orthodox Protestant doctrine of justification 
by faith ; whence he incurred some suspicion of being 
too favourable to Protestantism. His friendship for 
Flaminio, who was an inmate with him and died in 
his house, and the lenity he shewed to some Protestants 
at Viterbo, were alledged as further grounds for suspect- 
ing his religion ; yet of his attachment to the interests of 
the Papal See he had given such valid proofs as would 
not suffer it to be doubted. He was therefore confi- 
dentially employed in the political affairs of the Pioman 
court during the life of Paul, and at that pontiff's death 
in 1549, he was seriously thought of as his successor. 
Indeed, during the cabals of the conclave, he was twice 
actually nominated; and at the second time was waited 
upon late at night by the cardinals to perform the cere- 
mony of adoration. But his scrupulosity in objecting 
to the unseasonable hour, and insisting upon a delay 
till morning, gave them time to change their minds, 
and he thus missed the tiara. 

After this he retired to the Benedictine monastei^ at 
Maguzano, in the territory of Venice, and there he re- 
mained till the year 1553, when on the accession of 
Mary, he was invited to return to England. He set 
out in September, 1554, but being detained by contrary 
winds at Calais until November, he did not cross the 
water until the twenty-first of that month ; when arriving 
at Dover he went thence by land to Gravesend, where 
being met by the Bishop of Ely, and the Earl of Salis- 
bury, who presented him with the repeal of the act of 
his attainder, that had passed the day before, he went 
on board a yacht, which carrying the cross, the ensign 
of his legation, at her head, conveyed him to Whitehall, 
where he was received with the utmost veneration by 
their majesties; and after all possible honour and respect 
paid to him there, he was conducted to the archbishop's 

118 - POLE. 

palace at Lambeth, the destined place of his residence, 
which had been sumptuously fitted T;ip by the queen 
for the purpose. On the 27th he went to the parlia- 
ment, and made a long speech, inviting them to a 
reconciliation with the See of Rome from whence, 
he said, he was sent by the common pastor of Christen- 
dom to reduce them, who had long strayed from the 
inclosure of the Church. On the 29th, the speaker 
reported to the commons the substance of this speech ; 
and a message coming from the lords for a conference, 
in order to prepare a supplication to be reconciled to 
the See of Rome, it was consented to, and the petition 
being agreed on, was reported and approved by both 
houses ; so that being presented by them on their knees 
to the king and queen, these made their intercession 
with the cardinal, who thereupon delivered himself in 
a long speech, at the end of which he granted them 
absolution. This done, all went to the royal chapel, 
where "Te Deum " was sung on the occasion. Thus 
the pope's authority being now restored, the cardinal 
two days afterwards made his public entry into London, 
with all the solemnities of a legate, and presently set 
about the business of reforming the Church, of what 
they called heresy. How much soever he had formerly 
been suspected to favour the Reformation; yet he seemed 
now to be much altered, knowing that the Court of Rome 
kept a jealous eye upon him in this respect. He there- 
fore expressed great detestation of the Reformers, nor 
did he converse much with any that had been of that 
party. He came into England, much changed from 
that freedom of conversation he had formerly practised. 
He was reserved to all, spoke little, and put on an 
Italian temper, as well as behaviour ; making Priuli and 
Ormaneto, two Italians whom he brought with him, his 
only confidants. In the meantime, the queen dispatched 
ambassadors to Rome, to make obedience in the name 
of the whole kingdom to the pope; who had already 

POLE. 119 

proclaimed a jubilee on that occasion. But these messen- 
gers had scarcely set foot on Italian ground, when they 
were informed of the death of Julius, and the election 
of Marcellus his successor ; and this pontiff dying also 
soon after, the queen upon the first news of it, recom- 
mended her kinsman to the popedom, as every way the 
fittest person for it ; and dispatches were accordingly 
sent to Eome for the purpose, but they came too late, 
Peter Caraffa, who took the name of Paul IV,, being 
elected before their arrival. 

This pope who had never liked the cardinal, was better 
pleased with Gardiner, the Bishop of Winchester, whose 
temper exactly tallied with his own. In this disposition 
he favoured Gardiner's views upon the See of Canterbury. 
Xor was Pole's nomination to that dignity confirmed by 
the pope, until after the death of this rival. The queen 
however, confiding in Pole for the management and 
regulation of ecclesiastical affairs, granted him a licence 
to hold a Synod on the second of November, 1554. In 
this convention, the legate proposed the next year a 
book he had prepared, containing such regulations as he 
judged might be the best means of extirpating heresy ; 
these w^ere passed in the form of twelve decrees, and they 
are so many proofs of his good temper, which disposed 
him not to set the clergy upon persecuting the Protes- 
tants, but rather to reform themselves, and seek to reclaim 
others by a good example, as the surest method to bring 
back the stragglers into the fold. How unsuitably to the 
temper of these decrees, he was prevailed upon to act in 
many instances afterwards, is well known. The same 
thing is confessed also by Burnet, who, moreover, 
plainly suggests his belief of the report, that Cran- 
mer's execution was of Pole's procuring. It is, indeed, 
something remarkable, that though the cardinal had 
his conge d'elire, as well as two bulls dispatched 
from Eome, for the Archbishop of Canterbury, some 
months before Cranmers's death: and deferred his 

120 POLE. 

consecration thereto, apparently because he thought 
it indecent while Cranmer lived ; yet he chose to 
have it done the very next day after the prelate's 
execution ; when it was performed by the Bishops of 
London, Ely, Lincoln, Rochester, and St. Asaph, in the 
Church of the Gray Friars at Greenwich. On the 28th, 
he went in state to Bow Church, where the Bishops of 
Worcester and Ely, after the former had said mass, put 
the pall upon him. Thus invested, he went into the 
pulpit, and made a sermon about the origin, use, and 
matter of that vestment, and on the 31st of the same 
month, he was installed by his commissary. In Novem 
ber, the same year, 1656, he w^as elected chancellor of the 
University of Oxford, and soon after of Cambridge ; and 
in the beginning of the year following, he visited both 
by his commissaries, reforming them in the sense of 
those times, but not without committing some uncom- 
monly inhuman persecutions. 

We have already observed how unacceptable he was to 
Paul IV., who now sat in the Papal chair, and the war 
which England was drawn into with France, this year 
by King Philip, furnished the haughty pontiff with a 
pretence for gratifying his ill-will to the legate. He had 
passionately espoused the quarrel of the French mon- 
arch, and being inflamed to see England siding against 
his friend, he resolved to revenge it on Pole. In this 
spirit having declared openly that it might now be seen 
how little the cardinal regarded the apostohc see, when 
he suffered the queen to assist their enemies against 
their friends ; he first made a decree in May, for a 
general revocation of all legates and nuncios in the 
King of Spain's dominions. Cardinal Pole being men- 
tioned among the rest. And though he was diverted from 
carrying his project into execution for the present, by 
the representations of Sir Edward Carne, then the Eng- 
lish ambassador at Home ; yet upon the fatal blow given 
to the French at St. Quintin, and the ill success of his 

POLE. 121 

own forces in Italy, his wrath burst out with fresh fury, 
he became utterly implacable, accused Pole as a sus- 
pected heretic, summoned him to Rome to answer the 
charge, and depriving him of the legatine powers, con- 
ferred them upon Peyto, a Franciscan friar ; whom he 
had sent for to Rome, and made a cardinal for the pur- 
pose, designing him also to the See of Salisbury. This 
appointment was made in September, and the new legate 
was actually on the road to England, when the bulls 
came to the hands of Queen Mary, who having been 
informed of their contents by her ambassador, laid them 
up without opening them, or acquainting her cousin 
with them ; in whose behalf she wrote to the pope, and 
assuming some of her father s spirit, she wrote also to 
Peyto, forbidding him to proceed on his journey, and 
charging him at his peril not to set foot on English 
ground. But notwithstanding all her caution to conceal 
the matter from the cardinal, it was not possible to keep 
it long a secret, and he no sooner became acquainted 
with the pope's pleasure, or rather his displeasure, 
than out of that implicit veneration, which he constantly 
and unalterably preserved for the See of Rome, he volun- 
tarily laid down the ensigns of his legatine power, and 
forbore the exercise of it ; dispatching his trusty min- 
ister, Ormaneto, to Rome, with letters wherein he 
cleared himself in such submissive terms, as it is said 
even mollified and melted the obdurate heart of Paul. 
The truth is, the pontiff was brought into a better tem- 
per by some late events, which turned his regard from 
the French towards the Spaniards, and the storm against 
Pole blew over entirely, by a peace that was concluded 
this year between the pope and Philip ; in one of the 
secret articles of which, it was stipulated that the car- 
dinal should be restored to his legatine powers. But he 
did not live to enjoy the restoration a full twelvemonth, 
being seized with a double quartan ague, which carried 
him off the stage of life early in the morning of the 



18th of November, 1558. His death is said to have 
been hastened by that of his royal mistress and kins- 
woman, Queen Mary, which happened about sixteen 
hours before. — Philijjs. Dod. Biog. Brit. 


Saint Polycaep, one of the apostolical fathers and a 
martyr, was born during the reign of Nero ; and, as 
is generally supposed, at Smyrna, in Asia Minor. He 
was a disciple of the Apostle John, by whom he was 
appointed Bishop of Smyrna; and is supposed to be 
the " angel of the Church of Smyrna," to whom one 
of the epistles in Revelation ii., is directed to be sent. 
It is also stated by some of the fathers that he was 
acquainted with others of the apostles : but it is cer- 
tain that he had conversed with several who had both 
heard and seen the Lord Jesus Christ, and that he 
was accustomed to relate the conversations which passed 
between himself and them. 

In the year 107, Polycarp was visited by St. Ignatius, 
on his way to martyrdom ; Ignatius having been, like 
Poljxarp, a disciple of St. John. Ignatius, ignorant 
of any right on the part of the Roman bishop to inter- 
fere in the concerns of another diocese, recommended 
his own See of Antioch to the superintendence of 
Polycarp, and afterwards sent an epistle to the Church 
of Smyrna, from Troas, where Polycarp wrote his Epistle 
to the Philippians. 

Polycarp commences his epistle in the true spirit 
of a martyr, by denominating '* the bonds of the 
saints the diadems of such as are chosen by God 
and our Lord." The presbyters he exhorts to '• ab- 
stain from all anger and covetousness ; not easily 
to belie%'e accusations, nor to be severe in judging, 
knowing that we are aU debtors by sin.*' He then 


enforces upon the Philippians the duty of receiving 
Christ, as the propitiation for sin, and example of 

" Let us, therefore, perpetually cleave to the hope and 
pledge of our righteousness, even to Jesus Christ ; Who 
His own self bare our sins in His own body on the 
tree, "Who did no sin, neither was guile found in His 
mouth ; but endured all for us that we might live 
through Him. Let us, therefore, be imitators of His 
patience ; and if we suffer for His Name, we glorify 
Him ; for this example he has given us by Himself, 
and so have w^e believed." He afterwards offers up 
this holy aspiration in their behalf; — " Now the God 
and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the ever- 
lasting High Priest Himself, the Son of God, even 
Jesus Christ, build you up in faith and truth, and 
in all meekness and unity, in patience and long suf- 
fering, in forbearance and purity; and grant unto you 
a lot and portion among His saints, and to us with 
you, and to all that are under the heavens, who shall 
believe in our Lord Jesus Christ, and in His Father, 
who raised Him from the dead. Pray for all saints ; 
pray also for kings, and all that are in authority, and 
for those who persecute and hate you, and for the 
enemies of the cross, that your fruit may be manifest 
in all things, and that ye may be perfect in Christ." 

The controversy with respect to the proper day on 
which Easter should be kept, becoming warm between 
the Eastern and the Western Churches, Polycarp, in 
L58, travelled to Rome to confer with Anicetus the 
bishop of that city. The pope was not then regarded 
as the centre of unity, or the matter would have been 
settled at once. Polycarp's object was to convince 
Anicetus that he was in the wrong, but when he did 
not succeed in this, he did i\pt for a moment defer 
to the Bishop of Rome. 

It is indeed sinc^ular that a circumstance of so little 


importance in itself should at so early a period, and 
during times of persecution, have excited so much inter- 
est in the Christian world. The one party were of opinion 
that it should be observed like the Jewish Passover, as 
a fixed feast at the full moon ; the other contended that 
it should be considered as a moveable festival, and that 
it should be observed on the Lord's day following. Each 
party derived their own practice from apostolical tra- 
dition : Anicetus, and the generality of the Western 
Churches, favoured the latter practice ; Polycarp, and 
the Eastern Churches, the former. It is not impro- 
bable that they were both in the right as to fact ; it 
being the known practice of the apostles to become 
all things to all men in matters of indifference, and 
to comply with the customs of every place they came 
to, as far as they innocently could. Hence Polycarp 
might know that St. John, out of this prudential com- 
pliance, kept Easter upon one day at one place, and 
Anicetus might be equally certain that St. Peter ob- 
served it upon another day at another place, for the 
same reason. The error then here committed was a 
mistake in judgment, and not in fact, a disproportioned 
and excessive zeal in a matter not worth contending 

But though Polycarp and Anicetus could not come to 
an agreement, they agreed to differ. They received the 
Holy Communion together, and Anicetus, according to 
the Christian courtesy of the age, gave Polycarp prece- 
dence, though in his own city, and by Polycarp the 
elements were consecrated. 

Whilst Polycarp continued in Rome, he became en- 
gaged in a much more important controversy ; and his 
labours appear to have been attended with considerable 
benefit to the cause of Christianity. The heresy of 
Marcion was at that ti^le prevalent in the city ; and 
several persons, who had once made a profession of the 
true faith, were seduced by it. In the meantime Mar- 


cion, in order to give weight to his sentiments, endea- 
voured to insinuate into the 'minds of the people, 
that there was an agreement between himself and Poly- 
carp. It is not surprising that Marcion should make 
such an attempt, or that Poljcarp should consider it as 
his duty to use the most decisive measures to disclose 
the falsehood of the heretic. Marcion meeting him one 
day in the street, called out to him, " Polycarp, own us," 
" I do," replied the zealous bishop, "own thee, — to be 
the first-born of Satan." 

Some years after the return of Polycarp from Rome 
and in the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the Christians 
were persecuted in all parts of the Roman empire with 
unrelenting rigour. And many were called upon at 
Smyrna as well as in other places to seal their profession 
with their blood. 

During this awful season Polycarp " in patience 
possessed his soul, " neither disheartened by the fury 
of his enemies, nor countenancing the fanaticism of the 
times in courting the persecution of his enemies. 

But the cry of the populace soon reached his ears, 
"Take away the Atheists ; let Polycarp be sought for." 
Three days previous to his death, Polycarp was fa- 
voured with a vision whilst engaged in prayer, in which 
it was figuratively represented to him that he should 
be burnt alive. The place of his retreat was extorted 
from a young man of his household, and his enemies 
immediately afterwards entered his dwelling. As he 
was, however, at that time lying down in an upper 
room, connected with the flat roof of the house, he 
might still have possibly escaped them. But he now 
deemed it his duty no longer to avoid their scrutiny ; 
thinking that he could not give a nobler testimony 
to his uprightness and confidence in God, than by shew- 
ing to the world that these were a sufficient security 
to him in whatever dangers he might be involved. No 
sooner, therefore, had he heard that his enemies were 

M 3 


at hand than he calmly exclaimed, "The will of the 
Lord be done," and, ^'ith a composed countenance, 
entered into their presence. 

The advanced age of Polycarp, and the sanctity of 
his appearance, sensibly impressed them. Some of 
them even said, " Surely it is not worth while to appre- 
hend so old a man ! " In the mean time, the martyr 
courteously ordered refreshment to be set before them ; 
and, having obtained permission to engage in prayer, 
he stood in the midst of them, and prayed aloud with 
remarkable fervour and devotion for two successive 
hours. The spectators were astonished at the scene ; 
and many of them repented that they were come to 
seize so divine a character. 

As soon as he had ended his devotions, in which 
he had referred to the Church in general, and to various 
individuals that were personally known to him, his 
guards set him on an ass, and led him towards the 
city. Whilst on the road, they were met by Herod, 
the Irenarch, or keeper of the peace, and his father 
Nicetas, who took him into their chariot, and for some 
time, by promises and threatenings, endeavoured to 
induce him to sacrifice to the heathen gods. Finding, 
at length, that he remained unmoved, they abused the 
old man, and then cast him down from the chariot 
with such violence that his thigh was severely bruised 
by the fall. He, however, cheerfully went on with 
his guards to the stadium, as though unhurt. As he 
was entering the assembly, a voice from heaven is said 
to have addressed him; — "Be strong, Polycarp, and 
behave yourself like a man! " None saw the speaker; 
but many that were present heard the voice. When 
he was brought before the tribunal, the proconsul, 
struck with his appearance, earnestly exhorted him to 
pity his advanced age, to swear by the fortune of Caesar, 
and to say, *' Away with the Atheists," a term of re- 
proach then commonly attached to the Christians. The 


saint, with his hand directed to the multitude, and 
his eyes Hfted up to heaven, with a solemn countenance, 
said, *' Away with the Atheists ;" thereby intimating 
his fervent desire that true religion might prosper, 
and impiety be restrained. The proconsul still con- 
tinued to urge him to apostatize. " Reproach Christ," 
said he, " and I will immediately release you," Fired 
with a holy indignation, the aged martyr replied, 
"Eighty and six years have I served Him, and He 
hath never wronged me; how then can I blaspheme 
my King and my Saviour ! " Being still urged to 
recant, he added, " If you affect ignorance of my real 
character, hear me plainly declare what I am — I am 
a Christian." " I have wild beasts," said the procon- 
sul, " I will expose you to them, unless you repent." 
"Call them," cried the martyr. "We Christians 
are determined in our minds not to change from good 
to evil." "I will tame your spirit by fire," said the 
other, " since you despise the wild beasts, if you will 
not recant." " You threaten me with fire," answered 
Polycarp, which burns for an hour ; but you are igno- 
rant of the future judgment, and of the fire of 
eternal punishment, reserved for the ungodly. — But 
why do you delay? Do what you please." 

Firm and intrepid he stood before the council, not 
only contemning, but even desirous of death. In the 
meantime the proconsul was evidently embarrassed ; 
but at length he sent a herald to proclaim thrice in the 
assembly, " Polycarp has professed himself a Christian." 

At first the populace desired that a lion should be let 
out against him ; but, as this could not then conveni- 
ently be done, as the shews of wild beasts were ended, 
they cried out with one voice, " Polycarp shall be burnt 
alive." The sentence was executed with all possible 
speed; for the people immediately gathered fuel from 
the work-shops and baths, the poor infatuated Jews dis- 
tinguishing themselves in this employment with pecu- 


liar malice. In the meantime the martyr cheerfully 
awaited his fate, fearing neither death, nor the horrible 
form in which it was now presented to him. 

Every thing being at length prepared for burning him, 
the executioners were proceeding to nail him to the 
stake, when he exclaimed, " Let me remain as I am, 
for He Who giveth me strength to sustain the fire, will 
enable me also, without being secured by nails, to re- 
main unmoved by the fire." They, therefore, only bound 

Polycarp then offered up the following prayer : — " 
Lord God Almighty, the Father of Thy Beloved and 
Blessed Son Jesus Christ, through Whom we have 
attained the knowledge of Thee ; the God of Angels 
and principalities, and of every creature, and of all the 
just that live in Thy sight ! I bless Thee that Thou 
hast vouchsafed to bring me to this day and this hour ; 
that I should have a part in the number of Thy Martyrs 
in the cup of Christ, for the resurrection to eternal life 
both of soul and body, in the incorruption of the Holy 
Ghost; among whom may I be accepted before Thee 
this day, as a sacrifice well savoured and acceptable, as 
Thou, the faithful the true God, hast ordained, promised, 
and art now fulfilliug. Wherefore I praise Thee for all 
those things ; I bless Thee, I glorify Thee, by the eternal 
High Priest, Jesus Christ, Thy Beloved Son, by Whom, 
and with Whom, in the Holy Spirit, be glory to Thee 
both now and for ever. Amen." 

As soon as Polycarp had finished his prayer, the 
executioners lighted the fire, which blazed to a great 
height ; and the flame, making a kind of arch, like 
the sail of a ship filled with wind, surrounded the 
body of the holy martyr. One of the executioners 
perceiving that his body was not burnt, plunged his 
sword into it, and then cast it down into the flames, 
where it was soon consumed. And now, like another 
Elijah, he ascended in a chariot of fire; but not with- 


out having first communicated a portion of his spirit 
to those around him. 

This venerable saint was martyred in the year of our 
Lord one hundred and sixty- seven, and about the one 
hundred and twentieth year of his own age. Eleven 
Christians suffered with him. 

The only writing of Polycarp which we possess is the 
Epistle to the Philippians mentioned above. It is one 
of the writings of the apostolical Fathers translated by 
Archbishop Wake, who has also translated the account 
of Polycarp 's death written in the name of the Church 
of Smyrna. — Eusebiiis. Irenceus. Wake. Cox. 


PoLYCEATEs flourished towards the close of the second 
century. He bore a distinguished part in the contro- 
versy respecting the observance of Easter, being at that 
time Bishop of Ephesus. The Eastern Church main- 
tained that it should be observed on the fourteenth day 
after the new moon in March, on whatever day of the 
week it should fall, the Western Church kept it on the 
Sunday. Victor, Bishop of Eome, called upon the 
Eastern Churches to conform to the rule of the Western 
Church. Upon this Polycrates convened a numerous 
synod of the bishops of Asia, who, after taking the lordly 
requisition of Victor into consideration, determined to 
adhere to their own rule. With their approbation, 
Polycrates wrote to Victor, informing him of their reso- 
lution. Exasperated at their answer, Victor broke off 
communion with them, and excluded them from all 
fellowship with the Church of Rome. The letter which 
Polycrates sent to Victor is no longer extant ; but there 
are two fragments of it preserved by Eusebius. — Eusebius. 



Pontius flourished about the year 250, and was probably 
a native of Africa. He was deacon to St. Cyprian and 
is chiefly celebrated as the author of the Life and Papers 
of St. Cyprian. He is supposed to have died a martyr 

in 26S.—(See St. Cyprians Works.) 


CoNSTANTiNE PoNTius was bom at St. Clement, in New 
Castile, and was educated in the University of Valladolid. 
His historical name, Pontius, has been curiously derived. 
His real name was De la Fuente, and this we are told 
became in Latin Fontius, and Fontius became Pontius. 
He was Canon and Professor of Divinity at Seville. He 
was preacher to Charles V., (some say his confessor) and 
accompanied his son, Philip IL, to England. In Eng- 
land, his mind was opened to the errors of Piomanism, 
and he embraced the principles of the Reformation. On 
his return to Spain he preached manfully against the 
errors of Romanism, Hence he drew on himself many 
attacks from the priests and monks, and the Archbishop 
of Seville, president of the conclave of the Inquisition, 
against which he defended himself with great skill and 
address. At length they made a seizure of his books, 
which he had carefully endeavoured to conceal; and 
among them was found one in his own handwriting, 
containing a pointed condemnation of the leading points 
in the Popish creed. When this book was produced, he 
undauntingly avowed it, and declared his determination 
to maintain the truth of its contents, desiring them, 
as they had now a full confession of his principles, to 
give themselves no further trouble in procuring witnesses 
against him, but to dispose of him as they pleased. 
From this time he was kept in prison for two years, 

POOLE. 131 

under a sentence of condemnation to the flames ; but 
before the day of the Auto da Fe on which it was to be 
carried into execution, he died of a dysentery, occa- 
sioned by the excessive heat of his place of confine- 
ment, and the bad quality of his food. This event 
took place in 1559. He was burnt in effigy. His 
works are : — Commentaries on the Proverbs of Solomon, 
on the Book of Ecclesiastes, on the Song of Songs, 
and on the Book of Job, the substance of which was de- 
livered in his course of theological lectures at Seville ; A 
Summary of the Christian Doctrine, printed in Spanish, 
at Antwerp; Six Sermons on the First Psalm, in the 
same language, and published at the same place, in 
1556 ; The Confession of a Sinner, marked in the 
index as particularly deserving of condemnation ; and, A 
Catechism at large. — Bayle. Moreri. 


Matthew Poole was born at York, in 1624, and from 
the Grammar School at York, he proceeded to Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge, where he embraced the doctrines 
of Presbyterianism. In 1648, he was made Rector 
of St. Michael le Querne, in London, where he pub- 
lished a variety of controversial works, and bore a pro- 
minent part in the Presbyterian movement. At the 
Restoration, he was, of course, obliged to resign a living 
which he never had a right to hold. Having an inde- 
pendent fortune, he now determined to withdraw from 
controversy in the narrow sense of the word, and he 
became a student. 

He commenced his celebrated book, the Synopsis Cri- 
ticorum aliorumque S. Scripturse Interpretum, which 
contains an abridgment of the Critici Sacri, together 
with extracts from other authors, and from critical trea- 
tises and pamphlets of less note, but often of conside- 

132 POOLE. 

rable value. A man so profitably and peaceably employed 
was not only unmolested, but was patronized by perso-jis. 
in power. 

When the work was in a state of sufficient forward- 
ness to be sent to the press, Charles II. granted him 
a patent for the privilege of printing it; and in 1669, 
the first two volumes were published in London, in large 
folio, which were afterwards followed by three others. The 
publication of this work involved Poole in a dispute with 
Cornelius Bee, the publisher of the Critici Sacri, who 
accused him of invading his property by printing the 
Synopsis. In 1666, Poole published a treatise con- 
cerning the Infallibility of the Roman Catholic Church, 
entitled. The Nullity of the Romish Faith ; or a Blow 
at the Romish Faith, &c. 8vo ; which was followed, in the 
next year, by his Dialogues between a Popish Priest and 
an English Protestant, wherein the principal Points and 
Arguments of both Religions are truly proposed, and fully 
examined, 8vo. He soon after retired to Holland, where 
he died at Amsterdam, in October, 1679, in the fifty-sixth 
year of his age. 

Besides the articles already enumerated, he was the 
author of: — A Letter to the Lord Charles Fleetwood, 1659, 
4to, relating to the state of affairs at that period ; a short 
Latin Poem, and some Epitaphs, which evince proofs of 
classical taste and genius ; some Sermons, in the collection 
by various Nonconformist ministers, entitled. Morning 
Exercises ; some single Sermons ; a preface to a volume of 
Posthumous Sermons, by Mr. Nalton, with some account 
of his character ; and he left behind him, in MS., Anno- 
tations on the Bible, in English, which his death prevented 
him from extending further than Isaiah, Iviii. The work 
was afterwards continued by other hands. These Anno- 
tations were printed in London, in 1685, in two volumes 
folio, and reprinted in 1700, which is usually called the 
best edition, although it is far from being correct. A 
second edition of the Synopsis was printed at Frankfort, 


in 1678, in 5 vols, fol ; and a third at Utrecht, supcrintpnded 
by Leusden, in 16^6, A fourth edition was printed at 
Frankfort, in 1694, in 5 vols, 4to ; and a fifth at the same 
place, in 1709, in 6 vols. fol. The two last mentioned 
editions have additions and improvements, criticisms 
on the Apocrypha, and a defence of the compiler against 
the censures of father Simon. — Wood. Calamy. Need. 


Barnabas Potter was born at Kendal, in 1578, and 
was educated at Queen's College, Oxford, of which 
college he became a fellow. On his ordination, he 
became a favourite preacher among the Puritans, and 
officiated as lecturer, first at Abington, and then at 
Totness, in Devonshire. In 1610, he was chosen 
Principal of Edmund Hall, but resigned, and was 
never admitted into that office. In 1616, on the death 
of Dr. Airay, he was elected Provost of Queen's' College, 
which station he retained for about ten years ; and 
being then one of the king's chaplains, resigned the 
provostship in favour of his nephew, the subject of 
the next article. In 1628, he was nominated Bishop 
of Carlisle. Wood adds, that in this promotion 
he had the interest of Bishop Laud, " although a 
thorough-paced Calvinist." He continued, however, a 
frequent and favourite preacher ; and, says Fuller, 
"was commonly called the Puritanical Bishop; and 
they would say of him, in the time of King James, 
that organs would blow him out of the church ; which 
I do not believe ; the rather, because he was loving 
of and skilled in vocal music, and could bear his own 
part therein." He died in 1642, and was interred 
in the Church of St. Paul, Covent Garden. Wood 
mentions as his, Lectures on some Chapters of Genesis, 



but knows not whether they were printed ; and several 
Sermons ; one, The Baronet's Burial, on the burial 
of Sir Edmund Seymour, Oxon. 1613, 4to. ; and 
another, on Easter Tuesday, one of the Spital Sermons. 
— Gen. Biog. Diet. 


Christopher Potter, nephew to Barnabas Potter, was 
born at Kendal, in 1591, and was educated at Queen's 
College, Oxford, of which college he became chaplain 
in 1613. In 1620, he succeeded Dr. Barnabas Potter 
as provost. 

In 1633, he published his Answer to a late Popish 
Pamphlet, entitled. Charity Mistaken. The cause was 
this : a Jesuit who went by the name of Edward Knott, 
but whose true name was Matthias Wilson, had published, 
in 1630, a little book- in 8vo, called Charity Mistaken, 
with the want whereof Catholics are unjustly charged, 
for affirming, as they do with grief, that Protestancy 
unrepented destroys Salvation. Dr. Potter published 
an answer to this at Oxford, 1633. in 8vo, with this 
title, " Want of Charitie justly charged on all such 
Bomanists as dare (without truth or modesty) affirme, 
that Protestancie destroyeth Salvation ; or, an Answer 
to a late Popish pamphlet, entitled, Charity Mistaken," 
&c. The second edition revised and enlarged, w^as 
printed at London, 1634, in 8vo. Prynne observes, 
that Bishop Laud, having perused the first edition, 
caused some things to be omitted in the second. It is 
dedicated to Charles I. ; and in the dedication Dr. 
Potter observes, that it was "undertaken in obedience 
to his majesty's particular commandment." In this 
controversy, as is well known, the celebrated Chilling- 
worth was afterwards engaged. In 1635, Dr. Potter 
was promoted to the Deanery of Worcester. 


In early life, like many of his contemporaries, Dr. 
Potter had been Calvinistically inclined ; but, like Bishop 
Sanderson, Archbishop Usher, and others, at a later 
period of life, he saw his error, and avowed an altera- 
tion in his sentiments. It was while he was Dean 
of Worcester, (Dr. Wordsworth calls him Dean of 
Windsor,) that he wrote the Letter to Mr. Vicars, 
which was re-published at Cambridge, in 1719, in a 
" Collection of Tracts concerniug Predestination and 

Having been taxed by his friend with the desertion 
of his former principles, and the charge being coupled 
with an insinuation, that this change was brought about 
by court influence, and put on to please Archbishop 
Laud, &c. *' It appears," says he, '' by the w^hole 
tenour of your letter, that you are affected wdth a 
strong suspicion, that I am turned Arminian; and 
you further guess at the motive, that some sprinkling 
of court holy water, like an exorcism hath enchanted 
and conjured me into this new shape. How loth am I 
to understand your meaning ! And how fain would I 
put a fair interpretation upon these foul passages, if they 
were capable ! What man ! not an Arminian only, but 
hired into that faith by carnal hopes ! one that can 
value his soul at so poor a rate, as to sell it to the times, 
or weigh or sway his conscience with money ! My good 
friend, how did you thus forget me, and yourself ; and 
the strict charge of our Master, Judge not ? Well ; 
you have my pardon : and God Almighty confirm it 
unto you with His ! But to prevent you error and sin 
in this kind hereafter, I desire you to believe that I 
neither am, nor ever will be Arminian. I am resolved 
to stand fast in that liberty, which my Lord hath so 
dearly bought for me. In divine truths, my conscience 
cannot serve men, or any other master besides Him 
Who hath His chair in Heaven. I love Calvin very 
well ; and I must tell you, I cannot hate Arminius. 


And for my part, I am verily persuaded that these two 
are now where they agree well, in the kingdom of 
Heaven ; whilst some of their passionate discij)les are 
so eagerly brawling here on earth. But because you are 
my friend, I will yet farther reveal myself unto you. I 
have laboured long and diligently in these controversies, 
and I will tell you with what mind and method, and 
with what success. 

" For some years in my youth, when I was most igno- 
rant, I was most confident : before I knew the true state, 
or any grounds of those questions, I could peremptorily 
resolve them all. And upon every occasion, in the very 
jjulpit, I was girding and railing upon these new heretics, 
the Arminians, and I could not find words enough to 
decipher the folly and absurdity of their doctrine ; 
especially 1 abhorred them as venomous enemies of 
the grace of God, whereof I ever was, and ever will 
be most jealous and tender, as I am most obliged, 
holding all I am, or have, or hope for by that glorious 
grace. Yet all this while, I took all this that I talked 
upon trust, and knew not what they (the Arminians) 
said or thought, but by relation from others, and from 
their enemies. And because my conscience in secret 
would often tell me, that railing would not carry it in 
matters of religion, without reason and divine authority ; 
that 1 might now solidly maintain God s truth, as it be- 
comes a minister, out of God's word, and clearly vindi- 
cate it from wicked exceptions ; and that I might not 
only revile and scratch the adversary, but beat, and 
wound him, and fight it out, fortibiis armis, non solum 
fulgentibiis, I betook myself seriously and earnestly to 
peruse the w^ritings of both parties ; and to observe and 
balance the Scriptures produced for both parties. But 
my aim in this inquiry was not to inform myself whether 
1 held the truth, (for therein I was extremely confident, 
presuming it was with US, and reading the opposers with 
prejudice and detestation,) but the better to fortify our 
tenets against their cavils and subtilties. 


** In the meanwhile, knowing that all light and 
illumination in divine mysteries, descends from above 
from the Father and Fountain of all light, without Whose 
influence and instruction all our studies are most vain 
and frivolous ; I resolved constantly and daily to solicit 
my gracious God, with most ardent supplications, as I 
shall still continue, that He would be pleased to keep 
His poor servant in His true faith and fear ; that He 
would preserve me from all false and dangerous errors, 
how specious or plausible soever; that He would fill my 
heart with true holiness and humility ; empty it of all 
pride, vain-glory, curiosity, ambition, and all other carnal 
conceits and affections, which usually blind and pervert 
the judgment; that he would give me the grace to 
renounce and deny my foolish reason in those holy 
studies, and teach me absolutely to captive my thoughts 
to the obedience of His Heavenly word ; finally, that he 
would not permit me to speak or think any thing, but 
what were consonant to His Scriptures, honourable and 
glorious to His majesty. 

" I dare never look upon my books, till I have first 
looked up to Heaven with these prayers. Thus I begin, 
thus I continue, and thus conclude my studies. In my 
search, my first and last resolution was, and is, to believe 
only what the Lord tells me in His book : and, because 
all men are liars, and the most of men factious, to 
mark not what they say, but what they prove. Though 
I must confess, T much favoured my own side, and 
read what was written against it with exceeding indig- 
nation ; especially when I was pinched, and found 
many objections to which I could find no answers. 
Yet in spite of my judgment, my conscience stood as it 
could ; and still multiplying my prayers, and recurring 
to my oracle, I repelled such thoughts as temptations. — 
Well ; in this perplexity I went on ; and first observed 
the judgments of the age since the Reformation. And 
here I found, in the very Harmony of the Confessions, 
N 3 


some little discord in these opinions, but generally, and 
the most part of our reformed Churches favouring the 
Remonstrants ; and among particular writers, many here 
differing in judgments, though nearly linked in affection, 
and all of them eminent for learning and piety ; and 
being all busied against the common adversary, the 
Church of Rome, these little differences amongst them- 
selves were wisely neglected and concealed. At length, 
some of our ow^n gave occasion, I fear, to these intestine 
and woeful wars, letting fall some speeches very scandal- 
ous, and which cannot be maintained. This first put 
the Lutheran Churches in a fresh alarm against us, and 
imbittered their hatred : and now, that which was but a 
question, is made a quarrel ; that which before was fairly 
and sweetly debated between private doctors, is now be- 
come an appeal to contention between whole reformed 
Churches, they in one army, we in the other. But still 
the most wise and holy in both parties desired a peace, 
and ceased not to cry with tears. Sirs, ye are brethren, 
why do ye strive ? and with all their power laboured that 
both the armies might be joined under the Prince of 

" But whilst these laboured for j)eace, there never 
wanted some eager spirits, that made all ready for war ; 
and whose nails were still itching till they were in the 
wounds of the Church ; for they could not believe they 
had any zeal, unless they were furious ; nor any faith, 
unless they wanted all charity. And by the wicked 
diligence of these Boutefem, that small spark, wdiich at 
first a little moderation might have quenched, hath now 
set us all in a woeful fire, worthy to be lamented with 
tears of blood. 

" But now you long to hear, what is the issue of all 
my study and inquiry ; what my resolution. Why, you 
may easily conjecture. Finding upon this serious search, 
that all doubts are not clearly decided by Scripture ; that 
in the ancient Church, after the age of St. Augustine, 


who was presently contradicted by many Catholics, as 
you may see in the epistles of Prosper and Fulgentius to 
him upon that occasion, they have ever been friendly 
debated, and never determined in any council ; that in 
our age, whole Churches are here divided, either from one 
another, as the Lutherans from us ; or amongst them- 
selves, as the Romanists, amongst whom the Dominican 
family is w^iolly for the contra-remonstrants; that in all 
these several Churches, some particular doctors vary in 
these opinions ; out of all this I collect, for my part, 
that these points are no necessary Catholic verities, not 
essential to the faith, but merely matters of opinion, 
problematical, of inferior moment, wherein a man may 
err, or be ignorant without danger to his soul ; yet so 
still, that the glory of God's justice, mercy, truth, 
sincerity, and divine grace be not any ways blemished, 
nor any good ascribed to man's corrupt will, or any evil 
to God's decree of Providence ; wherein I can assure 
3^ou I do not depart from my ancient judgment, but do 
well remember what I affirmed in my questions at the 
act, and have confirmed it, I suppose, in my sermon. 
So you see, I am still where I was. If I can clearly 
discover any error or corruption in myself, or any other, 
I should hate it with all my might : but pity, support, 
and love all that love the Lord Jesus, though they err in 
doubtful points ; but never break charity, unless with 
him that obstinately errs in fundamentals, or is wilfully 
factious. And with this moderation I dare with confi- 
dence and comfort enough appear before my Lord at the 
last day, when I fear what will become of him that loves 
not his brother, that divine precept of love being so often 
ingeminated ; why may I not, when the Lord hath 
assured me by His Beati Pacifici? You tell me of a Dean 
that should say, Maledicti Pacijici ; but you and he shall 
give me leave in this contradiction, rather to believe my 

In 1640, he was made vice-chancellor of the University 


of Oxford, in the execution of which office he met with 
some trouble from the members of the long parliament. 
Upon the breaking out of the civil wars he sent all his 
plate to the king, and declared that he would rather, 
like Diogenes, drink in the hollow of his hand, than 
that his majesty should want ; and he afterwards suffered 
much for the royal cause. In January, 1646, he was 
nominated to the Deanery of Durham, but was prevented 
from being installed by his death, which happened at his 
college on the 3rd of March following. He translated 
into English : — Father Paul's History of the Quarrels 
of Pope Paul V. with the State of Venice, London, 1626, 
4to ; and left several MSS. prepared for the press, one 
of which, entitled, A Survey of the Platform of Predes- 
tination, falling into the hands of Dr. William Twisse, 
of Newbury, was answered by him. — Wood. Fuller. Life 
of Chillingworth. Wordsivorth. 


Francis Potter was born at Meyne, in Wiltshire, in 
1594, and was educated at the King's School, Worcester, 
and afterwards at Trinity College, Oxford. In 1637, he 
succeeded his father in the Rectory of Kilmington. 

In 1642, he published at Oxford, in 4to, a Treatise 
entitled " An Interpretation of the number 666, 
Wherein not only the manner how this number ought 
to be interpreted is clearly proved and demonstrated ; 
but it is also shewed, that this number is an exquisite 
and perfect character, truly, exactly, and essentially 
describing that state of government, to which all other 
notes of Antichrist do agree. With all known objec- 
tions solidly and fully answered, that can be materially 
made against it." Prefixed to it is the following opinion 
of the learned Joseph Mede : " This discourse or tract 
of the number of the beast is the happiest that ever 


yet came iuto the world, and such as cannot be read. 
(save of those that perhaps will not believe it) without 
much admiration. The ground hath been harped on 
before, namely, that that number was to be explicated 
by some avTi(TToi)(ta to the number of the Virgin-com- 
pany and new Hierusalem, which type the true and 
Apostolical Church, whose number is always derived 
from XII. But never did any work this principal to 
such a wonderfull discovery, as this author hath done, 
namely, to make this number not only to shew the 
manner and property of that state, which was to be 
that beast, but to design the city wherein he should 
reign; the figure and compass thereof; the number 
of gates, cardinal titles or churches, St. Peter's altar, 
and I know not how many more the like. I read the 
book at first with as much prejudice against the nu- 
merical speculation as might be, and almost against 
my will, having met with so much vanitie formerly 
in that kind. But by the time I had done, it left me 
possessed with as much admiration, as I came to it with 

This treatise was afterwards translated into French, 
Dutch, and Latin, The Latin version was made by 
several hands. One edition was all or most translated 
by Mr. Thomas Gilbert, of Edmund Hall, in Oxford, 
and printed at Amsterdam, 1677, in 8vo ; part of the 
Latin translation is inserted in the second part of the 
fourth volume of Poole's " Synopsis Criticorum." Our 
authors treatise was attacked by Mr. Lambert More- 
house, minister of Prestwood, near Kilmington, who asserts 
that 25 is not the true, but propinque root of 666. Mr. 
Potter wrote a Reply to him. Mr. Morehouse gave a 
copy of this dispute to Dr. Seth Ward, Bishop of Sarum, 
in 1668. Our author while he was very young, had 
a good talent at drawing and painting, and the founder's 
picture in the Hall of Trinity College is of his copying. 
He had likewise an excellent genius for mechanics, 


and made several inventions for raising water, and. 
water-engines : which being communicated to the Royal 
Society, about the time of its first establishment, were 
highly approved of, and he was admitted a member 
of that society. Mr. Wood likewise observes, that 
about 1640, "he entertained the notion of curing 
diseases by transfusion of blood out of one man into 
another ; the hint whereof came into his head from 
Ovid's story of Medea and Jason ; which matter he 
communicating to the Royal Society about the time 
of its first erection, it was entered into their books. 
But this way of transfusion having (as it is said) been 
mentioned long before by Andr. Libavius, our author 
Potter (who I dare say never saw that writer) is not 
to be the first inventor of that notion, nor Dr. Richard 
Lewen, but rather an advancer." He became blind 
before his death, and died at Kilmington, about April, 
1678, and was buried in the chancel of the church 
there. — Gen. Biog. Diet. 


John PottiIr was born at Wakefield, where his father 
was a linen-draper, in 1674. Having been educated at 
the Wakefield Grammar School, he proceeded to Uni- 
versity College, Oxford, where, after taking his bachelor's 
degree, he was employed by the master of his college. 
Dr. Charlett, to compile a work for the use of his 
fellow-students, entitled, Variantes Lectiones et Notae 
ad Plutarchi Librum de audiendis Poetis, item Variantes 
Lectiones, &c. ad Basilii Magni orationem ad juvenes, 
quomodo cum fructu legere possint Groecorum Libros, 
8vo. In 1694, he was chosen fellow of Lincoln College, 
and proceeding M.A. in October in the same year, he 
took pupils, and went into orders. In 1697, he pub- 
lished his beautiful edition of Lycophron's Alexandria, 


fol. ; and the first volume of his Archseologia Greeca, 
or Antiquities of Greece ; in the following year he pub- 
lished the second volume. This valuable work was 
incorporated in Gronovius's Thesaurus. 

It is almost incredible that such works as these could 
have been produced by a young man scarcely past his 
twenty-third year, In 1704, he commenced B.D. ; and 
being about the same time appointed chaplain to Arch- 
bishop Tenison, he removed to Lambeth. The arch- 
bishop also gave him the living of Great Mongeham, in 
Kent, and subsequently other preferments in Bucking- 
hamshire and Oxfordshire. He proceeded D.D., in April, 
1706, and soon after became chaplain in ordinary to 
Queen Anne. In 1707, he published his Discourse of 
Church Government, 8vo. In this his great work he 
asserts the constitution, rights, and government, of the 
Christian Church, chiefly as described by the fathers of 
the three first centuries against Erastian principles ; his 
design being to vindicate the Church of England from 
the charge of those principles. In this view, among 
other ecclesiastical powers distinct from the state, he 
maintains the doctrine of our Church, concerning the 
distinction of the three orders of bishops, priests, and 
deacons, particularly with regard to the superiority of 
the episcopal order above that of presbyters, which he 
endeavours to prove was settled by divine institution; 
that this distinction was also in fact constantly kept 
up to the time of Constantine, and in the next age 
after that, the same distinction, he observes, was con- 
stantly reckoned to be of divine institution, and derived 
from the Apostles down to those times. In pursuing 
this argument he considers the objection, that had been 
raised against it from St. Jerome's conjecture about the 
original of Episcopacy, of which he gives us the following 
account from the writings of that father : — " Having 
observed, says he, that the names of Bishop and Pres- 
byter are used promiscuously in the Scriptures, and that 


the Apostles call themselves preshyters, he concludes, 
that at first there was no distinction between their 
offices, but that apostle, bishop, and presbyter, were 
only different names of the same thing, and that the 
Church was then generally governed by a colle.c^e of 
presbyters, equal in rank and dignity to one another. 
Afterwards divisions being occasioned by this parity 
among presbyters, when every presbyter began to claim 
as his own particular subjects, those whom he had bap- 
tized ; and it was said by the people, I am of Paul, I of 
Apollos, and I of Cephas ; to remedy this evil, it was 
decreed all the world over, that one of the presbyters in 
every Church should be set over the rest, and peculiarly 
called bishop, and that the chief care of the Church 
should be committed to him. Our author thinks it 
strange, that such a conjecture as this should prejudice 
any considering man against the divine institution of 
episcopacy ; and observes, that in this account St. Jerome 
founds the right of episcopal primacy over presbyters, on 
the synonymous use of the names of apostles, bishops, 
and presbyters, which was observed by St. Chrysostom, 
Theodoret, and other ancient fathers, who drew no such 
inference from it, but constantly affirmed, that' there was 
a disparity of order among themx, notwithstanding their 
names were used promiscuously ; and I hope, continues 
the Doctor, it has been fully made out in this and the 
last chapter, that this was no good foundation for that 
opinion. But it is not strange that having raised pres- 
byters to a parity with the apostles, contrary to the most 
plain testimony of the Scriptures, he should equal them 
with bishops, contrary to the sense of the ancient fathers. 
Thus the premises on which the opinion is founded 
being inconclusive, there is no reason to regard what he 
says of the decree passed in all Churches for the raising 
of one presbyter above the rest, which he does not pre- 
tend to support by any testimony, but only conjectures 
that such a decree must have passed, because he had 


before conjectured, that apostles, bishops, and presbyters, 
were all equal at first : but when or by what authority 
was this decree enacted ? If in the second century, as 
some would persuade us, for no better reason than that 
they are unwilling to derive episcopacy from the apostles ; 
it is strange that no presbyter in the world should take 
it ill, that one of his fellow-presbyters should be ad- 
vanced above him, or think it his duty to oppose this 
new and unscriptural model, but that so great a change 
should be introduced into all parts of the world, at a 
time when the Church flourished with men of great 
parts and learning, and yet not the least mention is 
made of it in any of their writings ; but on the con- 
trary, both they and the Christian writers in the next 
age after them, should constantly speak of the primacy 
of bishops over presbyters as no late invention, but of 
ancient right, and derived from the apostles themselves. 
We may as well affirm, contrary to the accounts of all 
historians, that all nations in the world were first re- 
publics, and afterwards, on a certain time, upon the 
consideration of their being obnoxious to factions, by 
general consent became monarchies. But it is needless 
to raise more objections against this notion, since Jerome 
himself plainly refers the making of this decree to the 
apostles. He not only assigns as the occasion of it, the 
adherence of some to Paul, of others to Apollos, and of 
others to Peter, which is reproved in St. Paul's Epistle 
to the Corinthians ; but in his before mentioned Epistle 
to Evagrias, he expressly calls the distinction of bishops, 
priests, and deacons, an apostolical tradition, and taken 
by the apostles from the Old Testament, where Aaron, 
his sons, the priests, and the Levites, correspond to the 
three orders of the Christian Church ; and in his cata- 
logue of ecclesiastical writers, he affirms, that presently 
after our Lord's Ascension, James was ordained Bishop 
of Jerusalem, by the apostles, that Timothy was made 
Bishop of Ephesus, and Titus of Crete, by St. Paul, 



and Polycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, by St. John, and he 
mentions several other bishops, who lived in the next 
age after the apostles. So that, even in St. Jerome's 
opinion, the primacy of bishops over presbyters was 
an apostolical institution. But whatever was St. Jerome's 
sense of this matter, since it has appeared to be ill 
grounded, and contrary both to the universal consent of 
primitive antiquity, and of the Scriptures, we need not 
have the least concern about it. The truth is this ; some 
deacons, who enjoyed wealthier places in the Church than 
many presbyters, claimed several privileges superior to 
them, and were unwilling to be admitted into that order; 
which irregularity was so highly resented by St. Jerome, 
who was a man of passion, and only a presbyter, that to 
raise his own order beyond the competition of deacons, 
he endeavoured to make it equal by its original institu- 
tion with bishops and apostles ; as it is common even 
for the best of men, in the heat of disputation, to run 
into one extreme by avoiding another. Yet even at the 
same time he owns in the forementioned epistle to 
Evagrias, that none but bishops had authority to ordain 
ministers, and in many other places, he approves the 
subordination of presbyters to bishops ; and never once 
allows to mere presbyters the power of ordaining, or 
seems inclined to introduce a parity of ministers into 
the Church." We give at length this instance of our 
author's judgment in using the authority of the fa- 
thers, because his true character as a Churchman 
and a divine, may in a great measure be collected 
from it; in reality, we have therein a fair comment 
explaining his opinion in this point, as declared in 
the preface. "That these (the fathers) especially of the 
three first centuries, are the best interpreters of the 
Scriptures, and may safely be relied on as giving us its 
genuine sense. And, continues he, if any of them 
should be thought to speak sometimes with less caution, 
or to carry their expression higher than might have been 

t>OTTER, JOHN. 147 

wished, as the best men in the heat of disputation, or 
through too much zeal often do, all candid and impartial 
readers, will easily be persuaded to make just allowance 
for it," 

In the following year, he succeeded Dr. Jane, as 
regius professor of divinity, and canon of Christ Church ; 
whereupon he returned to Oxford. This promotion he 
owed to the Duke of Marlborough, through whose influ- 
ence he was in 1715, advanced to the see of Oxford, still 
retaining the divinity chair. Just before he was made 
bishop, he published his splendid and elaborate edition 
of the works of Clemens Alexandrinus, *2 vols. fol. Gr. 
and Lat. In this he has given a new version of the Cohor- 
tatious. When Dr, Hoadley, Bishop of Bangor, made 
public those opinions which brought about him such 
a storm of controversy from his clerical brethren, Dr. 
Potter was one of the combatants, having, in a charge 
to his clergy, thought proper to warn them against some 
of that prelate's opinions respecting religious sincerity. 
Hoadley answered, and Potter rejoined. 

In vindicating himself, Bishop Potter says, " I must 
not forget under this head, that I am again charged 
not only with favouring Popery, but with being a Papist 
in disguise, with ' acknowledging the Protestant prin- 
ciples for decency's sake, but stedfastly adhering to the 
Popish' (p. 275), and all this, as it seems, for having 
referred you to the practice and writers of the primi- 
tive times, and of the next ages after the apostles ; 
whereby I am represented to understand the reign of 
Constantino, which happened, as he saith (pp. 270 — 
274), almost three hundred years after. Now I am 
not in the least apprehensive of my being suspected 
as a favourer of Popery by any man, who knows the 
true meaning of Popery; but sure it is such a compli- 
ment to the Popish religion, as no Protestant would 
have made, who understands his own principles, to 
date its rise from the time of Constautine; the claim 


of infallibility, and of the papal supremacy, as now 
exercised, the doctrine of transubstantiation, invoca- 
tion of saints, image worship, prayers in an unknown 
tongue, forbidding laymen to read the Scriptures, to 
say nothing of other peculiar tenets of the Church of 
Rome, having never been heard of during the reign 
of this great emperor, or for a long time after ; as a 
very little insight into the Popish Controversies, or 
Ecclesiastical Historians, would have informed this 
writer. It would have been much more to his pur- 
pose, and equally consistent with truth and justice, 
to have told his readers that, by the next age after 
the apostles, I meant the times immediately preceding 
the Reformation : but then one opportunity would have 
been lost of declaiming against the times wherein the 
Nicene Creed was composed, and Arianism condemned. 
As to the primitive writers, I am not ashamed, or 
afraid to repeat, that the best method of interpreting 
Scripture seems to me to be the having recourse to 
the writers who lived nearest the time wherein the 
Scriptures were first published, that is, to the next 
ages after the apostles ; and that a diligent inquiry 
into the faith and practice of the Church in the same 
ages, would be the most effectual way, next after the 
study of the Scriptures themselves, to prevent inno- 
vations in doctrine; and, lastly, that this hath been 
practised with great success by some of our best advo- 
cates for the Protestant cause, as Bishop Jewel, for 
example, Archbishop Laud, Archbishop Ussher, Bishop 
Cosins, Bishop Stillingfleet, Dr. Barrow, Bishop Bull, 
with many others at home and abroad. To which it 
will be replied, that ' our best writers, at least, in their 
controversies with the Papists, are so far from appealing 
to the judgment of the Church in the next centuries 
after the apostles, in any such sense as the bishop is 
arguing for against his adversaries; that the very best 
of them, Mr. Chillingworth, has declared upon ths 


most mature consideration, how uncertain generally, 
how self-contradictory sometimes, how insufficient always, 
he esteemed this judgment to be. He had seen fathers 
against fathers, councils against councils, the consent 
of one age against the consent of another ; the same 
fathers contradicting themselves, and the like, and he 
found no rest but in the Protestant Rule of Faith. 
He was willing to yield to every thing as truth, Qiiod 
semper, uhiqiie et ah omnibus; because he well judged 
that nothing could be conceived to be embraced as 
truth at the very beginning, and so continue in all places 
and at all times, but what was delivered at the begin- 
ning. But he saw, with respect to some controverted 
points, how early the difference of sentiment was.' 
(pp. 265, 266.) In answer to this, I shall not take 
upon me to determine what rank Mr. Chillingworth 
ought to bear among the Protestant writers ; it being 
sufficient for my purpose, that many others, and those 
of chief note for learning and judgment, in their con- 
troversies with the Papists and others, have appealed, 
and in this manner I have recommended, to the primi- 
tive writers, as every one may soon learn who will 
take the pains to look into their books. In the next 
place, it appears from this very passage of Mr. Chil- 
lingworth, as here represented, that this design was 
to prevent appealing to fathers and councils as a rule 
of faith ; agreeably whereunto I have all along declared, 
that, in my opinion, the Scripture is the only Rule 
of Faith, and have no farther recommended the study 
of the primitive writers, than as the best method of 
discovering the true sense of Scripture. In the third 
place, here is nothing expressly said by Mr. Chilling- 
worth of the most primitive writers or councils, or 
of any who lived in the next ages after the Apostles ; 
but he may very well be understood, notwithstanding 
any thing here produced, of those latter ages, wherein 
both fathers and councils degenerated from the faitii 


and doctrine of those who went before them ; which 
is the more likely, because mention here follows of 
the Article which divided the Greeks from the Roman 
communion ; this having not been openly disputed 
before the seventh century. Fourthly, he is intro- 
duced as speaking in express terms of controverted 
points, but saying nothing of any principal point of 
faith, nothing of any Article which was originally in 
the Nicene Creed. On the contrary it may be ob- 
served, in the last place, that he plainly speaks of 
doctrines received by the Church in all places and at 
all times, even from the very beginning, which for that 
very reason, he presumed not to reject. Now it cannot 
possibly be known what these are, without having 
recourse to the writers of the primitive ages. So that, 
upon the whole, the method I have recommended is 
so far from being contradicted, that it is rather enforced 
by what this writer hath cited from Mr. Chillingworth. 
—p. 358." 

Some time after this, he became, curiously enough, 
a favourite with Queen Caroline, then Princess of 
Wales ; and, upon the accession of George IT., preached 
the coronation sermon, Oct. 11th, 1727, which was 
afterwards printed by his majesty's express commands, 
and is inserted among the bishop's theological works. 
It was generally supposed that the chief direction of 
public affairs, with regard to the Church, was designed 
to be committed to his care ; but as he saw that this 
must involve him in the politics of the times, he de- 
clined the proposal, and returned to his bishopric, 
until the death of Dr. Wake, in January, 1737, when 
he was appointed his successor in the archbishopric 
of Canterbury. This high office he filled during the 
space of ten years with great reputation, and towards 
the close of that period fell into a lingering disorder, 
which put a period to his life October 10th, 1747, in 
the seventy-fourth year of his age. He was buried at 

POWELL. 151 

The archbishop's works were published in 1753, in 
3 vols. 8vo, under the title of " Theological Works of 
Dr. John Potter, &c., containing his Sermons, Charges, 
Discourse of Church-government, and Divinity Lec- 
tures." He had himself prepared these for the press ; 
his divinity lectures form a continued treatise on the 
authority and inspiration of the Scriptures. Some 
letters of his, relative to St. Luke's Gospel, &c., are 
printed in Atterbury's Correspondence. — Potters Works. 
Wood. Nichol. Biog. Brit. 


Fkancis Aime Pouget was born at Montpellier, in 1666, 
was educated at Paris, and became Vicar of St. Koch, in 
that city. In 1696, he entered the Congregation of the 
Priests of the Oratory. He died in 1723. His chief 
work is entitled, Instructions in the Form of a Cate- 
chism drawn up by order of M. Joachim Colbut, Bishop 
of Montpellier. It is said to be in high repute among 
the Papists. — Moreri. 


William Samuel Powell was born at Colchester, in 
1717, and was admitted at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, in the year 1734, of which college he became 
a fellow in 1740. In 1741, he entered into the family of 
Lord Viscount Townshend, as private tutor to his second 
son Charles, who was afterwards chancellor of the ex- 
chequer. Towards the end of the same year he was 
ordained deacon and priest by Dr. Gooch, then Bishop 
of Norwich ; and was instituted by him to the Rectory 
of Colkirk, in Norfolk, on Lord Townshend's presenta- 
tion. He returned to his college the year after; took 

153 POWELL. 

the degree of A.M. ; and began to read lectures, as 
assistant to Mr. Wrigley and Mr. Tunstall : but in 1744, 
he became principal tutor himself, and engaged his 
eminent friend, Dr. Thomas Balguj, as an assistant lec- 
turer. Mr. Powell is considered to have discharged the 
duties of his tutorial office, in a very able and satisfac- 
tory manner, as regards both the morals and the studies 
of the young men committed to his care. The lectures, 
which he drew up in the four branches of natural philo- 
sophy, continued to be the text-book at St. John's College, 
until they were superseded by the more elaborate pub- 
lications of Dr. Wood, and his coadjutor, Professor 

In 1749, Mr. Powell proceeded to the degree of B.D. ; 
and in 1753, he resigned the Rectory of Colkirk, that 
it might be consolidated with Stibbard, another of Lord 
Townshend's livings ; and was again instituted the next 
day. At the commencement in 1757, he was created 
doctor of divinity; on which occasion, he preached his 
celebrated sermon, in defence of the subscriptions re- 
quired by our Church. 

*'At this time," says the worthy Mr. Cole, "things 
were only brewing;" that is, projects were set on foot, 
not only to dissolve the alliance between Church and 
State, under the specious pretext that all disqualifi- 
cations on account of religious scruples are to be 
accounted as pains and penalties ; but also to weaken 
the allegiance due to the Church from its own ministers, 
by representing her requisition of assent and subscrip- 
tion to any human interpretations of Scripture, as con- 
trary to the spirit of Protestantism and of Christian 
liberty. Dr. Powell, then a leading character in the 
university, was the first of those who placed themselves 
in the gap against those innovations. Subscription to 
the thirty-nine articles, was, at this period, required from 
undergraduates, before they were admitted to their first 
degree ; a practice, which had continued from the time 

POWELL. 153 

of James L, and which began to be considered, not only 
as encroaching on the province and privileges of litera- 
ture, but as tending to render youth at that age either 
reckless or hypocritical. A strong spirit of dissatis- 
faction with this demand now began to manifest itself 
amongst the undergraduates themselves ; many of whom 
remonstrated against it, whilst others refused subscrip- 
tion altogether, and forfeited the advantages to which 
their previous residence in the university had entitled 
them. Thus agitated as their minds were, and fomented 
as their disaffection was by some who had ulterior objects 
in view, Dr. Powell's sermon was directed principally to 
conciliate them, to remove difficulties out of their path, 
and secure their adherence to established forms and 

In 1760, Dr. Powell entered anonymously into a con- 
troversy, which we are inclined to think detracted some- 
what from his character. The celebrated Edward Waring, 
a very young man, and only bachelor of arts, being at this 
time candidate for the Lucasian professorship, published 
the first chapter of Miscellanea Analytica, in order that 
the electors, and the university at large, might judge of 
the nature of his pursuits, and his qualifications for the 
high office which he solicited. This publication was 
immediately attacked by some anonymous Observations ; 
the author of which did not confine himself to what he 
thought mathematical errors, but indulged in severe 
reflections on the age, the inexperience, and the style 
of the analyst. These animadversions, however, not 
only failed in their object of stopping Waring's election, 
but produced a reply from the new professor, in which 
he vindicated his own position, and retorted the charge 
of error on his adversary ; and this again was followed 
by a " Defence of the Observations :" the author of them 
however having become well known, Waring sent forth a 
Letter to Dr. Powell, which closed the controversy ; and 
in which, whilst he animadverted with considerable 

154 POWELL. 

severity on his antagonist, he did not forget his rank 
and station. 

The motive generally ascribed to Dr. Powell for this 
interference, was a desire to serve the cause of his friend 
Mr. Ludlam, of St. John's, who aspired to fill the vacant 
chair of Newton : and certainly if he felt himself fully 
competent to decide on the deep subjects of Waring's 
speculations, this was a good excuse for his attempting 
it : but if he was deficient in the necessary skill and 
science ; if, as was the case, he proved impar congressus 
Achillei, and was defeated in the contest, — candour re- 
quired him to confess his fault, and make all due 
reparation to his antagonist. 

In 1765, he was elected Master of his College, and 
was chosen vice-chancellor of the university in November 
following. In 1766, he obtained the Archdeaconry of 
Colchester. In 1768, he was instituted to the living of 
Freshwater, in the lovely Isle of Wight. 

In the meantime the course of events brought Df. 
Powell more conspicuously before the public eye. His 
celebrated commencement sermon, having been much 
read, and much criticised, had brought out several 
answers. By some, even of his own party, it was thought 
to have betrayed the cause which it undertook to support ; 
its principal aim indeed being to conciliate inexperienced 
minds and tender consciences, rather than to defend the 
practice of subscriptions on high Church principles, this 
untenable ground was eagerly seized on by that faction, 
which opposed all terms of subscription whatever, and 
demanded not only unlimited toleration, but unlimited 
license. The doctor, having asserted that " young peo- 
ple may give a general assent to the articles, on the 
authority of others, and thus leave room for improve- 
ments in theology;" — this was taken to imply, that such 
subscribers are left at liberty to retract their assent, if, 
in the progress of their studies, they should find what 
they assented to inconsistent with their subsequent dis- 

POWELL. 155 

coveries and theological acquirements. Then came the 
questions : — How will you limit the period of submission 
and of inquiry ? — and will not many of maturer years 
avail themselves of this uncertainty, and so readily 
subscribe to articles, which have been represented as 
" having rules of interpretation peculiar to themselves," 
whilst the subscription itself has been stated to mean 
little more than " an acknowledgment that the sub- 
scriber is a member of the Church of England?" Nay, 
it was even asserted, and that by a dignitary of the 
Church itself, that '* this expedient had no doubt been 
most thankfully accepted by a great many subscribers 
within the last ten years ; and the rather, as in all that 
time the Church had not declared against it." Hence 
it was argued, that, if subscription to the articles was 
intended to be a test of faith and doctrine, this benefit 
never could be obtained from it, by reason of the 
latitude allowed by its advocates and taken by its oppo- 
nents : therefore it would be the wisest course to do 
away altogether with a test, which, whilst it prohibited 
many worthy persons from entering into the service of 
the Church, let in those that were less scrupulous and 
less conscientious. 

These insinuations and attacks could not fail to stir 
up many among the more sturdy champions of the 
Church. One of the first that buckled on his armour 
was Dr. Rutherforth, who skirmished with the author 
of the Confessional, as it is observed, '* in the old 
posture prescribed by the ancient system of Church 
authority." Among others that distinguished themselves 
in the same cause, were Dr. Randolph, Dr. Halifax, 
and Dr. Balguy ; though this latter gentleman appeared 
rather late in the field. 

The principal writers on the other side of the ques- 
tion were Archdeacon Blackburne, author of the Con- 
fessional, Dr. Dawson, Dr. Priestley, with the celebrated 
Pr. Jebb and his wife. 

156 POWELL. 

Great efforts were now making, throughout the king- 
dom, by the anti-subscription party: petitions were 
multiplied on the subject, and the minds of all ranks 
excited: until, at length, a regular society was estab- 
lished at the Feathers Tavern, in London, with Arch- 
deacon Blackburne at its head; the avowed purpose 
of which was to get up a petition to parliament, for 
setting aside altogether the test of subscription, and 
admitting every one into the service and preferments 
of the Church, who should acknowledge the truth of 
the Old and New Testament. They were also for 
abolishing subscriptions in the university ; " and so 
strong was the infatuation," says Mr. Cole, " that 
several members of the university were led astray ; and 
I am sorry to record it, that one whole college, both 
head and fellows, subscribed this petition." The under- 
graduates themselves were also stirred up to refuse 
subscription, and to remonstrate with their superiors. 
In June, 1769, they presented a petition to the heads 
for an alteration of their scholastic dress, and it was 
granted: for it went no farther than to change the 
figure of their caps from round to square. It seems 
probable, however, that this was only put forth as a 
feeler; for in January, 1772, another petition was 
offered, which went the length of demanding a release 
from subscription, unless (as it was added with a show 
of modesty) they were instructed beforehand in the 
articles which they were required to subscribe. But 
this being considered as subversive of discipline, and 
laying a foundation for sedition, was rejected. 

The master of St. John's, however, still persevering 
in his design of conciliation, called together his own 
students, and laid before them the state of the case 
relating to their subscription ; with which they all 
seemed to be thoroughly satisfied. " He was a man," 
says Mr. Cole, " of too open a nature to endeavour by 
artifice to circumvent their judgment; and as it was 


the fashion, even to leave boys to judge for themselves, 
he fairly stated the case to them, and left it with 
them." Hoping also to do further service amongst 
the main body of undergraduates, who had been strongly 
instigated to refuse subscription for their first degree, 
he rejoublished his commencement sermon, which soon 
became the signal for much and violent abuse. In a 
letter, signed Camillus, and published in the London 
Chronicle, January 25th, 17T2, he was complimented 
on having "originated an idea by which the devil 
himself might subscribe," &c.; and the republication 
is styled, " an effort to despoil the unsuspecting sim- 
plicity of youth of that native honour and integrity, 
which will hereafter be but ill exchanged for a superior 
knowledge of the world." 

Dr. Powell made no reply to his accusers : but the 
question was taken up by his friend. Dr. Balguy, arch- 
deacon of Winchester ; who, in the fifth of his admi- 
rable charges, seems to have placed the question on 
its most tenable grounds ; making it also manifest to 
his opponents, that as much integrity and candour may 
be exercised in supporting established institutions, as 
in attacking and depreciating them. 

The hopes of the faction in the metropolis were at 
this time much elated ; and they fully expected, amidst 
the alarm of republican tumults, and the seditious cries 
of "Wilkes and Liberty," to carry their favourite mea- 
sure : but the parliament saw through the scheme laid 
for the destruction of our ecclesiastical establishment 
by dissenters of all descriptions ; nor was it moved by 
any remonstrances from the discontented of the Church 
itself, who had joined themselves to its adversaries: 
it rejected therefore the petition by a very large ma- 

Dr. Powell was a vehement opposer of Mr. Jebb's 
plan of University Reform : but this is a controversy 
too long to enter upon here. Although low in his 


158 POYNET. 

Church principles, he was, as such persons often are, 
a great stickler for legal rights and constituted authority. 
He died in 1775. His published works, edited by Dr. 
Balguy, contain three discourses preached before the 
university ; thirteen preached in the college chapel ; 
one on public virtue ; three charges to the clergy of the 
archdeaconry of Colchester ; and his Disputation on 
taking his doctor's degree. — Balguy. Hughes. 


John Poynet, or Ponet, was, according to Strype, a 
Kentish man, and of Queen's College, Cambridge. He 
was born about the year 1516. He was distinguished 
in the University as a mathematician, and as one skilled 
in Patristic theology. He was a decided advocate for 
the Reformation of the Church, and was appointed 
his chaplain by Archbishop Cranmer. He translated 
Ochin's Dialogues against the pope's supremacy, and 
was so highly considered that in his thirty-third year 
he was consecrated Bishop of Rochester. 

The consecration took place on the 29th of June, 
1550, and is thus described by Strype: "The bishop 
having on his mitre and cope, usual in such cases, 
went into his chapel, handsomely and decently a.dorned, 
to celebrate the Lord's Supper according to the cus- 
tom, and by prescript of the book entitled The Book 
of Common-Service. Before the people there assem- 
bled, the holy suffrages first began, and were publicly 
recited, and the Epistle and Gospel read in the vulgar 
tongue ; Nicholas, ^ Bishop of London, and Arthur, 
Bishop of Bangor, assisting ; and, having their sur- 
plices and copes on, and their pastoral staves in their 
hands, led Dr. John Poynet, endued with the like 
habits, in the middle of them, unto the most reverend 
fiather, and presented him unto him, sitting in a de- 

POYNET. 159 

cent chair; and used these words, 'Most reverend 
father in God, we present unto you this godly and well- 
learned man to be consecrated bishop.' The bishop 
elect forthwith produced the king's letters patents before 
the archbishop : which, by command of the said arch- 
bishop, being read by Dr. Glyn, the said Poynet took 
the oath of renouncing the Bishop of Rome, and then 
the oath of canonical obedience to the archbishop. 
These things being thus dispatched, the archbishop 
exhorted the people to prayer and supplication to the 
Most High, according to the order prescribed in the 
Book of Ordination, set forth in the month of March, 
1549. According to which order he was elected and 
consecrated, and endued with the episcopal ornaments, 
the Bishop of London first having read the third chap- 
ter of the First Epistle of Paul to Timothy, in the man- 
ner of a sermon. These things being done, and the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper celebrated upon a 
table covered with a white linen cloth, by the arch- 
bishop and the two assisting bishops, the same arch- 
bishop decreed to write to the Archdeacon of Canter- 
bury for the investiture, installation, and inthroniza- 
tion of the said Bishop of Ptochester, as it w^as customary. 
Present, Anthony Huse, principal Register of the arch' 
bishop; Peter Lilly, John Lewis, John Incent, public 
notaries; and many others, as well clerks as laics." 
In 1551, he was translated to the See of Winchester, 
after the deprivation of Gardiner. He was a frequent 
preacher, and wrote several treatises in defence of the 
Reformation ; but his most remarkable performance 
was what is commonly called King Edward's Cate- 
chism, which appeared in 1513, in two editions, the 
one Latin, the other English, with the royal privilege. 
From this Catechism Nowell took much in forming 
his own. When Queen Mary came to the crown, Poy- 
net, with many others, retired to Strasburgh, where 
he died on the 11th of April, 1556, before he had 


completed his fortieth year. He also wrote : — A Tra- 
gedy, or Dialogue of the unjust usurped Primacy of the 
Bishop of Ptome, translated from Bernard Ochinus ; 
A Notable Sermon concerning the Plight Use of the 
Lord's Supper, &c., preached before the King at West- 
minster, 1550; Dialecticon Viri boni et literati de 
Veritate, Natura, atque Substantia Corporis et San- 
guinis Christi in Eucharistia ; in this, Bayle says, 
he endeavoured to reconcile the Lutherans and Zuing- 
lians ; A Short Treatise of Politic Power, and of 
the True Obedience which Subjects owe to Kings and 
other Civil Governors, with an Exhortation to all 
true natural English men, compiled by D. I. P. B. 
R, V. v., i.e. Dr. John Poynet, Bishop of Rochester 
and Winchester ; and, A Defence for Marriage of Priests. 
— Godwin. Strijpe. 


The following is the account given of Preston, by 
Fuller: — "He was born at Heyford, in Northampton- 
shire; bred in Queen's College, in Cambridge, whose 
life (interwoven much with church and state matters) is 
so well written by his pupil, Master Thomas Ball, that 
all additions thereunto may seem ' carrying of coals 
to Newcastle.' However, seeing he who carrieth char- 
coal (a different kind from the native coal of that place) 
may meet with a chapman there, on the same confidence 
a word or two of this doctor. 

" Before he commenced Master of Arts, he was so far 
from eminency, as but a little above contempt. Thus 
the most generous wines are the most muddy before they 
are fine. Soon after, his skill in philosophy rendered 
him to the general respect of the university. 

" He was the greatest pupil-monger in England in 
man's memory, having sixteen fellow- commoners (most 


heirs to fair estates) admitted in one year in Queen's 
College, and provided convenient accommodations for 
them. As WilHam the popular Earl of Nassau was 
said to have won a subject from the King of Spain, to 
his own party, every time he put off his hat ; so was 
it commonly said in the college, that every time when 
Master Preston plucked off his hat to Doctor Davenant 
the college master, he gained a chamber or study for one 
of his pupils ; amongst whom one Chambers a Londoner 
(who died very young,) was very eminent for his learning. 
Being chosen Master of Emanuel College, he removed 
thither with most of his pupils ; and I remember when 
it was much admired where all these should find 
lodgings in that college, which was so full already, 
'Oh!' said one, 'Master Preston will carry Chambers 
along with him.' 

" The party called Puritan then being most active in 
Parliament, and Doctor Preston most powerful with 
them, the duke rather used than loved him, to work 
that party to his compliance. Some thought the doctor 
was unwilling to do it ; and no wonder he effected not, 
what he affected not. Others thought he was unable, 
that party being so diffusive, and then, in their designs 
(as since in their practices) divided. However, whilst 
any hope, none but Doctor Preston with the duke, set by 
and extolled, and afterwards, set by and neglected, when 
found useless to the intended purpose. In a word, my 
worthy friend fitly calls him the court-comet, blazing for 
a time, and fading soon afterwards. 

" He was a perfect politician, and used (lapwing-like) to 
flutter most on that place which was furthest from his 
eggs ; exact at the concealing of his intentions, with that 
simulation, which some make to lie in the marches of 
things lawful and unlawful. He had perfect command 
of his passion ; with the Caspian Sea never ebbing nor 
flowing ; and would not alter his composed pace for all 
the whipping which satrical wits bestowed upon him. 
p 3 

162 PRICE. 

He never had wife, or cure of souls ; and leaving a 
plentiful, no invidious estate, died anno Domini 1628, 
July 20." 


Richard Price was born at Langeinor, in Glamorgan- 
sliire, in 1723. He received his education first at Tal- 
garth, in his native country, and next at an academy 
in London. After residing some years with a gentleman 
at Stoke-Newington, he became morning-preacher at the 
Gravel-pit meeting, Hackney. In 1769, the University 
of Glasgow conferred on him the degree of doctor in 
divinity; and the same year he published his " Treatise 
on Reversionary Payments," which was followed, in 1772, 
by " Observations on the National Debt." During the 
American war, he printed two pamphlets against that 
measure, one entitled " Observations on Civil Liberty" ; 
and the other, "Observations on Civil Government"; for 
which the corporation in London voted him thanks, and 
a gold box. In 1778, he had a friendly controversy with 
Dr. Priestley, on materialism and necessity. On the 
termination of the war, Mr. Pitt consulted Dr. Price 
respecting the best mode of liquidating the national 
debt, the result of which it is said, was the adoption of 
the sinking fund. When the French Revolution broke 
out, the doctor distinguished himself by a sermon, in 
which he hailed that event as the commencement 
of a glorious era. This drew upon the preacher some 
strong animadversions from Mr. Burke in his celebrated 
Reflections. Dr. Price died March 19th, 1791. As a 
calculator he was pre-eminent; and the Society for 
Equitable Assurances was greatly indebted to him for 
his services. He was also an active member of the 
Royal Society; and very amiable in private life. His 
other work's are : — Review of the Questions and Diffi- 
culties iu Morals ; Dissertations on Prayer, Providence, 


Miracles, and a Future State ; Essay on the Population 
of England; State of the Public Debts and Finances; 
On the Importance of the American Ptcvolution ; and a 
Volume of Sermons. — Watkins Biog. Diet. 


Jqhn Peideaux was born in 1578, at Stowford, in the 
Parish of Harford, near Ivy Bridge, in Devonshire. 
The fallowing is the account given of him by Fuller. 
" He was bred scholar, fellow, and rector of Exeter 
College, in Oxford, Canon of Christ-Church, and above 
thirty years king's professor in that university. An 
excellent linguist; but so that he would make words 
wait on his matter, chiefly aiming at expressiveness 
therein ; he had a becoming festivity, which was Aris- 
totle's, not St. Paul's, EvrpaTreXta. 

"Admirable his memory, retaining whatever he had 
read. The Welsh have a proverb (in my mind some- 
what uncharitable) ' He that hath a good memory, 
giveth few alms ;' because he keepeth in mind what 
and to whom he had given before. But this doctor 
crossed this proverb, with his constant charity to all 
in want. 

" His learning w^as admired by foreigners, Sextinus 
Amma, Pdvet, &c. He was not vindictive in the least 
degree ; one intimate with him having assured me, that 
he would forgive the greatest injury, upon the least 
show of the party's sorrow, and restore him to the 
degree of his form&r favour; and though politicians 
will thence collect him no prudent man, divines will 
conclude him a good Christian. 

" Episcopacy in England being grievously wounded by 
malevolent persons. King Charles the First conceived 
that the best wine and oil that could be poured into 
these wounds was, to select persons of known learning 


and unblameable lives, to supply the vacant bishoprics ; 
amongst whom Dr. Prideaux was made Bishop of Wor* 

But it was all in vain. He adhered to the king's 
cause, and having excommunicated all who took up 
arms against his majesty in the diocese of Worcester, 
he was plundered, and was obliged at last to sell his 
library. Dr. Gauden said of him that he had become 
literally a Helluo Librorum, being obhged to turn his 
books into bread for his children. But he never lost 
his good temper. A friend coming to see him, and 
saluting him in the common form of " How doth your 
lordship do?" "Never better in my life," said he, 
" only I have too great a stomach ; for I have eaten 
that little plate which the sequestrators left me ; I have 
eaten a great library of excellent books ; I have eaten 
a great deal of linen, much of my brass, some of my 
pewter, and now I am come to eat iron, and what 
will come next I know not." He died in the year 1650, 
at the age of seventy-two, leaving to his children no 
legacy but "pious poverty, God's blessing, and a 
fathers prayers," as appears from his last will and 
testament. His learning was very extensive, his me- 
mory prodigious, and he was reputed the best disputant 
in his time in the university. It is recorded to his 
honour that he was at the same time " an humble man, 
of plain and downright behaviour," exemplary in his 
charity, affable in conversation, and never desirous of 
concealing his lowly origin. He was often heard to say, 
" If I could have been clerk of Ugborow, I had never 
been Bishop of Worcester ;" and so far from being 
ashamed of his original poverty, he kept in the same 
wardrobe with his rochet, the leather breeches which 
he wore when he came to Oxford, as a memorial of it. 

He was the author of: — Tabulae ad Grammaticam 
Graecam introductoriae, 1608, 4to, with which were 
printed, Tyrocinium ad Syllogismum contexendum, and 


Heptades Logicae, sive monita ad ampliores Tractatus 
introductoria ; Lectiones decern de totidem Religionis 
Capitibus, &c., 1625, 4to ; Fasciculus controversiarum 
theologicamm, &c., 1649, 4to ; Theologise Scholasticse 
Syntagma Mnemonicum, printed in 1651, 4to ; Conci- 
liorum Synopsis, printed in 1661, 4to ; Manuductio 
ad Theologiam Polemicam, printed in 1657, 8vo ; Hy 
pomnemata Logica, Rhetorica, Physica, Metaphysica 
&c., 8vo; Twenty Sermons, 1636, 4to ; Nine Sermons 
on several occasions, 1641, 4to ; Histories of Succes 
sions in States, Countries, or Families, printed in 1653 
Euchologia, or, the Doctrines of Practical Praying, &c. 
printed in 1655, 8vo; The Doctrine of Conscience 
framed according to the Form in the Common Prayer, 
&c., printed in 1656, 8vo ; Sacred Eloquence, or, the 
Art of Rhetoric, as it is laid down in Scripture, printed 
in 1656, 8vo; and various other w^orks in Latin and 
English, the titles of which are inserted in Wood's 
Athen. Oivon. — Fuller. Wood. Walker. 


The great work of Dean Prideaux, the Connection of 
the History of the Old and New Testaments, is still a 
standard work among us, and gives an interest to his 
name. A life was published of him in 1748, which 
contains nothing of any general interest, being merely 
the narrative of a respectable and learned man, who did 
his duty respectably in the various places to which he 
was called, and who rather exaggerated his influence 
and importance in his own mind. He was born at 
Padstow, in Cornwall, in 1648, and was educated at 
Westminster, and Christ Church. At Christ Church he 
Avas a diligent and successful student, as is proved by 
the fact that he obtained the patronage of Fell. Dr. 
Fell employed him in supplying notes to an edition of 


Lucius Florus, and afterwards in completing the notes 
and explanations on the Arundel Marbles, which had 
been published in the first instance by Selden. On the 
latter work he was employed for two years. In 1676, 
he published his Marmora Oxoniensia ex Arundellianis, 
Seldenianis, aliisque constata, cum perpetuo Commen- 
tario, fol. This book, published when he was only 
twenty-six years of age, gave him a high reputation in 
the university, and was well received by the learned 
world, particularly in Germany, France, and Italy. So 
great was the demand for it, that it soon became scarce, 
and was only to be obtained at an advanced price. 
Prideaux, however, is said to have entertained little 
value for the work himself, owing to its having been 
drawn up in too great haste, and to the number of 
typographical errors with which it abounds, through the 
negligence of the corrector of the University press. A 
more correct edition was published under the inspection 
of Michael Maittaire, in 1732, fol. Having, by order, 
presented one of the copies of the Marmora to the lord- 
chancellor Finch, this introduced him to his lordship's 
patronage, who soon after placed one of his sons under 
him, as tutor at Christ Church ; and in 1679, presented 
him to the Rectory of St. Clement's, in the suburb of 
Oxford, where he officiated for several years. The same 
year he published Two Tracts of Maimonides in Hebrew, 
with a Latin translation and notes, under the title, De 
Jure Pauperis et Peregrin! apud Judeos. This he did 
in consequence of having been appointed Dr. Busby's 
Hebrew lecturer in Christ Church, and with a view to 
teach students the rabbinical dialect, and to read it 
without points. In 1681, the lord-chancellor Finch, 
then Earl of Nottingham, presented him to a prebend 
in the Cathedral of Norwich. In November, 1682, he 
was admitted to the degree of bachelor in divinity, and 
on the death of Lord Nottingham, found another patron 
in his successor, Sir Francis North ; who, in February 


of the following year, gave hira the Rectory of Bladen, 
with Woodstock Chapelry, in Oxfordshire. He pro- 
ceeded D.D. in 1686, and having exchanged his living 
of Bladen for that of Sahara, in Norfolk, he went to 
settle upon his prebend in Norwich. Here he became 
engaged in some severe contests with the Roman 
Catholics, the result of which was the publication of 
his work, The Validity of the Orders of the Church 
of England made out. He also took an active part in 
resisting the arbitrary proceedings of James II., which 
affected the interests of the Established Church. In 
1688, he was collated to the Archdeaconry of Suffolk, 
and not without due consideration, took the oaths of 
allegiance to William and Mary, and acted up to them 
faithfully; but he always looked upon the nonjurors 
as honest men, and treated them with kindness and 
respect. In 1694, he resigned his Hving at Saham ; 
and in 1696, he was instituted to the Vicarage of 
Trowse, near Norwich. He published, in 1687, his 
Life of Mahomet. In 1702, he was made Dean of 
Norwich ; and in 1707, he published Directions to 
Churchwardens ; a w^ork which has often been reprinted. 
The best edition is that corrected and improved by Tyr- 
whitt, London, 1833. In 1710, he published his work 
upon Tythes, 8vo ; and in the same year, he resigned 
the Vicarage of Trowse. He was during the latter part 
of his life greatly afflicted with the stone, which entirely 
disqualified him for public duties. But he still per- 
sued his private studies, and at length, in 1715, he 
brought out the first part of his last and greatest work, 
The Connection of the History of the Old and New 
Testament, and the second part in 1717, fol. His 
strength had been long declining, and he died November 
1st, 1724, in his seventy-seventh year, and was buried 
in Norwich Cathedral. About three days before his 
death he presented his collection of Oriental books, more 
than 300 in number, to the hbrary of Clare Hall, Cam- 


bridge. Several posthumous Tracts and Letters, with' 
a Life of Dr. Prideaux, the author of which is not named, 
were published in 1748, 8vo. — Life above refered to. 


Joseph Priestley is chiefly known in the theological 
world for the controversy in which he was engaged 
with Bishop Horsley ; and for an account of which 
the reader is referred to the Biography of that prelate, 
who exposed the ignorance and want of scholarship, 
not less than the bad principles of his opponent. 
The following notice is taken from Watkins's Univer- 
sal Biographical Dictionary : — 

" Priestley was born at Fieldhead, in Yorkshire, 
March 18th, 1733. He was educated in an academy ^ 
at Daventry, after which he became minister to a con- 
gregation at Needham Market, in Suffolk ; from whence 
he removed to Nantwich, in Cheshire, and next to 
Warrington, where the dissenters had formed a semi- 
nary, on a plan of liberal sentiment. While tutor 
in this institution, he published the History of Elec- 
tricity, which procured his election into the Eoyal 
Society, and the degree of doctor of laws from Edin- 
burgh. Soon after this he left Warrington, and went 
to Leeds, where he made those important discoveries 
with regard to the properties of fixed air, for which 
he obtained the Copley medal from the Royal Society 
in 1772. In 1776, he communicated to the same 
learned body his observations on respiration, being the 
first who experimentally ascertained that the commoni 
inspired air becomes both lessened and injured, by the 
action of the blood, as it passes through the lungs. 
After this he made some curious observations on the 
food of plants, and the production of the various gases. 
These pursuits procured him the appointment of com^ 


panion to the Earl of Shelburne, with whom he resided 
seven years, and then retired on a pension to Birming- 
ham, where he devoted more attention to polemics than 
philosophy. He had, indeed, previously published some 
works in defence of materialism and necessity ; but now 
he made more direct attacks upon the common faith of 
Christians. In 1783, came out his History of the Cor- 
ruptions of Christianity; which, though a compilation 
from modern books, had an imposing appearance of 
learned research. On this account, Dr. Horsley thought 
it necessary to expose the sources from whence the work 
was drawn, and to show the fallacy of its positions. He 
next engaged warmly in the proceedings for a repeal 
of the corporation and test acts. But it was the French 
revolution that afforded him the widest field ; and he 
did not fail to display his zeal on that occasion. This, 
however, gave much offence to the people of Birming- 
ham, among whom party-spirit ran very high, and was 
excited, beyond doubt, by the writings of Dr. Priestley. 
At length, an entertainment, on the 14th of July, 1791, 
to celebrate the destruction of the Bastile, furnished- 
the pretext for a riot, in which many houses were de- 
stroyed, and that of the doctor's among the rest. After 
this he removed to Hackney, where he succeeded Dr. 
Price; but in 1794, he went to America, and died there, 
February 6th, 1804. 


PRTSCILLIAN, a heretic of the fourth century, was by 
birth a Spaniard. The heresy by which his name has been 
rendered infamous is a modification of Manicheism. 
It was introduced into Spain by Marcus, a magician of 
Memphis, but owed its success to the patronage of Pris- 
cillian, who was a man of large fortune and gifted with 
great talent and eloquence. Their followers were called 



Priscillianists. Under his patronage, the new doctrines 
were rapidlj^ extended, and infected even some amongst 
the bishops, as Instantius and Salvianus. Although 
condemned by a council at Saragossa, these bishops 
were not deterred, and presumed so far as to con- 
stitute PrisciUian Bishop of Avila. The Emperor 
Gratian expelled them from Spain, and they immediately 
went to Milan and to Ptome, to gain to their interests 
the pontiff Damasus and the imperial court. They 
succeeded by their arts in the latter attempt. Their 
chief opponent, Ithiacus Bishop of Ossonoba, was obliged 
to leave Spain, but in a short time, laid his complaint 
before the new emperor, Maximus, who, after the death 
of Gratian, began to rule from Treves over the western 
provinces of the empire. The usurper commanded the 
chiefs of the Priscillianists to appear before a council 
at Bordeaux. Here Instantius was deposed, but Pris- 
ciUian appealed to the emperor ; and the council which 
ought not to have been diverted by this artifice from 
jjronouncing over him sentence of deposition and ex- 
communication, granted to him his request. Pris^ 
cillian therefore and his followers on the one side, and 
Idiacus, Bishop of Merida, and Ithiacus, on the other, 
met at Treves. Ithiacus, a short-sighted zealot, persuaded 
Maximus to violate the promise which he had made to 
St. Martin of Tours, that he would not shed the blood 
of PrisciUian. The prefect Evodius conducted the 
examination according to the Roman forms, with the 
application of the torture, and the emperor signed the 
sentence of death. PrisciUian, the widow Euchrocia, 
and five others were accused of odious crimes, and 
beheaded in 385 ; Instantius and others were excom- 

The system of PrisciUian had for its foundation the 
Manichean dualism. It taught that an evil principle, 
which had sprung from chaos and eternal darkness, was 
the creator of the lower world : that souls, which are of 


a divine nature, were sent by God from heaven, to combat 
with the powers of darkness and against their kingdom, 
but were overcome and enclosed within bodies. To 
free these souls, the Redeemer descended from heaven, 
clothed with a celestial body, which was, in appearance 
only, like to the bodies of ordinary men. By his 
sufferings, — which, according to PrisciUian, were only 
apparent and symbolical, — he erased the mark which the 
evil spirits had impressed upon the souls, when they 
confined them within material bodies. The sect pro- 
hibited the use of marriage, commanded abstinence 
from animal food, and rejected the belief of the resur- 
rection. Their mysteries were not less abominable than 
those of the Manichees. To conceal their own doctrines, 
and to calumniate the Catholics, by lies and false swearing, 
they considered perfectly justifiable. — Dollinger. 


John George Pritz was born at Leipsic, in 166-2, and 
in 1698, was appointed professor of divinity and meta- 
physics at Zerbet in Saxony. In 1711, he removed to 
Frankfort on the Maine, where he died in 1732. He 
published, Patris Macarii ^gyptii Homiliae L. Greece 
et Latine, interprete Zacharia Palthenio ; Macarii ^gyptii 
Opera ; Introductio in Lectionem Novi Testamenti ; an 
edition of the New Testament, in the original Greek, 
with various Readings, Geographical Charts, &c. ; 
Sermons ; Devotional Treatises ; translated from the 
English into German; and an edition of the Latin 
Letters of Milton. 


Ptolemy of Lucca is the historical name of Bartholomew 

172 PYLE. 

Fiadoni, which he assumed on entering the order of 
St. Dominic. He flourished in the 14th century and 
was superior of the monastery both at Lucca and Florence. 
He was confessor to Pope John XXII., and in 1318, he 
was made Bishop of Torcello, under the patriarchate of 
Venice. He died in 1327. His Annals extend from 
1060 to 1303, and were published at Lyons in 1619. 
But his great work is his Historiae Ecclesiasticae, Lib. 
XXIV., commencing with the birth of Christ, and brought 
down to 1313. This after remaining long in MS. was 
published at Milan, in 1727, by Muratori, in his Pierum 
Italicarum Scriptores. — Diqnn. 


Thomas Pyle, a latitudinarian divine, was born at Stodey 
in Norfolk, in 1674. He graduated at Caius College, 
Cambridge, and on his being ordained, became curate 
of St. Margaret's parish in King's Lynn; and in 1701, 
he was appointed minister of St. Nicolas's chapel. 
Between the years 1708 and 1718, he published six 
occasional sermons, chiefly in defence of the principles 
of the Revolution, and the succession of the Brunswick 
family. He was violent and impetuous, and having 
taken the heterodox side in the Bangorian controversy, 
in which he published two pamphlets in vindication of 
Bishop Hoadley, he was rewarded by a prebend and a 
residentiaryship in that cathedral. In 1732, he obtained 
the vicarage of St. Margaret at Lynn. He died in 1756. 
He wrote : — Paraphrase on the Acts, and all the Epistles, 
in the manner of Dr. Clarke, This was followed by his 
Paraphrase on the Revelation of St. John, and on the 
Historical Books of the Old Testament. Sixty sermons 
of his were published in 1773 — 1783, 3 vols 8vo, by 
his youngest son Philip. — Nichols s Bomjer. 



QuADEATUs, one of the earliest Christian apologists, was 
born or at least educated at Athens, of which city he 
became the bishop. Eusebius in the history of affairs 
in the reign of Trajan, writes thus. — " Of those that 
flourished in these times, Quadratus is said to have been 
distinguished for his prophetical gifts. There were many 
others, also noted in these times, who held the lirst 
rank in the apostolic succession. These, as the holy 
disciples of such men, also built up the Churches, where 
foundations had been previously laid in every place by 
the Apostles. They augmented the means of promul- 
gating the Gospel more and more, and spread the seeds 
of salvation, and of the heavenly kingdom, throughout 
the world far and wide. For the most of the disciples 
at that time, animated with a more ardent love of the 
Divine word, had first fulfilled the Saviour's precept, by 
distributing their substance to the needy : afterwards 
leaving their country, they performed the office of evan- 
gelists to those who had not yet heard the faith, whilst 
with a noble ambition to proclaim Christ, they also 
delivered to them the books of the holy gospels. After 
laying the foundation of the faith in foreign parts as 
the particular object of their mission, and after appointing 
others as shepherds of the flocks, and committing to 
these the care of those that had been recently introduced, 
they went again to other regions and nations, with the 
grace and co-operation of God. The Holy Spirit also 
still wTought many wonders through them, so that as 
soon as the gospel was heard, men voluntarily, in 
crowds, and eagerly, embraced the true faith, with 
their whole minds. As it is impossible for us to give 
the number of the individuals that became pastors 
or evangelists, during the first immediate succession 
from the Apostles in the Churches throughout the world, 
Q 3 


we have only recorded those by name in our history, 
of whom we have received the traditional account, as 
it is delivered in the various comments on the apos- 
tolic doctrine still extant." 

He also adds in another place; "Trajan having 
held the sovereignty for twenty years, wanting six 
months, was succeeded in the imperial office by ^lius 
Adrian. To him, Quadratus addressed a discourse, 
as an apology for the religion that we profess ; because 
certain malicious persons attempted to harass our bre- 
thren. The work is still in the hands of some of the 
brethren, as also in our own, from which any one 
may see evident proof, both of the understanding of 
the man, and of his apostolic faith. The writer shew^s 
the antiquity of the age in which he lived, in these 
passages : ' the deeds of our Saviour,' says he, ' were 
always before you, for they were true miracles : those 
that were healed, those that were raised from the dead, 
who were seen, not only when healed, and when raised, 
but were always present. They remained living a long 
time, not only whilst our Lord was on earth, but likewise 
when He had left the earth ; so that some of them have 
also lived to our own times.' Such was Quadratus. Aris- 
tides, also, a man faithfully devoted to the rehgion 
we profess, like Quadratus, has left to posterity, a 
defence of the faith, addressed to Adrian. This work 
is also preserved by a great number, even to the 
present day." 

Eusebius also adds in his Chronicle, and he is 
supported in that statement by Jerome, that this 
piece produced the wished-for effect upon the emperor's 
mind, and was the means of procuring a temporary 
calm for the professors of Christianity. Of this work, 
we have only a small fragment remaining, preserved 
by Eusebius. Valesius, Dupin, Tillemont, and Basnage, 
maintain that Quadratus the Apologist was not the 
same person with the bishop of Athens ; but this 


opinion has been refuted by Cave, Grabe, and Lardner. 
— Eusehius. St. Jerome. 


The life of Quesnel, like those of Arnauld, Jansenius 
and Pascal, is interesting as throwing light on the 
history of the Gallican Church. The following life is 
taken from the introductory essay supplied to the English 
translation of the Moral Reflections by Dr. Daniel 
Wilson, the present Bishop of Calcutta. Pasquier 
Quesnel was born at Paris, July 14th, 1634. His 
grandfather was a native of Scotland ; but whether 
a Roman Catholic or not, does not appear. His father 
was most probably of that persuasion ; and Pasquier 
after being educated at the University of Paris, entered 
into the Religious Congregation of the Oratoire, in 1657. 
He devoted himself from his earliest years, to the study 
of the sacred Scriptures and of the fathers of the Church. 
He began soon to compose books of piety, chiefly for 
the use of the young people intrusted to his care. It 
was in this course that he was led to write the first 
portion of those Reflections which, thirty years after- 
wards, kindled so ardent a controversy. One or two 
persons of distinction having been much delighted with 
them, encouraged him to extend his notes to the whole 
of the Gospels ; for at first they comprehended only 
some portions of our Lord s life, and they thus gra- 
dally swelled into a very important work, w^hich gave 
a character to the age in which it appeared. It was 
in 1671, that the first edition was published under the 
sanction of the then Bishop of Chalons sur Marne ; for 
it was not uncommon for persons of that station, if 
men of piety, to authorize and circulate works of devo- 
tion, with the sufferance of their superiors, so long 
iis the peculiar tenets of the Roman Catholic Church 


were intermingled, and no great stir was excited about 
the evangelical truths which they contained. Quesnel 
continually added to his Reflections during the rest of 
his hfe. He embraced the Acts of the Apostles, and 
the Epistles in his plan ; besides enriching by more 
than one half, the original notes. His last years were 
dedicated to the preparation of a still more enlarged 
edition, with much new matter, which was published 
in 1 727. Nearly sixty years were thus employed more 
or less, upon this pleasing and elevated task — another 
proof amongst a thousand, that nothing really excellent 
is the fruit of haste. When you come to understand 
the real facts, you discover that the books which last, 
which form eras in theology, which go out with a large 
measure of the Divine blessing, are the result of much 
prayer and meditation, of thoughts often revolved and 
matured by degrees. Thus new and important lights 
irradiate the mind, the proximate ideas are suggested 
by time and occasion, errors and excrescencies are 
detected, topics assume a new face and consistency, 
prayer brings down the influences of grace, all the 
powers of the mind are brought to bear upon the 
inquiry, and something is produced for the honour of 
God and the permanent welfare of His Church. 

One great work is commonly as much as one man 
produces ; and this the result of unexpected incident, 
rather than of express intention, in the first instance. 
Pascal left his Thoughts — Bacon, his Novum Organum, 
Butler, his Analog}^ — Quesnel, his Reflections, — a life 
having been, in each case, devoted to the particular 
inquiry ; and the form and magnitude and importance 
of each work, having been least of all, in the first 
intentions of the writers. Pride conceives great designs, 
and accomplishes little ; humility dreads the promise of 
difficult undertakings, and accomplishes much. 

Quesnel's sentiments on religion were now becoming 
known, as his book spread. His talents, his elegant 


style, his brilliancy of imaginatioD, were acknowledged. 
His deep and penetrating piety was not immediately 
understood. His whole life seems to have been dedicated 
to the love of his Crucified Saviour. The fall and 
total corruption of our nature, the distinct necessity of 
grace for the production of anything really good, the 
grateful adoration of the purposes and will of God 
towards His elect : these formed the foundation of 
Quesnel's religious principles. They were not held 
merely as doctrines ; they were insisted on, felt, followed 
out into their consequences. A deep and tender 
humility appears in his spirit, a deadness of affection 
as to the world, a perception of joy and peace in 
the spiritual life, a faith full of childlike simplicity 
and repose of soul on the grace and power of Christ ; 
a minute conscientiousness in the application of his 
principles to his whole conduct, a skill in detecting 
false motives, a bold and uncompromising courage in 
speaking truth : these were the fruits of the great 
Scriptural principles which he had imbibed. 

Mixed, however, with these sound and elevated 
principles and habits, were many great errors and 
superstitions, flowing from his education in the bosom 
of the apostate Church. His study of the fathers, instead 
of being confined to a fair and Scriptural consultation 
of their writings, was cramped by his reliance on 
them as authoritative guides. They warped his judg- 
ment instead of assisting it. The doctrine of Justifi- 
cation was confounded with that of Sanctifi cation ; and 
though both were bottomed upon grace in the most 
decisive manner, yet so wide a departure from the 
statements of Scripture, could not but have an unfa- 
vourable influence upon the whole tenor of his religion. 
Thus, like Pascal, Nicole, Arnauld, St. Cyran, and 
the other great names of the same school, the highest 
order of excellence on capital points, was combined 
with some glaring errors. Deep spirituality of mind, 


unaffected humility, holy love to the Divine Saviour, 
a simple repose on the grace of the Holy Spirit, a 
life of devoted and courageous obedience, were associated 
with much uncommanded prostration of the under- 
standing to human authority, many dangerous super- 
stitions, and much uncharitable condemnation of 

It was in 1681, that persecution first burst out 
against Quesnel. The new doctrines (for truth, when 
it re-appears in force, is new to fallen man, especially 
in a very corrupt Church,) began to attract attention. 
Numbers espoused them. The Jesuits were the first 
to take the alarm. Harlai, Archishop of Paris, in- 
formed of Pasquier's sentiments, obliged him to 
quit the capital. He took refuge at Orleans. Three 
years afterwards, he fled to Brussels, to avoid the 
necessity of signing an absurd formulary, in which 
the condemnation of Jansenism was allied with the 
renunciation of the natural philosophy of Descartes. 
Here he joined the great Arnauld, and received his 
last instructions. He devoted himself now to the con- 
tinuation of his Reflections; and in 1694, published 
an edition which comprised, for the first time, the 
whole of the New Testament. The Jesuits had not 
yet prevailed. Louis-Antoine de Noailles, afterwards 
Archbishop of Vares, and cardinal, was now Bishop 
of Chalons-sur-Marne, and scrupled not to recommend 
the book to his diocese. The Bishops of Limoges, iVgen, 
Montpellier, and Sonez, afterwards did the same. 

The celebrated Bossuet likewise joined in defending 
the book, and the Cardinal de Noailles also, when 
the Jesuits publicly attacked them. Bossuet, in his 
earlier life, seems to have inclined more to the sen- 
timents of St. Augustine and Jansenius, than to the 
contrary notions of the Jesuits. The controversy with 
Fenelon had not yet soured his mind, nor his eleva- 
tion at court cooled his piety. An idea may be formed 


of the immense circulation of the Reflections, and the 
prodigious eagerness with which they were sought for, 
from what the Bishop of Meaux observes : — •' This 
book, which contained at first only the text of the 
Gospels and the Notes upon them, was received with 
an avidity and a desire of edification, which seemed 
to revive in our days, the primitive zeal of Christians 
for continual meditation on the Word of God night 
and day. And when the Notes on the rest of the 
New Testament w^ere added, the complete work had 
so great a success, that all the countries w^here 
the French language is known, and the royal city 
more particularly, were filled with it, — the booksellers 
could not meet the eagerness of the faithful — un- 
numbered editions were published one after another 
and instantly taken off; so that we may apply to this 
event what is written in the Acts, that the Word of 
the Lord grew mightily, and that the number of its 
zealous readers increased eveiy day." 

Such was th3 effect which the persecution and the 
extraordinary merit of the w^ork concurred, under the 
blessing of God, to produce. 

But further extremities were resorted to by the 
Jesuits. The Reflections had been before the world 
more than twenty years. Some disturbance had been 
made, and the Author had been driven from his coun- 
try. But the book had a prodigious sale ; influential 
names were attached to it ; it was exciting more and 
more the hatred of the human heart on the one hand, 
and gaining converts and readers almost innumerable 
on the other. Satan would not let this state of things 
continue. The real grace of God, though mixed with 
error, was maintained, and maintained boldly, in the 
Reflections ; man was laid low ; the Saviour was 
exalted ; the power of fallen nature to recover itself 
was denied ; the Holy Ghost was honoured ; the world 
and its pleasures were uncompromisingly exposed ; a 


new and holy life was delineated and insisted on; 
heaven and hell were plainly exhibited. This was 
enough : nothing could redeem such unpardonable faults 
in the eyes of the Jesuits. They could not endure 
the strong light thrown on the nature of man, and 
the one person of the Saviour. They saw acutely 
enough, (though perhaps Quesnel did not,) that such 
principles went to undermine Popery. They began 
their schemes anew. They attempted to detach the 
powerful defenders of Pasquier. The Cardinal de Noailles 
was rudely assailed. Quesnel, undaunted, prosecuted 
the improvement of his book, and wrote a prodigious 
number of occasional pamphlets. He composed also 
several larger treatises, on the Priesthood and Sacrifice 
of Jesus Christ: — Elevations of Heart towards Jesus 
Christ in His Passion and Death ; The Blessedness 
of the Christian's Death ; Christian Prayers ; Prayers 
to our Saviour Jesus Christ, for Young People and 
those who desire to read the Word of God, and especi- 
ally the Gospel ; Tradition of the Romish Church on 
the Predestination of Saints, and on Efficacious Grace. 

These productions only augmented the rage of 
his enemies. The impression of their excellence, as 
works of piety, may be judged of from what the cele- 
brated Father de Tournemine is reported to have said — 
" That two pages of the Christian Prayers contained 
more real unction than all that had issued from the 
pen of the Jesuits, not excepting Bourdaloue." 

In the meantime, Quesnel kept himself in privacy 
at Brussels. The Jesuits, however, contrived to dis- 
cover his retreat ; and persuaded Philip V. of Spain 
(whose conscience they directed,) to send an order to 
the Bishop of Malines to arrest him. He was now 
cast into prison for the Name of Christ; and would 
probably have lingered there the rest of his days, if 
he had not been rescued by a Spanish gentleman, who 
succeeded in penetrating the walls of his prison, and 


in freeing him from his chains. He fled to Amster- 
dam, under the protection of the new Protestant States, 
who had so gloriously succeeded in establishing their 
liberty. He was soon publicly condemned as a heretic, 
and a contumacious and seditious person, names ever 
ready to be attached to the followers of the humble 
Saviour, especially under a superstitious and despotic 
government. The court at Rome was next appealed 
to, and a decree of Clement XI., condemnatory of the 
Eeflections, was obtained. Nothing, however, could 
stop the sale. The work spread wider and . wider. 
Editions were multiplied. All the world were eager 
to read a work so loudly denounced by the Papal chair. 
Thus does persecution promote truth. Never would 
■Quesnel's Reflections have been read by one thousandth 
part of those, who have now, for a century and a half, 
been edified by them, unless the Jesuits had pursued 
the book with so bitter a hatred. 

An arret of council was afterwards obtained from 
Louis IV. in order to suppress the work. This was in 
1711, after it had been forty years before the world. 

At length the Jesuits urged the decrepit and super- 
stitious monarch, through Madame de Maintenon, to, 
force the court of Rome to enter into a detailed exami- 
nation of the book, and thus settle, as they hoped, the 
agitated minds of men. Three years were consumed 
in details. At last, in 1714, the bull, known by its 
first word unigenitus, was issued, in which 101 pro- 
positions were extracted from Quesnel, and specifically 
condemned as heretical and dangerous, — a step which, 
like every other since the fatal Council of Trent, (the 
band and chain of Popish errors,) tended to separate 
the Church of Rome more and more widely from the 
true foundation of the Gospel, and to brand upon her 
forehead the broadest marks of departure from the 
faith of Christ. The spirit of Rome was never more 
graphically delineated, than in her selecting all the 
VOL. vm. R 


most express points of the Gospel, and denouncing 
them, coolly and avowedly, as heretical and erroneous.. 

A merely secular policy was so openly followed, both 
by the Christian King, as he was termed, and the 
supple court which yielded to his interference, that 
the truth of the doctrines scarcely came into question. 
It was the policy of Rome which was consulted. The 
Abbe Renaudot relates, that, on entering once the 
cabinet of the pope, who was fond of literary men, he 
found him reading Quesnel's book. — " This is an extra- 
ordinary performance," said the pontiff; " we have no 
one at Rome capable of writing in this manner. I 
wish I could have the author by me." — Yet this very 
man issued first the decree, and then the bull, which 
condemned the work. On the feeble mind of Louis, 
superstition and the Jesuits had taken up their seat. 
The prince who revoked the edict of Nantz in the 
prime of life, was not likely, in the last stage of decrepi' 
tude, to resist the influence which sought to overthrow 
an individual foe. 

But it is more lamentable to observe, that Bossuet 
and Fenelon seemed to have joined in the persecution. 
The former had, some years before, defended the book ; 
but he appears to have shrunk from protecting it or 
the author, when popularity took another course. And 
Fenelon, the amiable, the lovely, the pious Fenelon, 
took an active part in hastening the condemnation at 
Rome. His correspondence, lately published, demon- 
strates the interest he felt, and exhibits the commenda- 
tions he bestowed, with his own hand, on the divine 
who drew up the bull. Haughty orthodoxy and mystical 
devotion are thus found to yield to the torrent of Papal 
authority, and to lend their aid to support a corrupt 
and tyrannical Church. 

The greatest difficulty was found in obtaining the 
reception of the bull. Nine French Bishops, assembled 
under the Cardinal de Noailles, determined to wait fo? 

QUICK. 188 

further information before it was registered. It was 
not till 1718, that it was definitely accepted. In the 
meantime, all Christendom rang with the praises of 
Quesnel's doctrine. Surreptitious editions were multi- 
plied ; and the attempt to infix upon the peculiarities 
of the Gospel the character of impiety and heresy, 
stamped the deepest mark of reprobation on the Church 
which issued the condemnation. 

Quesnel survived the publication of the bull six years. 
These he spent in writing works of piety, and in pre- 
paring the edition of the Reflections, which, as we 
have observed, appeared in 1727, with all the new 
matter which he had noted in the margin of his copy. 
Admirable was almost every additional thought; and, 
with an undaunted courage, did the venerable saint 
persevere in the doctrine of the grace of God. He 
employed himself, likewise, in forming Jansenist 
Churches at Amsterdam, where he died, December 
2nd, 1719, aged 86. 


John Quick was born at Plymouth, in 1636. He 
graduated at Exeter College, Oxford, in 1657, and 
entered into holy orders. He officiated at Ermington, 
in Devonshire, and at Kingsb ridge and Churchstow, 
in the same county; but he afterwards removed to 
Brixton, whence he was ejected in 1662. In 1679, 
he was chosen pastor of the English Church at Middle- 
burgh, in Zealand, whence he returned to England in 
1681, where he preached privately during the remain- 
der of Charles II. 's reign ; and afterwards, taking ad- 
vantage of James's indulgence, he formed a congregation 
in Bartholomew-close. He died in 1706. 

Quick published :— The Young Man's Claims to the 
Sacrament of the Lord's Supper; An Answer to that 


Case of Conscience, Whether it be lawful for a man 
to marry his deceased wife's sister? And, Synodicon 
in Gallia Reformata, or the Acts, Decisions, Decrees, 
and Law of the famous National Councils of the 
Reformed Churches in France, &c., London, 1692, fol., 
composed of very interesting and authentic memorials, 
collected, probably, while he was in Zealand. It com- 
prises a history of the rise and progress of the Reforma- 
tion in France down to the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, in 1685. — Gen. Biog. Diet. 


Angelo Maria Quirini was born in 1680, or in 1684. 
He entered early into an abbey of the Benedictines, 
at Florence. Innocent XIIT. created him Archbishop 
of Corfu; and Benedict XIII. raised him to the car- 
dinalate, after having made him Bishop of Brescia. 
To the library of the Vatican he presented his own 
collection of books. He published : — De Mosaicse His- 
torise Prsestantia ; Primordia Corcyrae ; ex antiquissimis 
Monumentis illustrata; Lives of certain Bishops of 
Bresse, eminent for sanctity ; Life of Paul II. ; Speci- 
men varise Literaturse, quae in Urbe Brixia, ejusque 
ditione, paulo post incunabula Typographias florebat ; 
An Account of his Travels ; Letters ; Cardinal Pole's 
Letters ; and an Edition of St. Ephrem, He died in 
1755. — Moreri. 


John Quistoep was born at Rostock in 1584. He 
became Professor of Divinity at Rostock in 1614, and 
in 1645, Superintendent of the Churches in that District. 
He was the friend of Grotius, upon whose death he 

RABAN. 185 

wrote a Latin letter to Calovius, containing an account 
of the sickness and last sentiments of that great man ; 
which is inserted in the Bibhotheque Choisie of 
Colomies, and in the Vindiciae Grotianae, under the 
title of Grotii manes. Professor Quistorp died in 1648, 
about the age of 64. He was the author of Anno- 
tationes in omnos Libros Biblicos; Commentarius in 
Epistolas Sancti Pauli ; Manuductio ad Studium Theo- 
logicum ; Articuli Formulse Concordias illustrati ; besides 
numerous Sermons, and Dissertations on a variety of 
subjects. He had a son of the same name, who was 
born at Rostock in 1624, and died in 1669. He became 
pastor, professor of divinity, and rector of the univer- 
sity in that city, and he signalized himself by his 
controversial writings against the Papists. — Moreri. 


The History of Raban is so connected with that of 
Gotteschalcus, that the reader is referred to that article 
for an account of his public life. He was born in 776, 
and Mayence was his native place. He was educated 
at the Abbey of Fulda, and thence proceeded to Tours 
where he had Alcuin for his tutor. On his return to 
Fulda in 810, he was appointed to teach grammar and 
rhetoric, and in 822, he was elected Abbot of Fulda. 
In 847, he was raised to the archiepiscopal see 
of Mayence. In 848, he summoned a council, in 
which he procured the condemnation of Gotteschalcus 
for maintaining the doctrine of St. Augustine res- 
pecting Predestination and Grace, and gave him up 
into the custody of Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims. 
Raban died in 856. His writings were so popular 
that during four centuries, the most eminent of the 
Latin divines appealed to them as authority in religious 
matters, and adopted almost universally, the sentiments 
R 3 


which they contained. These writings consist of Com- 
mentaries in Latin, on many of the books of the Old 
and New Testament, and the Apocrypha, which entitle 
him to be placed in the first rank of those who under- 
took to illustrate the Scriptures by compilations from 
the Fathers ; Homilies, in Latin, on the Epistles, 
and Gospels ; Scripture Allegories, in Latin, which 
secure him, an eminent place among the allegorical 
commentators on Scripture; Excerptio de Arte Gram- 
matica Priscilliani ; De Universo, Lib. XX. sive Ety- 
raologiarum Opus ; De Clericorum Institutione, et 
Ceremoniis Ecclesise, Lib. III. ; De Sacris Ordinibus, 
Sacramentis Divinis, et Vestimentis Sacerdotalibus, 
Lib. ; De Disciplina Ecclesiastica, Lib. III. ; Lib. III. 
De videndo Deo, de Puritate Cordis, de Modo 
Pcenitentiae ; De Anima et Virtutibus ; Martyrolo- 
gium ; Poemata de diversis ; Glossae Latino-barbaricse ; 
and De Inventione Linguarum ab Hebraea usque 
ad Theodiscam, Lib. ; both edited by Goldast in 
the 2nd vol. of his Rerum Alamannicar. Script. 
Vet. ; together with numerous other pieces, the subjects 
of which may be seen in Cave and Dupin. The 
greater part of his works were collected, and published 
at Cologne in 1627, by George Colvenerius, in 6 vols, 
fol. ; and other pieces, not in that collection, may be 
found in Baluze's Miscellanea, among Father Sirmond's 
publications, and in the eighth volume of the Collect. 
Concil. — Cave. Dupin. Mosheim. 


John Rainolds was born in the neighbourhood of 
Exeter, in 1549, and was educated at Merton College, 
Oxford, from which college, he removed to Corpus 
Christi, in 1563, where he became a fellow in 1566. 
He was distinguished for his anti poppiy zeal, and 


having taken his D.D. degree, in 1585, he was the 
next year appointed to a new Divinity lectureship 
instituted by Sir Francis Walsingham. In 1593, 
he was made Dean of Lincoln, but in 1598, ex- 
changed the Deanery for the Presidentship of Corpus 
Christi College. 

In 1603, when the Hampton-court conference took 
place, we find him ranged on the Puritan side; on 
this occasion he was their spokesman, and it may 
therefore be necessary to give some account of what he 
proposed, as this will enable the reader, in some 
measure, to determine how far the Puritans of the 
following reign can claim him as their ancestor. At 
this conference, he proposed, 1. That the Doctrine 
of the Church might be preserved in purity according 
to God's Word. 2. That good pastors might be planted 
in all Churches, to preach the same. 3. That the 
Church-government might be sincerely administered, 
according to God's Word. 4. That the book of Common 
Prayer might be fitted to the more increase of piety. 
With regard to the first, he moved his majesty, that 
the Book of Articles of Picligion, concluded in 1659, 
might be explained in places obscure, and enlarged 
where some things were defective. For example, where- 
as, (Article XIII.) the words are these, " After we have 
received the Holy Ghost, we may depart from Grace ;" 
notwithstanding the meaning may be sound, yet he 
desired, that because they may seem to be contrary 
to the doctrine of God's Predestination and Election 
in the 17th Article, both these words might be ex- 
plained with this or the like addition, " yet neither 
totally nor finally;" and also that the nine assertions 
orthodoxical, as he termed them, i.e. the Lambeth 
articles, might be inserted into that book of articles. 
Secondly, where it is said in the 23rd Article, that 
it is not lawful for any man to take upon him 
the office of preaching, or administering the Sacraments 


in the congregation, before he be lawfully called, Dr. 
Rainolds took exception to these words "in the con- 
gregation," as implying a lawfulness for any whatsoever, 
"out of the congregation," to preach and administer the 
Sacraments, though he had no lawful calling thereunto. 
Thirdly, in the 25 th Article, these words touching 
" Confirmation, grown partly of the corrupt following 
the Apostles," being opposite to those in the Collect 
of Confirmation in the Communion-book, " upon whom 
after the example of the Apostles," argue, said he, 
a contrariety, each to other; the first confessing Con- 
firmation to be a depraved imitation of the Apostles ; 
the second grounding it upon their example, (Acts, 
viii. 19,) as if the bishop by confirming of children, 
did by imposing of hands, as the Apostles in those 
places, give the visible graces of the Holy Ghost. 
And therefore he desired that both the contradiction 
might be considered, and this ground of Confirmation 
examined. Dr. Rainolds afterwards objected to a defect 
in the 37th Article, wherein, he said, these words, 
" The Bishop of Rome hath no authority in this land," 
were not sufficient, unless it were added, " nor ought 
to have," He next moved that this proposition, "the 
intention of the minister is not of the essence of the 
Sacrament," might be added to the book of Articles, the 
rather because some in England had preached it to 
be essential. And here again he repeated his request 
concerning the nine " orthodoxical assertions," con- 
cluded at Lambeth. He then complained that the 
Catechism in the Common Prayer-book was too brief; 
for which reason, one by Nowell, late Dean of St. 
Paul's, was added, and that too long for young novices 
to learn by heart. He requested, therefore, that one 
uniform Catechism might be made, which, and none 
other, might be generally received. He next took 
notice of the profanation of the Sabbath, and the 
contempt of his majesty's proclamation for reforming 


that abuse ; and desired some stronger remedy might 
be applied. His next request was for a new translation 
of the Bible, because those which were allowed in the 
reign of Henry VIII. and Edward VI. were cormpt 
and not answerable to the original ; of which he gave 
three instances. He then desired his majesty, that 
unlawful and seditious books might be suppressed, at 
least restrained, and imparted to a few. He proceeded 
now to the second point, and desired that learned 
ministers might be planted in every parish. He next 
went on to the fourth point, relating to the Common 
Prayer, and complained of the imposing subscription, 
since it was a great impediment to a learned ministiy; 
and intreated, " that it might not be exacted as for- 
merly, for which many good men were kept out, 
others removed, and many disquieted. To subscribe 
according to the statutes of the realm, namely to 
the articles of religion, and the king's supremacy, they 
were not unwilling. Their reason of their backward- 
ness to subscribe otherwise was, first, the books 
Apocryphal, which the Common Prayer enjoined to 
be read in the Church, albeit there are, in some of 
those chapters appointed, manifest errors, directly 
repugnant to the Scriptures. The next scruple against 
subscription was, that in the Common Prayer, it is 
twice set down, ' Jesus said to His Disciples,' when 
as by the text original it is plain, that he spoke 
to the Pharisees. The third objection against sub- 
scription, were, ' Interrogatories in Baptism,' pro- 
pounded to infants," Dr. Rainolds owned "the use 
of the Cross to have been ever since the Apostles' 
time ; but this was the difficulty, to prove it of that 
ancient use in Baptism." He afterwards took exception 
at those words in the Office of Matrimony, " With my 
body I thee worship ;" and objected against the Church- 
ing of women under the name of Purification. Under 
the third general head, touching Discipline, he ^ took 

190 - RAINOLDS. 

exception to the committiDg of ecclesiastical censures 
to lay-chancellors. " His reason was, that the statute 
made in King Henry's time for their authority that 
way was abrogated in Queen Mary's time, and not 
revived in the late queen's days, and abridged by the 
bishops themselves, 1571, ordering that the said lay- 
chancellors should not excommunicate in matters of 
correction, and anno 1584 and 1589, not in matters of 
instance, but to be done only by them who had the 
power of the keys." He then desired, that according 
to certain provincial constitutions, they of the clergy 
might have meetings, once every three weeks ; first, in 
rural deaneries, and therein, to have the liberty of pro- 
phesying, according as Archbishop Grindal and other 
bishops desired of her late majesty. Secondly, that 
such things as could not be resolved upon there, might 
be referred from thence to the episcopal synods, 
where the bishop with his presbyteri should, deter- 
mine all such points as before could not be 

Notwithstanding our author's conduct at this 
conference. Dr. Simon Patrick observes, that he 
professed himself a conformist to the Church of 
England, and died so. He remarks that Dr. Richard 
Crakanthorp tells the Archbishop of Spalato, that 
the doctor was no Puritan, (as the archbishop called 
him). " For first, he professed that he appeared 
unwillingly in the cause at Hampton-court, and 
merely in obedience to the king's command. And 
then he spake not one word there against the 
hierarchy. Nay, he acknowledged it to be consonant 
to the Word of God, in his conference with Hart. 
And in an answer to Sanders's book of the ' Schism 
of England' (which is in the archbishop's library,) 
he professes that he approves of the book of 
' consecrating and ordering bishops, priests, and 
deacons.' He was also a strict observer of all the 


orders of the church and university, both in pubHc 
and his own college ; wearing the square cap and 
surplice, kneeling at the Sacrament, and he himself 
commemorating their benefactors at the time their 
statutes appointed, and reading that chapter of Eccle- 
siasticus, which is on such occasions used. In a letter 
also of his, to Archbishop Bancroft (then in Dr. 
Crakenthorp's hands,) he professes himself conformable 
to the Church of England, ' willingly, and from his 
heart,' his conscience admonishing him so to be. 
And thus he remained persuaded to his last breath, 
desiring to receive absolution, according to the manner 
prescribed in our liturgy, when he lay on his death- 
bed ; which he did from Dr. Holland, the king's 
professor in Oxford, kissing his hand in token of his 
love and joy, and within a few hours after resigned, 
up his soul to God." 

Wood says, perhaps justly, that the " best matter" 
produced by this Hampton-court conference, was the 
new translation of the Bible, which is now the 
authorized edition. It was begun in 1604, by forty- 
seven divines of Westminster and the two universities. 
Dr. Rainolds had too much reputation as a Greek 
and Hebrew scholar to be omitted from this list. Some 
of the prophets appear to have been the portion 
allotted to him, but his growing infirmities did not, 
it is thought, permit him to do much. The Oxford 
translators however used to meet at his lodging once 
a week, and compared what they had done in his 
company. During this undertaking he was seized 
with the consumption of which he died, May 21, 1607, 
in the fifty-eighth year of his age. — Wood. Fuller. 
Gen. Diet, 


Thomas Randolph was born in 1702, at Canter- 


bury, and educated at the King's School there, and 
at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, of which he 
became fellow in 1723. Dr. Potter, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, collated him to the united vicarages 
of Perham and Waltham in Kent, In 1744, he 
published, The Christian's Faith, a rational assent, 
in answer to the deistical treatise, entitled, Christianity 
not founded on Argument. In 1746, his patron, the 
archbishop, collated him to the Rectory of Saltwood, 
with the Chapel of Hythe annexed ; and he was soon 
after chosen President of Corpus Christi College. In 
1753, he published: — The Doctrine of the Trinity, in 
answer to the Essay on Spirit. From 1756 to 1759, 
he held the office of vice-chancellor; and in 1768, he 
was elected to the Margaret professorship of divinity, 
on the death of Dr. Jenner. In the preceding year, 
he had been promoted to the Arch-deaconry of 
Oxford. His last work was on the Citations from 
the Old Testament in the New. He died in 1783. 
In 1784, a collection of his principal works was 
published under the title of, A View of our Blessed 
Saviour's Ministry, and the proofs of His Divine 
Mission arising from thence. — Life prefixed to his 


John Reading was born in Buckinghamshire, in 
1588, and was educated first at Magdalen Hall, 
and then at St. Alban Hall, Oxford. In 1616, he 
was made minister of St. Mary's, Dover, and was 
afterwards appointed one of the chaplains of Charles I. 
He was one of those doctrinal Puritans, who opposed, 
as much as any Churchman of opposite religious 
sentiments, the violent proceedings of the authors 
of the rebellion, and had exposed them so frequently 


in his sermons, that he was soon marked out for 
vengeance. In April, 1642, his library at Dover 
was plundered, and in November following, he was 
dragged from his house by the soldiers, and impri- 
soned for one year and seven months. In January 
of the above mentioned year, Archbishop Laud, 
then a prisoner in the Tower, had, at his majesty's 
request, bestowed on him the living of Chartham 
in Kent ; but from that the usurping party took 
care he should receive no advantage. He was also 
with as little effect, made prebendary of Canterbury. 
In 1644, however, Sir William Brockman gave him 
the living of Cheriton in Kent, which he was not 
only allowed to keep, but was likewise appointed by 
the assembly of divines, to be one of the nine 
divines who were to write Annotations on the New 
Testament for the work afterwards published, and 
known by the title of the "Assembly's Annotations." 

His sufferings however, were not yet at an end ; 
for soon after this apparent favour, upon a suspicion 
that he was concerned in a plot for the seizing of 
Dover Castle, he was apprehended and carried to 
Leeds Castle, where he was imprisoned for some time. 
In March, 1650, he held a public disputation in Folk- 
stone Church with Fisher, an Anabaptist, who argued 
against the necessity of ordination, and quoted as 
his authority, some passage in Bishop Taylor's 
" Discourse of the liberty of Prophesying," which 
obliged Mr. Heading to write a tract on the subject. 
On the restoration, when Charles II. landed at Dover, 
Mr. Reading was deputed by the corporation to 
address his majesty, and present him with a large 
Bible with gold clasps, in their name. He was now 
replaced in the Prebend of Canterbury, and the living 
of Chartham. Here he died, October 26, 1667, and 
was buried in the chancel of the church. 

He published several occasional sermons from 1623 to 



J 663; and 1. Brief instructions concerning the Holy 
Sacrament, London, 1645, 8vo. 2. A Guide to the 
holy City, Oxon. 1651, 4to. 3. An Antidote to Anabap- 
tism, 1654, 4to. It was in this he animadverted on 
those passages of Bishop Taylor's Discourse, which 
seemed to favour irregular preaching. 4. An Evening 
Sacrifice, or Prayers for a family in these times of 
calamity. 5. Speech made before King Charles II. 
on the shore, when he landed at Dover, &c., 1660, 
single sheet, with verses. Mr. Reading left several 
manuscripts, partly in the hands of Basil Kennet, 
whence they passed to his son, White Kennet. — Wood. 
Watkins. Fuller. 


John Redman, or Redmatne, was born in Yorkshire, 
in 1499, and was educated at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford, and afterwards at Paris. On returning to 
England he settled at St. John's College, Cambridge, 
of which he became a fellow in 1521. 

For above twenty years he carefully applied himself 
to the study of the Holy Scriptures ; and always began 
and ended his studies with humble and earnest prayer 
to Almighty God, to guide him into the knowledge of 
the truth, and to preserve him from all dangerous errors 
and delusions. His prayers found access to the throne 
of grace ; and God opened his eyes to discern those 
errors which he had been led into by the prejudice of 
education ; and when the truth was thus discovered 
to him, he embraced it in the love thereof, and con- 
tinued a stedfast professor, and zealous defender of it, 
unto the end. 

As he found transubstantiation to be the received 
doctrine, he was for som^ time very much disturbed, 
whenever he heard it disputed and contradicted; and 


taking up a resolution to write in defence of it, he 
carefully examined the Scriptures, and made a diligent 
search into the writings of the fathers, for materials 
towards his w^ork. The result of his inquiry was, that 
he found this doctrine to have no foundation in Scrip- 
ture and the purest antiquity, but to be an invention 
of the schoolmen in the dark and later ages, and clogged 
with infinite contradictions, and inexplicable absurdities. 
Upon this, his zeal for it expired at once, and he 
preached in the university against it, and against the 
superstitious custom of carrying the Host in pro- 

He was at first a sti^nuous opposer of the doctrine 
of justification by faith alone, because he feared it 
destroyed the necessity of good works, and saw how 
it had been perverted by some of the Anabaptists, to 
build most detestable and blasphemous heresies upon. 
But when he had carefully perused the writings of our 
reformed divines on that subject, and observed with what 
exactness they had stated the doctrine of justification, 
and guarded it from the least tendency to any of those 
pernicious consequences, he declared himself convinced, 
and confessed his conviction to King Henry, whose 
chaplain he then was. 

In 1537, he commenced doctor of divinity, and about 
that time was chosen orator of the university. In 154U, 
he was made Prebendary of Westminster, of which 
church he is by several of our historians said to have 
been dean ; but upon careful examination, this seems 
to be a mistake. He was for some time Master of 
King's Hall; and in 1546, on the dissolution of that 
Hall, was advanced to be the'*first Master of Trinity 
(JoUege, by the Charter of erection. In this station he 
was a great promoter of the exact knowledge of the Greek 
and Latin tongues ; and was so exceeding liberal to poor 
students, that there were few industrious men in that 
university, who did not receive a comfortable support 


from his bounty. He was very kind in particular to 
that learned foreigner, Martin Bucer, notwithstanding 
their disagreement in some points of religion, in which 
he thought Bucer's zeal against Popery carried him 
into the contrary extreme ; and in a sermon which he 
preached at his funeral, did justice to his memory, and 
detracted nothing from his due praise. 

When he was taken ill of his last sickness at West- 
minster, finding himself decay apace, he sent for Dr. 
Alexander Nowell, afterwards Dean of St. Paul's, and 
some other of the reformed divines ; and to prevent any 
misrepresentations after his death, made before them, 
a large declaration of his judgment concerning the chief 
controversies of those times, which he desired them to 
attest. The most remarkable particulars of which were 
these : — 

1. That Christ is really present in the Sacrament of 
the Altar, in an ineffable manner, to those who receive 
it worthily ; that we receive Him in our minds and souls 
by faith ; and that to speak otherwise, savours of the 
gross error of the Capernaites. 

2. That the wicked are not partakers of the Body and 
Blood of Christ, but that they receive the outward Sacra- 
ment only. 

3. That nothing which is seen, or perceived by any 
outward sense, in the Sacrament, is to be worshipped ; 
and that at the Holy Supper we must \vorship Christ in 
heaven, but not the visible elements. 

4. That purgatory, as taught by the schoolmen, was 
an ungodly and pernicious doctrine, and that there was 
no such place. 

5. That offering masses is an irreligious, unprofitable, 
and superstitious usage. 

6. That the marriage of the clergy is not prohibited 
by any law of Christ. 

7. That to build our faith on the consent of the pre- 


sent Church, is but a weak and sandy foundation ; and 
that the Scriptures are the only rule of faith. 

8. That the See of Rome had in many things swerved 
from God's true religion and worship, and was so griev- 
ously and horribly stained and polluted, that without 
speedy repentance, God's righteous vengeance would 
suddenly overtake and consume it. 

This declaration is a full proof, that Strype is 
under a great mistake, in asserting that this illustrious 
ornament of our Reformed Church died in the Roman 

When Dr. Redmayne had finished his declaration, he 
discoursed more largely on some of these points, and 
that in so pathetic and affecting a manner, that Dr. 
Young, one of the divines there present, who was not 
then entirely come otf from the prejudices of his educa- 
tion, declared that he was so moved and convinced, that 
he now doubted of the truth of some things for which 
before he would have suffered martyrdom. 

After this, Dr. Redmayne's whole discourse was of the 
joys of heaven, the last judgment, and of our redemption 
through the merits of Jesus Christ, with Whom he 
earnestly longed to be. He would often, with tears of 
joy, praise and extol the ineffable love of our gracious 
Redeemer to us miserable sinners; and exhorted his 
friends to be always prepared for Christ's coming, to 
love one another, to beware of this corrupt world, and 
entirely to wean their affections from its transitory- 
glories, and deceitful pleasures. He bore his sickness 
with the greatest patience, and a perfect resignation to 
the will of God, whether for life or death, yet he wished 
rather, if it were God's blessed will, to be dissolved and 
to be with Christ, and to be delivered from the troubles 
and temptations of this miserable world. He practised, 
to the utmost perfection, all those virtues and graees, 
which he was wont to recommend to others in this 
condition ; and when be found his end approaching, he 

198 REGIUS; 

broke out into this fervent prayer : — " Thy will, O 
blessed Lord, be fulfilled ; God of all comfort, give 
me grace to have comfort in Thee, and to have m)' 
mind wholly fixed on Thee." And after a short pause, 
he added, " God grant us grace, that we have a true 
understanding of His Word, the true use of His Sacra- 
ments, and ever preach and maintain the truth, to the 
glory of His most holy Name." Then he offered up 
another short petition for the unity of the Church, and 
soon after resigned his pious and holy soul to God. 
He died in November, 1551, in the fifty-second year 
of his age, and was buried in the north isle of West- 
minster Abbey. 

He wrote a Latin Treatise of Justification, and ano- 
ther concerning Grace, which were published after his 
death. — Doivnes. 


Urban Regius, properly called Le Roi, was born at 
Langenargen, and studied at Lindau, Fribourg, Basle, 
and Ingoldstadt. At the latter place, he was under the 
tuition of Eck. (See his Life.) Here Regius read 
lectures, but unfortunately was induced to superintend 
the education of some j^ouths of noble families, and 
provided them with books and other necessaries, which 
their parents neglecting to pay, he was obliged to give 
up what little property he had for the benefit of his 
creditors, and in despair of assistance to carry on his 
studies, enlisted as a common soldier. In this plight, 
however, he happened to be discovered by Eck, who 
procured his discharge, and prevailed on the parents 
of his pupils to discharge all arrears due to him. 

Urban then returned to his studies, and became so 
distinguished, that the Emperor Maximilian, passing 
through Ingoldstadt, made him his poct-laureat 

REGIUS. 199 

and orator ; and he was afterwards made professor of 
poetry and oratory in that university. But, having 
applied to the study of divinity, he engaged with warmth 
and assiduity in the controversies of the times, particu- 
larly in that between Luther and Eck, in which he 
inclined to Luther ; but unwilling to give personal 
offence to his preceptor and good friend Eck, he left 
Ingoldstadt ' and went to Augsburg, where, at the 
importunity of the magistrates and citizens, he under- 
took the government of the Church. Here he departed 
farther and farther from the errors of Popery, and 
soon joined with Luther in preaching against them. 
In his opinion, however, concerning the Lord's Supper 
and original sin, he sided, for a time, with Zuinglius, 
in consequence of a correspondence in which that refor- 
mer explained to him the grounds of his belief. In his 
preaching against errors so general as those of Popery 
then were, he met with much opposition, but appears to 
have been supported by some of the principal citizens, 
one of whom bestowed on him his daughter, by whom 
he had thirteen children. Eck, both by letters and by 
the intervention of friends, endeavoured to gain him 
back to the Church, but his principles were fixed, and 
he resisted both flatteries and promises. 

In 1530, there was a Diet held at Augsburg, at 
which the Duke of Brunswick was present, who pre- 
vailed on Piegius to go to Lunenburg in his dominions, 
to take care of the Church there. The duke highly 
esteemed him, and declared to the people of Augsburg, 
who petitioned for his return, that he would as soon 
part with his eyes as with Regius, and made him chief 
pastor of all the Churches in his dominions, with an 
ample and liberal salary. Here he passed the greater 
part of a useful and active life in preaching, writing, 
and religious conferences. He died May 23rd, 1541, 
when on a journey with the Duke to Haguenau ; the 
place of his death is said to be Zell ; but we have no 


account of his age. He had often wished that he might 
die a sudden and eas}^ death, which happened to be 
the case. His works were collected in 3 vols., folio. 
The first two contain the pieces he published in Latin, 
the other his German compositions. The last volume 
was afterwards translated into Latin, and published 
under the title of " Vita et Opera Urbani Regii, reddita 
per Ernest. Regium," Norib. 1562. Some of his pieces 
were translated in the 16th century into English, as 
" The Sermon which Christ made on His way to Emmaus 
&c." 1578, 4to; "A Declaration of the Twelve Articles 
of the Christen Faythe, &c." 1548; "An Instruccyon 
of Christen Fayth, &c." 15b8, translated by Fox the 
martyrologist ; " The Olde Learnyng and the New 
compared, &c." 1548, 8vo; "Exposition on the 87th 
Psalm," 1594, 8vo ; "A Homily of the good and evil 
Angell, &c." 1590, 8vo, and others. Besides what are 
included in the three volumes mentioned above, John 
Freder of Pomerania published, after the author's death, 
a work of his, entitled " Loci Theologici ex patribus 
et scholasticis neotericisque collecti." 


Remigius was a native of Gaul, and was made grand 
almoner to the Emperor Lotharius. About 853 or 
854, upon the death of Amolo, that monarch promoted 
him to the archiepiscopal See of Lyons. He was one 
of the most strenuous and able defenders of the doc- 
trine of Gotteschalchus, or rather of St. Augustine, on 
the subjects of Grace and Predestination, among the 
contemporaries of that monk. In 855, he presided in the 
Council at Valence, which confirmed that doctrine, and 
passed a sentence of condemnation on the canons 
against Gotteschalchus, ( see his life,) which had been 
decreed by the Council of Quiercy six years before. In 


859, he presided in a Synod at Langres, which confirmed 
the canons of the Council of Valence, and condemned 
the propositions of John Scotus Erigena, relating to 
Predestination. He died in 875. Such of his works 
as are extant, may be found in the fifteenth vokune 
of the Bibl. Patr., and the first Yolume of Maguin's 
Collect. Script, de Prsedestinat. et Gratia. To Remigius, 
Archbishop Usher has attributed that Commentary 
upon the Epistles of St. Paul, which is given with 
his name in the Bibl. Patr., but which ought rather 
to be ascribed to Haymo. 


Remigius of Auxeree derived his surname from the 
Abbey of St. Germain at Auxerre, where he was placed 
at the head of the schools belonging to his monastery. 
About 822, he was called to Rheims by Foulques, the 
successor of Hincmar in that see, who gave him the 
direction of the literary seminary which he had founded 
in his metropolitan city. He is said to have afterwards 
gone to Paris, where he opened the first public school 
in that city. He died about 900. He was the author 
of Commentarius in omnes Davidis Psalmos, which 
was published at Cologne in 1536, and chiefly consists 
of the opinions and explications of St. Ambrose, St. 
Augustine, and Cassiodorus, reduced into one mass ; 
Enarratio in posteriores XT. minores Prophetas, pub- 
lished at Antwerp in 1545, with the Commentaries of 
Oecumenius upon the Acts of the Apostles and their 
Epistles, and those of Arethas upon the book of Reve- 
lation ; and Expositio Missse. 


Michael Renniger was a native of Hampshire, where 


he was born in 1529. He was a fellow of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, whence he was expelled by Bishop 
Gardiner, on account of his attachment to the prin- 
ciples of the Reformation. He was an exile for religion 
in Mary's reign and resided chiefly at Strasburg, On 
the accession of Elizabeth, he was made one of her 
chaplains, and proved a zealous champion for the 
Reformation. He became a prebendary of Winchester, 
and obtained the Rectory of Crawley, near that city. 
In 1567, he was installed precentor and prebendary 
of Lincoln. In 1573, he took his degrees in divinity, 
and in 1575, was made Archdeacon of Winchester. 
In 1583, he had the prebend of Reculverland, in 
the Church of St. Paul, London. He died in 1609. 
His works are : — Carmina in mortem duorum Fra- 
trum Suffolciensium, Henrici et Caroli Brandon; De 
Pii V. et Gregorii XIII. furoribus contra Elizabe- 
tham Reginam Anglias ; An Exhortation to True 
Love, Loyalty, and Fidelity to Her Majesty ; Syn- 
tagma hortationum ad Jacobem Regem Anglise. He 
also translated from Latin into English, Bishop 
Poynet's Apology or Defence of Priests' Marriages. — 


Edward Reynolds was born of humble parents, at 
Southampton, in the year 1599. His education began 
in the Free Grammar School of his native town. At 
the usual age, he was removed to Merton College? 
Oxford, of which society, he became a postmaster in 
1615, and in 1620, a probationed fellow. The latter 
preferment he obtained by his proficiency in the 
Greek language, and his eminent talents as a dis- 
putant and orator. After he had taken the degree of 
master of arts, he entered into orders, and was 


chosen preacher to the honourable society of Lincoln's 
Inn. He was also preferred to the Rectory of Brauns- 
ton, in Northamptonshire. 

When the unhappy differences between Charles 
the First and his parliament, issued in the civil 
war which for many years afflicted the nation, Mr. 
Reynolds joined the Presbyterian party, and in 1643, 
was appointed one of the assembly of divines which 
met at Westminster, avowedly to settle the contro- 
versies that distracted the people, but in fact to 
establish Presbyterianism on the ruins of the Epis- 
copal Church. During this period, he was a frequent 
preacher before the long parliament, and stood so 
high in their estimation, that he was named one of 
the seven divines, who were sent to Oxford with 
authority to supersede the preachers appointed by the 
university, and to bring that city to a more favour- 
able view of the parliamentary cause. In the following 
year he became one of the visitors of the university 
and soon afterwards, he was chosen vice-chancellor, 
and, by a mandate from the parliament, was created 
doctor in divinity. His next promotion was to the 
Deanery of Christ Church. 

Hitherto Dr. Reynolds had acted with the adherents 
of the parliament, but he was neither their servile, 
nor an unprincipled instrument. When called on to 
subscribe to the engagement, "to be true and faith- 
ful to the commonwealth of England, without a 
king and a house of lords," he refused to give the 
disloyal pledge, and was consequently deprived of his 
recently acquired honour. From this time, he appears 
to have resided chiefly in London, where, as vicar 
of St. Lawrence, Jewry, he faithfully discharged his 
ministerial duties, and though neglected by the 
independent rulers of the state, was very highly 
esteemed by his Presbyterian brethren, and by the 
country at large. 


When General Monk marched his troops to Lon- 
don, with the design of establishing a free parliament 
and restoring the monarchical government, Dr. Rey- 
nolds entered heartily into his views, and used his 
interest, which was now very considerable, to bring 
about the desired change. After the vote for recalling 
the king, had passed the new parliament, the Pres- 
byterian ministers deputed a number of their body 
to wait on his majesty in Holland. Of this number 
Dr. Reynolds was one, and his zeal in the royal 
cause was not forgotten. On the king's arrival in 
England, he was appointed one of his chaplains, 
and in 1660, w^as elected warden of Merton College, 
and consecrated Bishop of Norwich. As soon as 
the government was peaceably settled, he retired to 
his diocese, in which he constantly resided till his 
death, which took place at Norwich, in 1676, in the 
seventy-seventh year of his age. — Life prefixed to 


Peter Ribadeneira was born at Toledo in 1527, 
and in 1540, he became a favourite disciple of the 
founder of the Jesuits, {see Life of Loyola.) In 
1542, he studied at Paris, and was afterwards em- 
ployed in promoting the interests of the Jesuits, in 
various parts of Europe. He accompanied the Duke 
of Feria to England in 1558 ; and his inquiries 
here, or what he made subsequently, encouraged him 
to publish a treatise, On the English Schism, 1594, 
8vo. He is, however, chiefly known for his Lives of 
various Saints and Jesuits, and as the founder of 
that biography of the Jesuits, which Alegambe and 
others afterwards improved into a work of some 
importance. One of his principal Lives, published 

RICCA. 305 

separately, is that of the founder, St. Ignatius de 
Loyola. His Lives of the Saints, ( Ignatius Loyola, 
Francis Borgia, Lainez, Salmeron, &c.) were translated 
into English, and published in 2 vols. 8vo. He also 
wrote, The Christian Prince, a refutation of The 
Prince of Macchiavelli. He died at Madrid in 1611. — 
Biog. Universelle. 


Francis de Ribeea was born at Villacaslin in 1537, 
and was educated at Salamanca. He became a 
Jesuit in 1570. From this time he was employed 
by his superiors in interpreting the Scriptures, 
and filled the chair of professor of divinity in their 
seminary at Salamanca till his death in 1591. His 
works are : — Commentarii in XII. Prophetas Minores ; 
Sensum eorundem Prophetarum historicum et moralem, 
ssepe etiam AUegoricum complacentes ; Commentarii 
Historic! selecti in XII. Prophetas Minores ; In 
Sacrum Jesu Christi Evangelium secundum Jo- 
annem ; In Epistolam ad Hebrgeos ; In Sacram B. 
Joannis Apostoli et Evangelistse Apocalypsin ; De 
Templo et iis quae ad Templum pertinent, Lib. V. 
1593, 8vo ; and. The Life of St. Theresa, foundress 
of the reformed order of the barefooted Carmelites.— 


Matthew Ricci was born in 155Q, at Macerata in 
the March of Ancona. He became a Jesuit at 19 
years of age. He had not completed his theological 
studies, when he followed to the East Indies his pre- 
ceptor father Valignan. During his abode at Goa he 
applied assiduously to the language of China, to which 


^06 RICCA. 

country he was destined. He was furnished with 
another branch of knowledge necessary in that mission, 
that of mathematics, which he had acquired at Rome, 
under the celebrated Clavius. In 1583, he arrived at 
Caoquin, in the province of Canton, where he settled 
with some brethren. To ingratiate himself with the 
Chinese, he made a map of the world, in which, 
whilst he corrected their prejudices with respect to the 
relative dimensions of their country, he complied with 
them by altering the meridian, so as to place it in 
the centre. With a similar spirit of compliance, he 
drew up a Chinese catechism, containing only the 
precepts of morality and natural religion ; judging 
that to present to them the mysteries of the Catholic 
faith, without previous preparation would only serve 
to inspire them with repugnance. His policy, however, 
did not prevent him from undergoing some persecu- 
tions in consequence of Chinese suspicion ; and it was 
not till 1600, that he was able to gain access to the 
emperor at Peking, employing the pretext of bringing 
him a present of curiosities from Europe. He was well 
received, and permitted to settle in that capital, where 
his mathematical skill rendered him acceptable to the 
court and men of letters. He purchased a house there 
and built a church ; and the progress, such as it was, 
which Christianity made in the metropolis of China, 
was greatly owing to his exertions. He died there in 
1010, leaving curious memoirs on China, of which 
Father Trigault made use in his work " De Christiana 
expeditione apud Sinas." In the " Lettres Edifiantes" 
is a dialogue between a lettered Chinese and an 
European, on the necessity of a first cause. Father 
Orleans, in a life of this missionary, speaks of him 
as an apostle, a saint, another Xavier. He seems 
indeed, to have possessed all the indefatigable zeal of 
his profession, joined to the peculiar policy of his 
order. — Moreri. Aiken. 



Richard, Archbishop of Armagh, whose real name was 
Fitz-Ralph, aud whose historical name is Armachanus, 
was bom, according to some, in Devonshire, and ac- 
cording to others, at Dimdalk, in the county of Louth. 
He was educated at Oxford, first at University and then 
at Balliol Colleges. He commenced D.D., and in 1333 
was commissary-general of that university. His first 
Church promotion was to the chancellorship of the 
Church of Lincoln, in July, 1334 ; he was next made 
Archdeacon of Chester in 1336, and Dean of Lichfield 
in the following year. While at Oxford he had dis- 
tinguished himself by his opposition to the Mendicant 
friars, whose affectation of poverty, and other super- 
stitions and irregularities, he exposed in his lectures. 
In 1347, he was advanced to the Archbishopric of 
Armagh. The friars were so incensed at this exposure 
of them, that they procured him to be cited before 
Innocent VI. at Avignon, where he defended his 
opinions with great firmness. 

He wrote two Tracts against the Friars Mendicant; 
one of them entitled, A Defence of the Curates against 
the Mendicants ; and the other, De Audientia Confes- 
sionum. His Treatise in the Defence of Parish Priests 
is nothing but the Discourse which he made before the 
pope and cardinals at Avignon. It begins with this 
text: "Judge not according to the appearance, but 
judge righteous judgment." And here, the archbishop 
declares, he had no intention to oppose any doctrine of 
the Church, neither did he desire the dissolution of the 
Friars' order, but only to bring up their practice to their 
institution. From hence he proceeds to relate the sub- 
ject and occasion of the dispute. He reports, that being 
at London, he met with some doctors engaged in a 
discourse about the poverty of our Saviour and His, 


Apostles. That being invited to preach upon this sub- 
ject, he laid down nine conclusions in seven or eight 
sermons, at which the Friars Mendicant took check, 
and brought a frivolous complaint against him before 
his holiness. His nine conclusions are these : — 

First, — That if a question be moved about making 
confessions with respect to place ; in this case, the 
parish church is to be preferred before that of the friars. 

Secondly, — That the parishioners ought rather to apply 
to a parson or curate for confession than to a friar. 

Thirdly, — That notwithstanding our Lord Jesus Christ 
was poor when He conversed upon earth, yet it does 
not appear that He affected poverty. 

Fourthly, — That our Lord Jesus Christ did never beg, 
nor make profession of voluntary poverty. 

Fifthly, — That our Saviour never taught people to 
make a choice and profession of beggary. 

Sixthly, — That Christ our Lord held the contrary, that 
men ought not to beg by inclination, nor without being 
forced to it by necessity. 

Seventhly, — That there is neither sense nor religion 
in vowing voluntary and perpetual beggary. 

Eighthly, — That it is not agreeable to the rule of the 
Friars Minorites to be under engagements of voluntary 

Ninthly, — That the Bull of Alexander IV., which con- 
demned the Libel of the Masters of Paris, censured none 
of these seven last conclusions. 

This Discourse is followed with a sort of Memorial 
which he delivered in to the pope's commissioners. The 
purport of it is to reply to the reasons which the priors 
alledged to justify their begging. He likewise laid ano- 
ther Paper before the cardinal commissioners, containing 
a recital of the abuses committed by the begging friars 
in their preaching, confessions, and devotions. 

Fie died in 1360, at Avignon, not without suspicion 
of poison. Fox says that a certain cardinal, hearing 


of his death, declared openly, that a mighty pillar of 
Christ's Church was fallen. His works are : — Sermones 
quatuor, ad Crucem Londinensem ; Defensio Curatorum 
adversus Fratres Mendicantes, Paris, 1496. Fox, in 
his Martyrology, asserts that the whole Bible was trans- 
lated into Irish by him, and preserved in the sixteenth 
century ; and Archbishop Usher says that there were 
several fragments of this translation in Ireland in his 
time. — Collier. Wharton s Ai^pendix to Cave. 


Richard of St. Victor was a native of Scotland, edu- 
cated at Paris, w'hen he studied under Hugh de St, 
Victor, and became one of the canons regular of St. 
Augustine of the Abbey of St. Victor. In 1164, he was 
elected prior of his monastery ; where he died in the 
year 1173, equally respected for his virtues as for his 
learned attainments. Concerning his merits as a writer 
Dupin observes, " that he shews a great deal of subtlety 
in his theological treatises, and argues methodically, 
with an exactness becoming an able logician. His 
critical pieces are very accurate, for the time in which 
he lived. His style, however, is not very elevated ; on 
which account his pious treatises, though abounding 
in excellent matter, are greatly deficient in weight and 

His works consist of critical observations and remarks 
on some of the historical parts of the Old Testament, 
relating to the tabernacle, and the temple of Solomon ; 
allegorical and moral " Commentaries " on several of the 
Psalms, the Song of Songs, and the Apocalj^pse ; Ques- 
tions on certain difficult passages of St. Paul's Epistles 
and other parts of the Bible, part of which is printed 
among the works of Hugh St. Victor; and numerous 
critical, doctrinal, and practical treatises, which are par- 
T 3 


ticularized in the two first of our authorities. The 
whole of them have been frequently printed in a col- 
lective form ; and the best edition is said to be that 
of Rouen, in 1650, in 2 vols, folio. — Cave. Diqnn. 


John Richardson was an Irish prelate, of whose early- 
life little is known, except that he was born in Chester 
and educated at Dublin. He was consecrated to the 
See of Ardagh in 1633. In 1641, being in dread of 
the rebellion which broke out in October of that year, 
he removed to England, and died in London in 1654. 
He was a man of profound learning, well versed in the 
Scriptures, and skilled in sacred chronology. His works 
are : — A Sermon of the doctrine of Justification ; and 
Choice Observations and explanations upon the Old 
Testament, 1655, fol. These Observations, which extend 
to all the books of the Old Testament, seem intended 
as a supplement to the Assembly's Annotations, in 
■which he wrote the Annotations on Ezekiel ; and they 
were prepared for publication by him some time before 
his death, at the express desire of Archbishop Usher, 
with whom he appears to have long lived in intimacy. — 
Harris's Ware. 


William Richardson was born in 1 698, at Wilsham- 
stead, near Bedford, and educated at Westminster, and 
at Emmanuel College, Cambridge. He was appointed 
Curate of St. Olave's, Southwark, which he held until 
1726, when he was chosen lecturer of that parish. He 
published in 1727, the Praelectiones Ecclesiasticae of his 
uncle, John Richardson, author of a Vindication of the 

EICHER. 211 

Canon of the New Testament, against Toland. In 1724, 
he was collated to the Prebend of Welton-Rivall, in the 
Cathedral of Lincoln. In 1730, he published. The Use- 
fulness and Necessity of Revelation ; in four Sermons, 
preached at St. Olave's, Southwark, 8vo; and in 1733, 
Relative Holiness, a Sermon preached at the Consecra- 
tion of the Parish Church of St. John's, Southwark. 
He next undertook, at the request of Bishops Gibson 
and Potter, to publish a new edition of Godwin de 
Praesulibus (which api:)eared in J 743, fol.) He then 
returned to Cambridge, for the convenience of the 
libraries, and more easy communication with his 
learned contemporaries; and in 1735, he proceeded 
D. D. In 1736, he was chosen master of Emmanuel 
College; and he served the office of vice-chancellor in 
1738, and again in 1769.. In 1746, he was appointed 
chaplain to the king. He was named in the will of 
Archbishop Potter to a precentorship of Lincoln ; which 
however, was contested with him by Archbishop Pot- 
ter's chaplain Dr. Chapman. The lord-keeper Henley 
decided in favour of Chapman ; but on Dr. Richard- 
son's appeal to the House of Lords, the decree was 
reversed. Burn has inserted a full account of this 
cause in his Ecclesiastical Law. Dr. Richardson died 
in 1775. He was a member of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, and left in M.S. some valuable collections 
relative to the constitution of the university ; many 
biographical anecdotes, preparatory to an Athente 
Cantabrigienses, which he once intended to publish ; 
and an alphabetical list of all the graduates of the 
university from 1500 to 1735 inclusive. — Gen. Biog. 


Edmund Richer was born at Chaource, in the diocese 

212 RICHER. 

of Langres, in the year 15 GO. He studied divinity 
at the University of Paris, where he was admitted a 
member of the house and society of the Sorbonne, and 
performed the exercises for his licentiate in 1587, 
with great reputation. At the same time he taught 
the logical class in the College of Cardinal le Moine. 
Possessing a bold and impetuous spirit, he was enticed 
to join the party, and to embrace the sentiments of 
the league ; and he had even the hardihood, in one 
of his theses, to express his approbation of the 
murder of Henry the Third by James Clement. His 
opinions, however, soon underwent a radical change, and 
he was induced from motives of genuine patriotism, 
to espouse the cause of Henry IV. No sooner had 
he taken the degree of doctor, in 1590, than he 
openly declared in favour of that prince, and distin- 
guished himself by his activity and success in bringing 
back the faculty to their duty. In 1594, he was 
made grand master and principal of the College of 
Cardinal le Moine. In 1600, he made his first 
appearance from the press, as editor and translator 
into French, of Tertullian's book "DePallio." About 
the year 1605, he began to print an edition of the 
works of John Gerson, or Charlier, that bold defender 
of the authority of general councils above that of the 
Pope, (see his Life;) but 'he was prevented from 
publishing them for some time, by the interposition 
of the papal nuncio at Paris. This circumstance did 
not deter him from defending the opinions of Gerson, 
for whom he wrote an "Apology," which he caused 
to be published in Germany, and which was after- 
wards connected with his edition of that author's 
works. In the year 1608, Richer was elected syndic 
of the faculty of divinity at Paris; and while he held 
that office, he distinguished himself by the zeal and 
spirit which he discovered in support of the ancient 
privileges of the Galilean clergy. In the year 1611, 

HIGHER. 213 

at the request of Nicholas de Verdun, first president 
of the Parliament of Paris, he published his treatise 
•* De Potestate Ecclesiae in Rebus Temporalibus," 4to. 
by way of answer to the thesis of a Dominican of 
Cologne, who maintained the infallibility of the Pope, 
and his superiority to a general council. This pro- 
duction made a considerable noise, and excited against 
Richer the intrigues of the nuncio, and of some 
doctors devoted to the Court of RomCj who endeavoured 
to procure his deposition from the syndicate, together 
with the condemnation of his book by the faculty of 
divinity ; but the parliament prevented the faculty 
from passing their censure upon it^ Notwithwstanding 
the interference of that body, Cardinal du Perron 
assembled eight bishops of his province at Paris, in 
the year 1612, who condemned the work. Against 
their judgment as partial and improperly obtained, 
Richer entered an appeal before the parliament, which 
was registered according to the customary forms ; but 
no further proceedings on the subject took place in 
that court. 

That Richer's book should be proscribed at Rome, 
was naturally to be expected ; and the papal anathema 
was speedily followed by that of the Archbishop of 
Aix, and of three of his suffragans. Immediately 
afterwards, a crowd of writers entered the lists against 
the obnoxious work, whose patrons procured an express 
order from court, that the author should not publish 
anything in its defence. Not satisfied with having 
thus silenced him, his enemies availed themselves of 
their influence with the higher powers, to obtain letters 
of command from the king and queen regent to the 
faculty of divinity, enjoining them to choose another 
syndic. Against this arbitrary attack on the privileges 
of the faculty. Richer publicly protested ; after which 
having first read a written defence of himself and his 
opinions, he withdrew from his post. From this 

214 RICHER. 

time be ceased to attend the meetings at the Sor- 
bonne, and shut himself up chiefly in solitude, 
occupied in study and the composition of works which 
were not published before his death. His enemies, 
however, would not suffer him to pursue his labours 
in peace, but by their interest procured his arrest, 
and commitment to the prison of St. Victor. They 
would even have delivered him up to the Pope, had 
not the parliament and the Chancellor of France 
prevented them, on the complaint of the University 
against their proceedings. Still his enemies continued 
their persecution; and in the year 1620, he was 
pressed to publish a declaration condemning his book. 
This he was determined not to do ; but he made a 
declaration of his readiness to explain the propositions 
which it contained in a catholic sense, adding, more- 
over, that he submitted his work to the judgment of 
the holy see and of the Catholic Church. Afterwards 
he made a second declaration to the same purport. 
In 1629, he reprinted his treatise "De Potestate," 
accompanied with such a comment as he thought 
might prove satisfactory, and the two declarations 
just mentioned. The Court of Rome, however, de- 
manding a more explicit retractation of his doctrine, 
Cardinal Richelieu determined that he should sign a 
third declaration drawn up by an apostolic notary 
who was sent to Paris for that purpose by the 
pope. Violence, it is said, was resorted to, to compel 
compliance, which hastened the old man's death, 
which occurred in 1631. He left behind him several 
works, which discover extensive learning, great discern- 
ment, much critical skill, and a commendable boldness 
in exploding the prejudices of the schools. Mosheim 
honourably distinguishes him from his contemporaries, 
by observing that he " was the only doctor in the 
University of Paris who followed the literal sense and 
the plain and natural signification of the words of 

RIDLEY. 215 

Scripture; while all the other commentators and 
interpreters, imitating the pernicious example of several 
ancient exj)ositors, were always racking their brains 
for mysterious and sublime significations, where none 
such were, nor could be designed by the sacred writers." 
Besides the articles already mentioned, he was the 
author of Vindicise Doctrinas Majorum, de Auctori- 
tate Ecclesiae in Rebus Fidei et Morum ; De Optimo 
Academiae Statui ; and Obsterix Animorum. After 
his death were published from his M.S.S., Notes on 
the Censure of the Books of Mark Anthony de Domi- 
nis by the Sorbonne ; A History of General Councils 
in Latin, printed at Cologne in 1682, in 3 vols. 4to ; 
and a History of the Syndicate of Edmund Richer, 
written by himself. He also left behind him in M.S. 
A History of Joan of Arc, or The Maid of Orleans, 
in 4 vols, fol., of which the Abbe Lenglet made free 
use in composing his History of Joan of Arc. — 
Moreri. Aiken. 


It is a matter of regret that within the compass of 
an article in this work, it is impossible to give an 
adequate account of this illustrious saint and martyr 
of the Church of England. Suffice it to say that 
in every relation of life, the power of his intellect, the 
integrity of his principles, and the piety of his heart were 
conspicuous. For the public affairs and general history 
of the Church at this period, the reader is referred 
to the Life of Cranmer. Welmontswick, in Tynedale, 
in the county of Northumberland, had the honour of 
•being the birth place of Nicholas Ridley, at the beginning 
of the sixteenth century. He was educated in a gram- 
mar school at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and thence pro- 
ceeded to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. When he came 

216 RIDLEY. 

to Cambridge, about the year 1518, he found it in some 
disturbance, occasioned by setting up the pope's indul- 
gences upon the school-gates, over which was written 
this verse of the Psalmist, " Blessed is the man that 
hath set his hope in the Lord : and turned not unto 
the proud, and to such as go about with lies." (Psa. xl.) 
The person who stuck it up, (though then unknown) 
was excommunicated by the chancellor of that university, 
Bishop Fisher; it seems it was one Peter de Valence, 
a Norman. Here Ridley had an oportunity of learning 
the Greek tongue, at the public lectures of Richard 
Crook, who about that time began to teach it in Cam- 
bridge ; to which all the scholars equally contributed, 
whether they attended it or not. As to religious opinions, 
his first prejudices, the public discredit of Lollardy before 
he came to Cambridge, and the diligent and severe pro- 
secution of Lutherans after he came there, were all in 
favour of the established superstitions. Nay more, his 
uncle, Dr. Robert Ridley, at whose expense and under 
whose influence he was now educating at Pembroke 
Hall, would keep him steady in that tract : for in the 
year 1520, or 1521, when the cardinal held a kind of 
convocation in his house, for the discussing and refuting 
Luther's doctrines, Dr. Ridley (with others) was sent 
from the University of Cambridge to assist in them. 

In 1522, he took the degree of B.A., and in 1524, 
he was chosen fellow of liis college. As his studies were 
now directed to divinity, his uncle, at his own charge, 
sent him for farther improvement to the Sorbonne, and 
thence to Louvain. In 1530, he was chosen junior 
treasurer of his college, and about this time appears to 
have been more than ordinarily intent on the study 
of the Scriptures. For this purpose he used to walk 
in the orchard at Pembroke Hall, and there committed 
to memory almost all the Epistles in Greek ; which walk 
is still called Ridley's Walk. In 1533, he was chosen 
senior proctor of the university. 

RIDLEY. 317 

While he was proctor, the important point of the~ 
pope's supremacy came before the university to be ex- 
amined on the authority of Scripture. For this purpose 
tliey appointed public disputations for sifting the ques- 
tion thoroughly. In these it is probable that Ridley's 
education at Paris had given him an ability to assist 
with great success ; as he might have learned there to 
overcome the chief difficulty in that question, which was 
to get over the prejudice of human authority in the 
decrees of popes and councils, and their false interpre- 
tations of Scripture. Their famous appeal from the 
pope's repeal of the acts of the Council of Basle was 
yet fresh in memory, and the writings of two of their 
members, Gerson and Occam, were then diligently read 
there. The latter of these determines, that neither the 
pope nor the clergy are exempt from the emperor's jurisdic- 
tion ; and that whatever greater privileges they enjoy, they 
hold of human right only. Grounding his determina- 
tion on this Scripture, that each, after embracing Chris- 
tianity, was to remain in the same condition in which 
he was before he was called. (1 Cor. vii. 20.) If therefore, 
says he, before ordination, every priest was subject to 
his own prince ; after priesthood taken, he was to con- 
tinue in the same subjection : and consequently the 
pope, if before he was called to the Papacy he was 
subject to the emperor, his being called to the Papacy 
does not discharge him from being under the imperial 
jurisdiction. The University of Cambridge therefore 
following the judgment of that at Paris, after mature 
deliberation came to this resolution : " That the Bishop 
of Rome had no more authority and jurisdiction derived 
to him from God, in this kingdom of England, than 
any other foreign bishop." Signed in the name of the 
university. May 2nd, 1534, by Simon Heynes, vice- 
chancellor; Nicholas Ridley, Richard Wilkes, proctors. 

In 1534, he took the degree of B.D., and was chosen 
chaplain of the university, and public reader. In 1537, 


218 RIDLEY. 

liis great reputation as a preacher, and his intimate ac- 
quaintance with the Scriptures and fathers, led Cranmer, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, to appoint him his domestic 
chaplain. As a farther mark of esteem, he collated 
him in April, 1538, to the vicarage of Heme in Kent. 
Here he preached the principles of the Reformation, 
excepting that he still adhered to the doctrine of the 
corporal presence in the Eucharist; and among other 
converts whom he made to them, was the Lady Fiennes. 
In ]')39, when the act of the Six Articles was passed, 
Ridley who had now the character of a zealous Scrip- 
turist, bore his testimony against it in the pulpit. In 
1549 he went to Cambridge, and took his degree of D.D. 
Soon after this he was preferred to the mastership of 
Pembroke Hall, and about the same time, through the 
archbishop's influence was appointed chaplain to the 
king, and was nominated to a prebend in the Cathe- 
dral Church of Canterbury, which was now made a 
collegiate church with a deanery, twelve prebendaries, 
and six preachers. 

How honestly and prudently the new prebendary 
behaved himself, appears in good measure from his 
endeavours in the pulpit to set the abuses of Popery 
so open before the people's eyes in his sermons, as to 
provoke the prebendaries and preachers of the old 
learning to exhibit articles against him, at the Arch- 
bishop's Visitation for preaching contrary to his tes- 
timony against any error he had discovered ; yet, the 
statute of the six articles. He feared not to bear 
with respect to the authority by which the six articles 
were enjoined, delivering his opinion so cautiously, as 
that his accusers could prove nothing but the malice 
of their accusation. 

His subjects, and his manner of handling them, we 
learn from his adversaries. His subjects were chosen 
to recommend a sensible spirit of devotion; maintain- 
ing that prayer ought to be made in a language which 

RIDLEY. 219 

the people understood, and not in an unintelligible 
tongue, "for so it were but babbling"; and for this end he 
introduced in his own parish church at Heme a trans- 
lation of the excellent hymn of St. Ambrose, Te Deum ; 
directing at other times not to build any security upon 
mere ceremonies, for that no meeter term could be given 
them than beggarly ceremonies : and though he had a 
very high opinion of the usefulness of Auricular Con- 
fession, as in a letter written by him in prison he de- 
clares he always had, and it was now appointed by 
statute, that of the six articles, yet he ingenuously and 
faithfully declared the truth in that matter, that it was 
but a mere positive law, and ordained as a godly mean 
for the sinner to come to the priest for counsel ; as such 
he recommended and wished the use of it ; but then he 
declared, that as to the doctrine of its being absolutely 
necessary to salvation, he could not find it in Scripture. 
These points we find urged against him by the preben- 
daries and preachers of Canterbury two years after. 
The manner in which he treated his subjects we learn 
from the acknowledgment of Winchester in a letter to 
Ridley in King Edward's reign, when his authority and 
reputation might have emboldened him to be more dog- 
matical. He says, "You declared yourself always desirous 
to set forth the mere truth, with great desire of unity, as 
you professed ; not extending any of your asseverations 
beyond your knowledge : but always adding such like 
words, as far as you had read, and if any man could 
shew you further, you woidd hear him; wherein you 
were much to be commended." Such was the meek 
and gentle spirit of him, whom a late Popish writer 
is pleased to brand for " his virulent temper in matters 
of religion." 

Hitherto Dr. Ridley had been an unsuspecting believer 
in the doctrine of transubstantiation ; but in the year 
1545, while spending a considerable time in retirement 
at Heme, he employed himself in carefully and dis- 


passionately examining into its truth and evidence. To 
this subject his attention appears to have been drawn, 
by the apology of the Zuinglians for their doctrine 
respecting the Eucharist in opposition to Luther, which 
had been lately published, and was very generally and 
eagerly read. He had also procured the treatise of 
Bertram or Ratramn, (see his Life) a monk of Corbie 
in the ninth century, written against Paschasius 
Radbert, at the request of the Emperor Charles 
the Bald, of which we have made particular men- 
tion in our life of the author. From this book 
Dr. Ridley learned, that the doctrine of the corporal 
presence, or transubstantiation, was for the first time 
advanced so lately as about the year 840, and that 
it met wdth the strongest opposition from some of 
the firm supporters of the Catholic Church. This dis- 
covery razed at once that foundation of authority on 
which he had been accustomed to establish that doc- 
trine, and prepared him to consider without prejudice 
what the writers above mentioned had published. He 
now determined to search the Scriptures more accurately 
upon the subject, as well as the doctrine of the primitive 
fathers. As he proceeded, he honestly communicated 
his discoveries and his scruples to his friend and patron 
Cranmer, who, knowing the sincerity of the man, and 
his cool judgment, was prevailed upon to examine this 
doctrine himself with the utmost care. The result was, 
that both Dr. Ridley and the archbishop became fully 
convinced, that the doctrine in question was not a doc- 
trine of Scripture. The setting aside this absurd tenet 
was a very important article of the Reformation ; for, as 
Cranmer expressed himself, " the taking away of beads, 
pilgrimages, pardons, and such like Popery, was but 
the lopping a few branches, which would soon spring 
up again, unless the roots of the tree, which were 
transubstantiation and the sacrifice of the mass, were 
pulled up." And this he acknowledged was owing to 

RIDLEY. aai 

conference with Dr. Ridley, " who, by sundry persua- 
sions and authorities of doctors, drew him quite from 
his old opinion." Towards the close of the year 1545, 
Cranmer procured for his friend the eighth stall in 
the Church of St. Peter at Westminster. Upon the 
accession of Edward VI. in 1547, Dr. Ridley, being 
appointed to preach before the king on Ash- Wednesday, 
took that opportunity, after confuting the Bishop of 
Rome's pretended claims to authority and power, to 
discourse concerning the abuses of images in churches, 
and ceremonies, particularly the use of holy water for 
driving away devils ; which Gardiner, Bishop of Win- 
chester, who was among his auditors, made an unsuc- 
cessful attempt to defend, in a letter which he sent 
to him on the following Monday. 

In 1547, Dr. Ridley was consecrated Bishop of 
Rochester. This year, the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Dr. Cranmer, communicated to Latimer, (released from 
his confinement, but refusing the episcopal charge, and 
residing with the archbishop) those truths with regard 
to the Lord's Supper, with which Ridley had brought 
him acquainted the year before. The idolatrous vene- 
ration of that Sacrament in the Church of Rome, in 
worshipping the elements, as converted into the very 
substantial and natural Body and Blood of Christ ; and 
the extreme reverence paid to them by the Lutherans, 
as comprehending and containing in them the same 
substantial and natural Body and Blood, were now 
openly opposed: but the Anabaptists, who fled from 
Germany hither ; the extravagant among ourselves, who 
leap from one extreme, over the truth, to the other ; and 
some Protestants, who confounded truth and error by 
their scurrility, carried this opposition so far as to 
bring this Sacrament into great contempt. Railing bills 
against it were fixed upon the doors of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, and other places, terming it Jack in the box, 
the Sacrament of the Halter, Round Robin, and such 
u 3 

k'52 KTDLEY. 

like irreverent terms. The new Bishop of Rochester, 
who, was as far removed from profaneness as from 
superstition, set his face strenuously against this im- 
piety; and publicly rebuked it in his sermon at St. 
Paul's Cross, with great earnestness asserting the 
dignity of the Sacrament, and the presence of Christ's 
Body there ; reproving with great freedom those who 
did irreverently behave themselves with regard to it ; 
bidding them, who esteemed the Sacrament no better 
than a piece of bread, to depart, as unworthy to hear 
the mystery ; as the Poenitentes, Audientes, Catechu- 
meni, and Energumeni, in the primitive times were 
not admitted when the Sacrament was administered. 
He observed to them (as Fecknam reports) that the devil 
believed better than some among them ; for he believed 
that Christ was able of stones to make bread, but they 
would not believe that Christ's Body was in the Sacra- 
ment : but to the receivers, the Sanctl, he so explained 
the Presence, that he asserted, that the material sub- 
stance of the bread did still remain, and that Christ 
called it His Body, Meat, and Flesh, giving it the 
properties of the Thing of which it beareth the name. 
Here we find the same lines of his character continued 
in the preacher, which were observed before in the 
disputant ; modest in proposing his opinions to persons 
whose judgments only w^ere mistaken, meekly instruc- 
ting those who were in error: but earnest and severe 
wherever he discovered a fault in the will, boldly 
rebuking vice. Yet, notwithstanding all his care and 
caution, this sermon was afterwards very untruly and 
unjustly represented, as he himself complained, as if 
he had in it asserted the presence of Christ's natural 

We may mention here a disputation held at Cam- 
bridge on this subject, at which Bishop Pddley presided. 
The Protector Somerset, presuming probably on the 
favours lately shewn to the Bishop of Rochester, and 

RIDLEY. j^'23 

the expectation of further favours in «time to come, 
endeavoured to persuade or intimidate him to coun- 
tenance one of those foul jobs which disgraced so many 
of the lay reformers, by which he desired, under pre- 
tence of Reformation, to rob the University of Cambridge 
and to enrich himself. Ridley could be neither per- 
suaded nor intimidated, and the proud and grasping 
protector was obliged to drop the affair. The commis- 
sioners to whom the Protector Somerset intended to 
assign this job, were appointed also to preside at the 
disputation just alluded to, and this part of the com- 
mission was executed. Two positions were appointed 
to be the subjects of this public disputation ; and after 
they had been sufficiently ventilated, a determination 
of the matters debated was to be made by the Bishop 
of Rochester. The two positions were : — 

1. Transubstantiation cannot be proved by the plain 
and manifest words of Scripture, nor can thereof be 
necessarily collected, nor yet confirmed by the consents 
of the ancient fathers for these one thousand years 

2. In the Lord's Supper is none other oblation or 
sacrifice, than one only remembrance of Christ's death, 
and of thanksgiving. 

The first disputation was on Thursday the 20th of 
June, Dr. Madew of Clare Hall, respondent, maintain- 
ing the above positions: Dr. Glyn, Master Langdale, 
Sedgwick and Young, opponents. The second dispu- 
tation was held on Monday the 24th, Dr. Glyn, respon- 
dent, maintaining the contrary positions : Master Par- 
ker, (not Matthew, who was afterwards Archbishop of 
Canterbury) Pollard, Vavasor, and Young, opponents. 
There is one difference observed between the disputa- 
tions at Oxford and at Cambridge : Peter Martyr 
admitted a change in the elements ; and Langdale, 
one of the opponents, the first day at Cambridge, asked, 
supposing a change admitted, " Whether that change 

^24 RIDLEY. 

was wrought in the substance, or in the accidents, or 
else in both, or in nothing?" Ridley interposed and 
answered, "There is no change, either of the sub- 
stances or of the accidents, insomuch, that whereas the 
bread and wine were not sanctified before, nor holy, 
yet afterward they be sanctified, and so do receive 
then another sort or kind of virtue, which they had not 

After the disputations were finished, the bishop 
determined : — 

First, — Against Transubstantiation, on these five 
principal grounds : 

1. The authority, majesty, and verity of Holy Scrip- 
ture: "I will not drink hereafter of the fruit of the 
vine." St. Paul and St. Luke call it bread after con- 
secration. They speak of breaking, which agrees with 
bread, not with Christ's Body. It was to be done in 
remembrance of Him. " This is the Bread that came 
down from heaven ;" but Christ's Body came not down 
from heaven. "It is the Spirit that quickeneth, the 
flesh profiteth nothing." 

'2. The most certain testimonies of the ancient 
Catholic fathers, who (after my judgment) do sufficiently 
declare this matter. Here he produced many fathers, 
Dionysius, Ignatius, Irenasus, Tertullian, Chrysostom, 
Cyprian, Theodoret, Gelasius, x\ustin, Cyril, Isychius 
and Bertram, who call it bread after consecration, 
sacramental bread, the figure of Christ's Body : and 
expressly declare that bread still continues after con- 
secration, and that the elements cease not to be the 
substance of bread and wine still. 

3. The nature of a Sacrament. In this he sujDposes 
natural symbols to represent like spiritual effects, which 
in the sacrament of the Lord's Supper are unity, nutri- 
tion, and conversion. They who take away the union 
of the grains making one bread, of which partaking 
we become one mystical Body of Christ ; or they who 

HIDLEY. j;)Q5 

deny the nutrition, or substance of tliose grains, by 
which our bodies being nourished is represented the 
nourishment of our souls by the Body of Christ, these 
take away the simiUtude between the bread and the 
Body of Christ, and destroy the nature of a Sacrament. 
As neither is there any thing to signify our being turned 
into Christ's Body, if there be no conversion of the bread 
into the substance of our bodies. 

The 4th ground was. that Transubstantiation destroys 
one of the natures in Christ. 

They which say that Christ is carnally present in the 
Eucharist, do take from Him the verity of man's nature. 
Eutyches granted the divine nature in Christ, but His 
human nature he denied. So they that defend Tran 
substantiation, ascribe that to the human nature, which 
only belongeth to the divine nature. 

The 5th ground is the most sure belief of the article 
of our faith, " He ascended into heaven." 

He quotes from St. Austin on St. John, " The Lord 
is above, even to the end of the world : but yet the 
verity of the Lord is here also. For His Body wherein 
He rose again must needs be in one place, but His 
verity is spread abroad everywhere." 

By verity he means an essential divine presence by 
His invisible and unspeakable grace, as he distinguishes 
on Matthew xxviii,, " As touching His majesty, His 
providence, His invisible and unspeakable grace, these 
words are fulfilled, which He spake, ' I am with you 
unto the end of the world :' but according to the flesh 
which He took upon Him, so ' ye shall not have Me 
always with you.' And why? because as concerning 
His flesh He went up into heaven, and is not here, 
for He sitteth at the right hand of the Father: and 
yet concerning the presence of His divine majesty He 
is not departed hence." And from Vigilius he quoted, 
" Concerning His flesh we look for Him from heaven ; 
Whom, as concerning the Wo}d (or divine nature) we 

226 EIDLEY. 

believe to be with us on earth." And again, "the 
course of Scripture must be searched of us, and many- 
testimonies must be gathered, to shew plainly what 
a wickedness and sacrilege it is, to refer those things 
to the property of the divine nature, which do only 
belong to the nature of the flesh : and contrariwise, 
to apply those things to the nature of the flesh, which 
do properly belong to the divine nature." This he 
observes the Transubstantiators do, who affirm Christ's 
Body not to be contained in any one place, and ascribe that 
to His humanity, which properly belongs to His divinity. 
Second, — Against the oblation of Christ in the Lord's 
Supj)er he determined on these two grounds : — 

1. Scripture; as Paul saith, Hebrews, ix., "Christ 
being become an High Priest of good things to come, 
by a greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with 
hands, that is, not of this building : neither by the 
blood of goats and calves, but by His own Blood, entered 
once into the Holy place, and obtained eternal redemp- 
tion for us. And now in the end of the world He hath 
appeared once to put away sin by the sacrifice of Him- 
self." And again, " Christ was once oflered to take away 
the sins of many." Moreover he saith, "With one 
offering hath He made perfect for ever those that are 
sanctified." These Scriptures do persuade me to believe 
that there is no other oblation of Christ (albeit I am 
not ignorant that there are many sacrifices) but that 
which was 07ice made on the cross. 

2. The testimonies of the ancient fathers. Austin 
ad Bonif. Epist. 23. Again, in his book of forty- three 
questions, question forty-one, contra Transubstan. lib. 
20. cap. 21, 28., where he writes how the Christians 
keep a memorial of the sacrifice past, with an oblation, 
and participation of the Body and Blood of Christ. 
Fulgentius in his book de Fide, calls the same a com- 
memoration. And these things are sufficient at this 
time for a scholastic determination of these matters. 


In 1548, Bishop Kidley was employed with Arch- 
bishop Cranmer, and others, in reforming, translating, 
and compiling the Book of Common Prayer. (See the 
Life of Cranmer. J 

On the suspension of Bishop Bonner, Bishop Ridley 
was translated to London, and was enthroned in April, 
1550. Nothing could exceed the piety, zeal, sound 
judgment, and decorum with which he conducted him- 
self in this high office. We have a minute account 
of his domestic arrangements, w^hich are interesting, 
as throwing light upon the customs of the time, while 
it is for all time instructive. When, in 1551, the 
sweating sickness prevailed in England, and made its 
appearance in London in the month of June, while 
all the nobility and men of wealth fled, Bishop Ridley 
remained at his post, braved all danger, and while 
hundreds were dying daily around him, he laboured 
in the discharge of his pastoral functions and endea- 
voured to improve the public calamity to the reformation 
of the manners of the people. 

In 1551, occurred the controversy between the Bishop 
of Lttndon and Dr. Hooper, the elect of Gloucester, 
who was anxious to accept the episcopal office and 
revenues, but demurred to the use of the episcopal 
vestments. There were long arguings between them, 
and at last the dispute kindled into some heat. The 
Bishop considered it as a refractory disobedience to 
laws and governmxent, which it is necessary at all times 
to support, but was then more particularly so, in those 
days of faction ; for the doctrine of Lady Mary's court 
w^as, that the king's laws during his minority were not 
to be obeyed ; Bonner and Gardiner had refused to 
preach that obedience was due to them ; and the king- 
dom w^as scarcely quieted from insurrections in all parts 
of it from the same principle : nay even among the Gos- 
pellers, as they were called, their whims and enthusiasm 
had introduced great disorder : not only Munster had 

228 RIDLEY. 

taught to withdraw all obedience from the civil powers 
to erect an unscriptural kingdom of Christ, but Calvin's 
own opinions, to which Hooper inclined, were probably 
too well known, which he afterwards published in his 
Prelections upon Amos ; where he says, " We are sen- 
sible of the consequence of that unhappy principle, 
which gives the civil magistrate a sovereignty in religion. 
The complimenting Henry the Eighth wdth such a 
sovereign authority in all matters shocked me extremely. 
They who call him the supreme head of the Church 
under Christ, were plainly guilty of blasphemy." On 
these accounts Ridley looked upon it as a point of 
importance that Hooper should comply, and learn 
obedience before he took upon him the office of a 
governor, while Hooper endeavoured to represent it as 
a contest only about habits, indifferent at best, but in 
his judgment sinful. Hence grew a warm controversy 
about religious vestments ; and what was begun by 
Cranmer on account of the Premunire was now called 
the Bishop of London's Controversy de re vestiaria. The 
pulpits and the schools engaged in the dispute; for 
Peter Martyr in a letter to Bucer mentions disputations 
at Oxford, about the middle of October, on this ques- 
tion, " whether it were lawful to recall the Aaronic cere- 
monies into the Christian Church ?" In which letter 
he blames Hooper for not coolly canvassing the point 
among his friends, which would have prevented that 
heat of preaching, which then could hardly be allayed. 
Hooper himself, who was a popular preacher, and soon 
after silenced, declaimed liberally on the subject. Nor 
was he without seconds in his cause ; John a Lasco was 
entirely of his opinion, and many of the court (as 
Martyr heard) favoured him. Nay he boasted, that the 
foreign Churches, and particularly the two professors, 
Bucer and Martyr, sided with him : but in this he was 
mistaken, for John a Lasco, who warmly espoused 
Hooper's cause, acknowledges that he counselled Hooper 

RIDLEY. 229 

to give out confidently, that all the foreigners then in 
England were of his opinion ; for being so straitened 
in time, that he had no opportunity of asking their 
judgment, he boldly ventured to strengthen his cause 
by the patronage of their names : but in this both 
Hooper and a Lasco were greatly too forward, and dis- 
appointed in the event. These flames of contention 
alarmed the council ; they knew not how far they might 
reach, nor what confusion might be introduced by them. 
Therefore, October 3rd, they sent for Hooper, and 
required him to cease the occasion of this controversy, 
by conforming himself to the laws. Hooper humbly 
besought them, that, for declaration of his doings, he 
might put in writing such arguments as moved him 
to be of the opinion which he held. This was granted 
him ; and he offered a Book to the Council against 
the use of those habits which were then used by the 
Church of England in her sacred ministries. The next 
Sunday, October 6th, the Council wrote to the Bishop 
of London, that "whereas there had been some dif- 
ference between him and the Elect of Gloucester, upon 
certain ceremonies belonging to the making a Bishop, 
wherein their lordships desire is, because they would 
in nowise be stirring up of controversies between men 
of one profession, that he would cease the occasion 
thereof. The bishop humbly required that as the Elect 
of Gloucester had leave to offer in writing his reasons 
for dissenting, he also in his own justification might 
put in writing such arguments as moved him to be of 
the opinion which he held." This was granted, and he 
had orders to attend the council the next Sunday, and 
to bring with him such answer as he thought convenient. 
Part of Hooper's Book, says Dr. Gloucester Eidley, I 
have by me in M.S., but Ridley's Answer I have never 
seen : yet by a Letter from John a Lasco, I find that 
it was not only defensive; for, besides answering 
Hooper's arguments, some objections were added ; which 
VOL. vriL X 

•>30 RIDLEY. 

Hooper by another writing endeavoured to refute. And 
this refutation was again refuted in a pretty long 
answer from the bishop and it appears that the council 
were so well satisfied that Hooper's stiffness was more 
tlian reasonable, in standing out still against any com- 
pliance, that even his great friends forsook him, and 
forthwith commanded him to keep his house, unless it 
were to go to the Archbishop of Canterbury, or the 
Bishops of London, Ely, or Lincoln, for counsel and 
satisfaction of his conscience. 

In June, 1550, the Bishop of London held his pri- 
mary visitation, and directed that the Romish altars 
should be taken down, and tables substituted in their 

The reasons assigned for this injunction were : — 

1. That the end of this sacrament was to eat of 
Christ's body, and to drink His blood, not to sacrifice 
and crucify Him again : the end therefore required a 
table rather than an altar. 

2. It is sometimes indeed called altar in the Book of 
Common Prayer, as that on which the sacrifice of praise 
and thanksgiving is offered; but it is also called the 
Lord's table, and the Lord's board indifferently, without 
prescribing any particular form. So that this injunction 
is not contrary to the Book of Common Prayer. 

o. The Popish opinion was that an altar was neces- 
sary for the celebration of the mass, which superstitious 
opinion was kept alive by the continuance of altars : 
therefore the removal of altars was necessary for abolish- 
ing that superstitious opinion. 

4. An altar was ordained for the sacrifices of the law ; 
but now both the law and the sacrifices ceasing, the 
altar should also cease. 

5. Christ instituted His last supper at a table, and 
not upon an altar. Nor did either the Apostles or the 
primitive Church, as we read of, ever use an altar in 
the ministration of the Holy Communion. Therefore 

RIDLEY. 231 

a table, as more agreeing with Christ's institution and 
primitive practice is rather to be used than an altar. 

6. Because the Book of Common Prayer leaves it to 
the diocesan to determine, if any doubt arises about the 
practice of it. 

He was soon after engaged with the archbishop in 
drawing up the forty- two articles. (See Life of Crafimer.J 
In the year following, he visited his old college at Cam- 
bridge, and on his return called at Hansdon, to pay 
his respects to the Princess Mary, afterwards known 
as the bloody queen. The arrogance, insolence, and 
bitterness of her nature she displayed on this occasion, 
in the insults she offered to the venerable prelate. In 
1553, the bishop preached before Edward VI., and so 
effectually did he insist upon the duty of almsgiving, 
beneficence, and charity, that the king sent for him 
to inquire how he might best put into practice the duties 
so strongly enforced. The bishop conferred upon the 
subject with the lord mayor and corporation of London. 
The result was such a representation of the different 
classes of objects which called for the attention of huma- 
nity, as determined the king to found, or incorporate 
anew, and endow with ample revenues, those noble 
charitable institutions, Christ's, Bartholomew's, Bride- 
well, and St, Thomas's hospitals. 

When, after the death of King Edward VI., an 
attempt was made to raise Lady Jane Grey to the 
throne. Bishop Ridley was induced heartily to concur 
in it by his attachment to the principles of the Refor 
mation. Being commanded by the council to preach 
at St. Paul's, and to recommend Queen Jane to the 
people, he obeyed the order with great zeal and earnest 
ness, pointing out the dangerous and ruinous conse- 
quences which must follow, should the Princess Mary 
succeed, who was a rigid Papist, determined to subvert 
the true religion as already established, and to betray 
the kingdom again into slavery under a foreign power. 

«32 KIDLEY. 

After the design in favour of Lady Jane had miscarried, 
and the Princess Mary had been acknowledged and 
proclaimed queen, Ridley was obliged as Bishop of 
London to wait upon her majesty, expecting doubtless 
to be accused of treason. By the command of that 
bigotted princess he was sent back from Framingham 
on a lame horse, and committed to the Tower on the 
26th of July, 1553, to be proceeded against, not as a 
state prisoner for treason, but for heresy. Notwith- 
standing this treatment, the bishop might have delivered 
himself from the danger which threatened him, and 
recovered the queen's favour, if he would have brought 
the weight of his learning and authority to countenance 
her proceedings in religion. With the hope of winning 
him, therefore, he was treated with more resjDect and 
indulgence than the other prisoners in the Tower, 
having the liberty of walking about in it, to try if he 
would vo-luntarily go to mass. In the meantime, he 
was very desirous of conferring with Cranmer and Lati- 
mer, who were his fellow prisoners, that he might bring 
his own opinions to the test, and either correct or streng- 
then them from the experience of those veterans. For 
this purpose they had several conferences, exchanging 
papers and letters on these subjects. When Ridley had 
been about eight months in the Tower, he was con- 
veyed from thence to Oxford, together with Cranmer and 
Latimer, to be present at a disputation, when it was 
pretended that the controversy between the Papists and 
Protestants would be determined by a fair debate be- 
tween the most eminent divines of both parties. Of 
the gratuitous and heartless insults offered to the mar- 
tyrs, an account is given in the Lives of Archbishop 
Cranmer, and Bishop Latimer. The important point 
of the controversy turned on the subject of transub- 
stantiation. The Papists represented their doctrine of 
transubstantiation as founded on these three firm pillars. 
Scripture, the interpretation of the primitive writers, 
and the determination of the Church. 

KIDLEY. 233 

The Scripture in express terms affirms, in the words 
of Christ Himself, " This is My body ;" consequently, say 
they, this was transubstantiated from the bread it had 
been, into the body of Christ. And Christ being Truth 
itself and the Wisdom of the Father, to refuse credit 
to His declarations, or to suppose that when He said 
one thing He meant another, is impiety and infidelity. 

If the Protestants expressed, as indeed they did, the 
greatest reverence for Christ's words, and maintained 
that they themselves understood His words in the true 
sense, while the adversaries dishonour Him by interpre- 
ting them in an absurd one ; the Papists urged : — 
. The consent of antiquity; for that all the primitive 
writers interpret the words as the Papists do, and sub- 
mitting their imaginations to the wisdom of God, boldly 
insist upon that sense which the Protestants call absurd ; 
and expressly avow that Christ bare Himself in His own 
hands : that he did eat Himself, ipse cibus et conviva : that 
He took His flesh to heaven, and left it at the same time on 
earth. And that while He sitteth at God's right hand, 
He is in a thousand places at once on earth. Unus in 
multis, idem, in diversis locis. Therefore that the 
Protestants who fly to a figurative interpretation, con- 
vict themselves of holding new fangled doctrines, which 
they lick out of their own fingers, contrary to all the 
ancient doctors ; and contrary — 

To the determination of the Church, the pillar and 
ground of the truth, for popes, synods, and general 
councils had decreed transubstantiation ; which the Pro- 
testants themselves do not deny. 

Now would it have been a sufficient defence in these 
bishops to have contented themselves with disavowing 
the authority of all the ancient fathers and the Church 
through all ages ; and to have insisted that although 
they were all against the Protestant opinion, yet the 
Protestant opinion was right, and all the fathers and 
the Church quite mistaken from our Saviour's time 
X 3 

234 RIDLEY. 

down to the middle of the sixteenth century ? Or would 
it have been as wise a part in them, by their silence, or 
by disavowing the authority as insufficient, to have con- 
ceded to their adversaries, that all this authority was 
against them, when they could, and did prove the con- 
trary? as may be seen in Cranmer's "Defence of the 
true and Catholic Doctrine of the Sacrament of the 
Body and Blood of our Saviour Christ ;" and Ridley's 
" Brief Treatise of the most Blessed Sacrament of the 
Body and Blood of Christ;" and in his Preface to the 

As to Scripture, Ridley observes the four evangelists 
and St. Paul do agree, saying, that " Jesus took bread, 
gave thanks, brake and gave it to the disciples, saying, 
take, eat, this is My body." Here it appeareth plainly 
that Christ called very bread His body : but say the 
Papists, (that is. Innocent III., Duns Scotus, and their 
followers) when He gave thanks and blessed the bread, 
He changed its substance ; so that He brake not bread, 
which then was not there, but only the form thereof. 
But St. Paul saith it still continueth bread after the 
consecration ; " the bread which we break is it not the 
partaking or fellowship of the Lord's body ? " Where- 
upon it followeth, that after the thanksgiving it is bread 
which we break. And how often in the Acts of the 
Apostles is the Lord's Supper signified by breaking of 
bread ? And that the natural substance of the wine 
continues is proved from the words of Christ ; for after 
he had said of the cup, " This is My blood of the New 
Testament," he says expressly, " I will not drink hence- 
forth of this fruit of the vinetree, until that day when 
I shall drink it new in My Father's kingdom." Here 
note, how Christ calleth plainly His cup the fruit of the 
vinetree : but the fruit of the vinetree is very natural 
wine : wherefore the very natural substance of the wine 
doth remain still in the Sacrament of Christ's blood. 

And as they are not transubstantiated at all, but con- 

KIDLEY. 235 

tinue in their substance what they were before conse- 
cration, that is, bread and wine, so neither can they 
be transubstantiated into the natural body and blood of 
Christ, but are received in remembrance of Him, namely 
of His body given for us, and of His blood shed for the 
remission of sins. They (the Protestants) deny the 
presence of Christ's body in the natural substance of His 
human and assumpt nature, and grant the presence of 
the same by grace, that is, they affirm and say, that the 
substance of the natural body and blood of Christ is 
only remaining in heaven, and so shall be unto the 
latter day, when He shall come again in glory accom- 
panied with the angels of heaven to judge the quick and 
the dead : but by grace the same body of Christ is here 
present with us ; as we say the sun, which in substance 
never removeth his place out of the heavens, is yet 
present here by his beams, light, and natural influence, 
where it shineth upon the earth. For all grant that 
St. Paul's words require, that the bread which we break 
should be the communion of the body of Christ; and 
that the cup of blessing should be the communion of 
the blood of Christ ; and also that he who eateth of that 
bread and drinketh of that cup unworthily, should be 
guilty of the Lord's death, and that he eats and drinks 
his own damnation, not considering the Lord's body. 
Wherefore the Papists did most falsely and injuriously 
accuse the Protestants with making the Sacrament no 
better than a piece of common broken bread, and but a 
bare sign and figure to represent Christ. Of this great 
injustice and misrepresentation Ridley complains, and 
says, Alas ! let us leave lying, and speak the truth every 
man not only to his neighbour, but also of his neigh- 
bour; for we are all members one of another. 

Ridley was quite as successful in refuting the Romish 
heresy by reference to the teaching of the fathers of 
the primitive Church, although there is not space to 
quote his references in this article. 

236 RIDLEY. 

His letters written during his confinement are of the 
deepest interest, and it is onlj for want of space that we 
reluctantly omit the various notices which have come 
down to us of the truly Christian way in which this 
godly man met the persecutions to which he was sub- 
jected. No sign of fanaticism did he ever exhibit; he 
never lost his presence of mind; and his affectionate 
heart was to the last solicitous for the welfare of all 
who were near and dear to him. His farewell address 
is one of the most affecting productions in our language, 
and for unpretending eloquence can bear comparison 
with that of Gregory Nazianzen. 

During the fortnight in which he continued in prison 
after his condemnation, the Popish party, as though 
they were ashamed to sacrifice a man of such acknow- 
ledged piety and learning, tried all their means of 
persuasion to gain him to their cause. Brookes, Bishop 
of Gloucester, in great simplicity pointed out to him 
the only method of being reclaimed to the Church of 
Rome, which was, to " captivate his senses, and subdue 
his reason ;" and then, " he doubted not but that he 
might be easily induced to acknowledge one Church 
with them." About the same time. Lord Dacres, who 
was kinsman to Ridley, offered ten thousand pounds 
to the queen, if she would preserve so valuable a life. 
But to this proposal she would not agree, on any other 
condition than that of the bishop's recantation; and 
Ridley, with the spirit of a primitive martyr, nobly 
refused life on such terms. 

On the 15th of October, which was the day preceding 
that appointed for his execution, our excellent prelate 
was degraded from priest's orders by the Bishop of 
Gloucester, who seems to have considered him as having 
before invalidated his consecration by abjuring the pope. 
When the mummery of this scene was finished, Ridley 
prepared himself for his approaching death, which a 
sound judgment and a good conscience enabled him 

tllDLEY. 237 

to regard as a subject of joy and triumpli. He called 
it his marriage, and in the evening washed his beard 
and legs, and supped in company with his brother-in-law, 
Mr. Shipside, and some other friends, behaving with 
the utmost cheerfulness. When they rose from table, 
Mr. Shipside offered to watch all night with him ; but 
he would not suffer him, saying, that he intended (God 
willing) to go to bed, and to sleep as quietly that night, 
as ever he did in his life. On the following morning 
dressed in the habit which he used to wear in his 
episcopal character, he walked to the place of execution 
between the mayor and one of the aldermen of Oxford ; 
and seeing Latimer approach, from whom he had been 
separated after their condemnation, he ran to him with 
a cheerful countenance, embraced him, and said, " Be 
of good heart, brother, for God will either assuage the 
fury of the flame, or else strengthen us to abide it." 
Then going up to the stake, he kneeled down, and kiss- 
ing it, prayed with great fervour. He was now com- 
pelled to hear a sermon from a Popish doctor, as we have 
seen in the life of Latimer; and, after it was ended, 
being refused permission to speak a few sentences, un- 
less he recanted, he said, " Well, so long as the breath 
is in my body, I will never deny my Lord Christ, and 
His known truth. God's will be done in me ! " He was 
then stripped to his shirt, and fastened by an iron chain 
to the same stake with Bishop Latimer. At this instant, 
when a cruel death awaited him, Ridley shewed a won- 
derful greatness of mind and self-possession, in being 
so regardless of his own sufferings, as to spend some of 
his last moments in solicitations for the interests and 
happiness of others. He made it his dying request to 
Lord Williams, that he would support by his interest a 
supplication which he had made to the queen on behalf 
of his sister ; and that his lordship would also interfere 
in favour of some poor men, who had taken leases of 
Ridley, under the see of London, which his successor 


had unjustly and illegally refused to confirm. All pre- 
parations having now been made, a kindled faggot was 
laid at Ridley's feet, who, when he saw the fire flaming 
up towards him, with a loud voice commended his soul 
to God. Latimer soon expired ; but, by some misman- 
agement of the fire on Ridley's side of the stake, the 
flames were prevented from reaching the upper part of 
his body, and his legs were consumed before the fire 
approached the vital parts, which made him endure 
dreadful torments for a long time. At length his suffer- 
ings were terminated by the explosion of a bag of gun- 
powder which had been suspended from his neck, after 
which he did not discover any remaining signs of life. 
Such was the end of Bishop Ridley! In his private 
character, he was a pattern of piety, humility, tempe- 
rance, and regularity, to all around him. His temper 
was cheerful and agreeable ; his manners courteous and 
affable ; and of the benevolence of his heart he gave 
abundant proofs, in his extraordinary generosity and 
liberality to the poor. Anthony Wood says of him, that 
" he was a person small in stature, but great in learn- 
ing, and profoundly read in divinity," Among other 
pieces he was the author of "A Treatise concerning 
Images, not to be set up nor worshipped, in Churches," 
written in the time of King Edward VI. ; " Brief Decla- 
ration of the Lord's Supper," first printed in 1555, 8vo, 
written during his imprisonment at Oxford, and tran- 
slated into Latin by William Whittyngham ; " Certain 
godly and comfortable Conferences" between him and 
Latimer, during the time of their imprisonment, first 
printed in 1555, 8vo. ; " A friendly Farewell unto all 
his true Lovers," written during his imprisonment, a 
little before his death, and printed in 1559, 8vo ; "A 
pious Lamentation of the miserable State of the Church 
of England, in the Time of the late Revolt from the 
Gospel," 8vo ; " A Comparison between the comfortable 
Doctrine of the Gospel and the Traditions of the Popish 


Religion," printed with the former; "An Account of a 
Disputation at Oxford in 1554," written in Latin, and 
published from the original manuscript in 1688, 4to, 
by Dr. Gilbert Ironside, warden of Wadham-college ; 
"A Treatise of the Blessed Sacrament," published with 
the former; and "A Letter of Reconciliation written to 
Bishop Hooper," published by Samuel Johnson, in 1689, 
4to. Many of his " Letters," and also some of the pieces 
mentioned above, have been published by Fox in his 
"Acts and Monuments," and may likewise be seen in 
Gloucester Ridley's Life of Bishop Ridley. — Bidley's 
Life of Ridley. Strype. 


Gloucester Ridley was born on board the Gloucester, 
East Indiaman, whence his Christian name, in 1702, 
and was educated at Winchester and New College. 
For a great part of his life he had no other preferment 
than the small living of Weston Longueville, in Norfolk, 
and the donative of Poplar, in Middlesex, where he 
resided. To these his college added, some years after, 
the donative of Romford, in Essex. 

In 1740 and 1742 he preached eight sermons at 
Lady Moyer's lecture, which were pubhshed in 1742, 
8vo. In 1763 he published the Life of Bishop Ridley, 
in 4to. In 1765 he published his Review of Philip's 
Life of Cardinal Pole. In 1761, in reward for his 
labours in this controversy, and in another which the 
confessional produced, he was presented by Archbishop 
Seeker to a golden prebend at Salisbury. He died in 
1774. Two poems by Dr. Ridley, one styled, Jovi 
Eleutherio, or an Offering to Liberty, and the other 
called Pysche, were printed in Dodsley's Collection. 
Melampus, the sequel of the latter, was afterwards pub- 
lished by subscription. In 1761 he published, in 4to, 

•240 ROBERTS. 

De Sjriacarum Novi Foederis Versionum indole atque 
usu, Dissertatio, occasioned by a Sjriac version, which, 
with two others, were sent to him nearly thirty years 
before, by one Mr. Samuel Palmer from Amida, in 
Mesopotamia. His age and growing infirmities, the 
great expence of printing, and the want of a patron, 
l^revented him from availing himself of these MSS ; yet 
at intervals he employed himself on a transcript, which 
was published by professor White, with a literal Latin 
translation, in 2 vols., 4 to, at the expense of the dele- 
gates of the Clarendon Press. — Gent. Mag. 


Odoric Rinaldi was born in 1595 at Treviso, and was 
educated at Parma under the Jesuits. He became an 
Oratorian at Rome in 1618. Of the congreagation of 
the Oratory, Baronius was a member, after whose death, 
Rinaldi was employed in continuing his Ecclesiastical 
Annals, from 1198, with which the work of Baronius 
terminated, to 1564, when the council of Trent was 
dissolved. This continuation consists of ten large vol- 
umes in folio, which made their appearance in Rome 
at different periods from 1646 to 1677. Rinaldi pub- 
lished a sufficiently copious abridgment, in Italian, of 
the whole annals compiled both by Baronius and him- 
self, which is said to be a masterly performance. — Biog. 


Francis Roberts, a Puritan, was born in Yorkshire in 
]609. He took his degrees in arts, at Trinity College, 
Oxford ; after which he became minister of St. Augus- 
tine, Watling-street, and rector of Wrington, in Somer- 
setshire. In ]67'2, he w^ent to Ireland with the Earl of 


Essex ; and while there was made doctor of divinity. 
He died at Wrington in 1675. His principal work is 
entitled " Clavis Bibliorum, the Key of the Bible," 2 
vols. 8vo, 1649 ; and again in folio, 1675. He pubhshed 
besides some single sermons, " The Believer's Evidence 
for Eternal Life;" "The Communicant Instructed;" 
" Clavis Bibliorum, the Key of the Bible, including the 
order, names, times, penmen, occasion, scope, and prin- 
cipal matter of the Old and New Testament;" " Myste- 
rium et Medulla Bibliorum, or the Mystery and Marrow 
of the Bible ;" and, " The True Way to the Tree of 
Life." — Watkin's Universal Biog. Vict. 


Hermann Alexander Roell was born in 1653, at 
Doelberg, in Westphalia. He was educated first at 
Unna, and then at Utrecht. In 1686, he accepted the 
offer of a professorship in divinity from the University 
of Franeker. In 1704, he was appointed to the divinity 
chair of Utrecht, and he retained that post till his death, 
in 1718. Among his publications are : — "A Commentary 
upon the Commencement of the Epistle of St. Paul to 
the Ephesians ;" " the second part of the same, with An 
Analysis of the Epistle to the Colossians ;" " An Ana- 
lysis and Abridgment of the Prophetical Books of the 
Old and New Testament;" and, " An Explication of the 
Catechism of Heidelberg. — Chaufepie. 


John Rogers, the first who suffered martyrdom for the 
principles of the English Reformation in the days of 
Mary, was* educated at Cambridge ; the time and place 
of his birth are not mentioned. Soon after he was 
vol. yiii. ¥ 

242 ROGERS. 

ordained, the company of merchant adventurers, as they 
were then called, appointed him their chaplain at 
Antwerp, where he remained for many years. This proved 
also the means of his conversion from Popery, for meet- 
ing there with Tyndale and Coverdale, he was induced 
by their conversation to examine the points in contro- 
versy more closely, the result of which was his em- 
bracing the sentiments of the Reformers. He also joined 
with these colleagues in making the first translation 
of the Bible into English, which appeared at Ham- 
burgh, in 1532, under the name of Thomas Matthew. 
Rogers was corrector of the press on this occasion, and 
translated that part of the Apocrypha which was left 
unfinished by Tyndale, and also contributed some of 
the marginal notes. At Antwerp he married, and thence 
w^ent to Wittemberg, and was chosen pastor of a Dutch 
congregation there, w^hich office he discharged until the 
accession of Edward VI., when Bishop Ridley invited 
him home, and made him prebendary and divinity 
reader of St. Paul's. Mary made her triumphal entry 
into London, August o, 1553; and Rogers had the 
boldness to preach a sermon at St. Paul's Cross on the 
following Sunday, in which he exhorted the people to 
abide by the doctrine taught in King Edward's days, 
and to resist Popery in all its forms and superstitions. 
For this he was immediately called before the privy 
council, in which were several of the restored Popish 
bishops ; but he appears to have defended himself so 
ably, that he was dismissed unhurt. This security, 
however, was not of long duration, and two days before 
Mary issued her proclamation against preaching the 
Reformed doctrines, (August 18) he was ordered to re- 
main a prisoner in his own house at St. Pauls ; thence 
after six months he was removed to Newgate ; and in 
January, 1555, he underwent an examination before 
Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, an interestiilg account 
of which is given by Fox. 

nOGERg. 243 

It is impossible within our prescribed limits to tran- 
scribe the whole, but the following conversation will 
give his view of the subject of the royal supremacy. 
The Lord Chancellor Gardiner asked him whether he 
would conform to the Catholic Church : — 

Bogers. — " The Catholicke Church I never didde nor 
will dissent from." 

Lord Chancellor. — " Nay, but I speak of the state of 
Catholicke Church, in that wise in which we stand now 
in England, having received the pope to be supreme 

Rog. — " I knowe none other head but Christ of His 
Catholicke Church; neither will I acknowledge the 
Bishop of Rome to have any more authoritie than any 
other bishop hath by the word of God, and by the doc- 
trine of the olde and pure Catholicke Church four hun- 
dred yeares aftor Christ." 

L. Chan. — " Why didst thou then acknowledge King 
Henrie the Eighth, to be supreme head of the Church, 
if Christ be the onlie head ? " 

Bog. — "I never granted him to have any supremacie 
in spirituall things, as are the forgivenesse of sinnes, 
giving of the Holie Ghost, authoritie to be a Judge above 
the word of God." 

*' Yea, saide hee, and Tonstall Bishop of Duresme, 
and Heath Bishop of Worcester, if thou hadst said so in 
his daies (and they nodded the head at me with a laugh- 
ter) thou hadst not beene alive now." 

On another occasion, to use his own words, " being 
asked againe by the Lord Chancellor, whether I would 
come into one Church with the bishops and whole 
realme, as now was concluded by parliament, (in the 
which all the realme was converted to the Catholicke 
Church of Rome) and so receive the mercy before pro- 
fered me, rising again with the whole realme, out of 
the schisme and errour in which we had long been, 
with recantation of my errors : I answered, that before 


I could not tell what his mercy meant, but now I under- 
stoode that it was a mercy of the Antichristian Church 
of Rome, which I utterly refused, and that the rising 
which hee spake of, w-as a very fall into errour and false 
doctrine. Also that I had and would be able by God's 
grace, to prove that all the doctrine which I had ever 
taught, was true and catholicke, and that by the Scrip* 
tures, and the authority of the fathers that lived four 
hundred yeares after Christ's death." 

The issue of his trial was his condemnation, and 
having been degraded from his ministerial orders by 
the hands of Bishop Bonner, in New^gate, he was sum- 
moned to the stake on Monday, the 4th of February. 
Before he left the prison, one of the sheriffs urged him 
" to revoke his abominable doctrines and his evil opinion 
of the sacrament of the altar." The victim answered 
firmly : " That which I have preached I will seal with 
my blood." " Thou art an heretic, then," said the 
magistrate. The reply was : " That will be seen at the 
day of judgment." " Well then," rejoined the sheriff, 
" I will never pray for thee." Rogers meekly said : 
*' But I will pray for tliee.'" On entering the street, he 
found an immense crowd waiting to see him, by whom 
he was received with every demonstration of pious res- 
pect and gratitude. He passed along repeating the 
fifty-first psalm, and in his way he suffered the momen- 
tary pain of observing among the afflicted spectators, 
his wife and ten of his children : an eleventh hanging 
unconsciously at its mother's breast. Being arrived in 
Smithfield, a pardon was offered to him, if he would 
recant. But his holy magnanimity forsook him not, 
and he refused the proffered clemency. — Stryjie. Soames. 


John Rogers was born, in 1679, at Ensham, in Ox- 


fordshire. He was educated at New College School, at 
Oxford, and in 1693, became a scholar of Corpus Christi 
College. He was presented to the vicarage of Buckland, 
in Berkshire; and in 1712, he went to London, where 
he was chosen lecturer of St. Clement Danes. He 
afterwards became lecturer of the united parishes of 
Christ Church, and St. Leonard's, Foster-lane. In 
1716, he was presented to the Rectory of Wrington, in 
Somersetshire ; and some time after he was elected canon 
residentiary of the Cathedral of Wells, in which he also 
bore the office of sub-dean. In 1719, he engaged in the 
Bangorian controversy, and published, " A Discourse of 
the visible and invisible Church of Christ: in which it 
is shown, that the powers claimed by the officers of the 
visible Church, are not inconsistent with the supremacy 
of Christ as head, or with the rights and liberties of 
Christians as members, of the invisible Church," 8vo. 
Dr. Sykes having published an answer, Mr. Rogers 
replied to him in " A Review of the Discourse of the 
visible and invisible Church of Christ." In 1722, the 
University of Oxford conferred on him, by diploma, the 
degree of D.D. In 1726, he was made chaplain to the 
Prince of Wales, afterwards George II. ; and in the 
following year he published, against the attacks of An- 
thony Collins, in his " Scheme gf Literal Prophecy," a 
volume of sermons, entitled, " The Necessity of Divine 
Revelation, and the Truth of the Christian Religion, 
asserted ;" to which he prefixed, " A Preface, with Re- 
marks on the Scheme of Literal Prophecy." Collins 
having written " A Letter to the Rev. Dr. Rogers, on 
occasion of his eight Sermons concerning the necessity 
of Divine Revelation, and the Preface prefixed to them," 
Dr. Rogers published, " A Vindication of the Civil 
Establishment of Religion, wherein some positions of 
Mr. Chandler, the author of the Literal Scheme, &c.. 
and an Anonymous Letter on that subject, are occasion- 
ally considered. With an Appendix, containing a Letter 

Y 3 


from the Rev. Dr. Marshall, and an Answer to the same, 

1728, 8vo." 

In 1728, Rogers reluctantly accepted the vicarage of 
St. Giles', Cripplegate, in London. He did not enjoy his 
new preferment above six months; for he died May 1, 

1729, in the fiftieth year of his age. After his decease 
several of his sermons were published ; and two tracts — 
Reasons against Conversion to the Church of Rome, 
and, A Persuasive to Conformity, addressed to Dissen- 
ters. — Life hy Burton, prefixed to his Sermons. 


William Romaine, the son of a French Protestant who 
came to England on the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, was born at Hartlepool, in 1714, and was 
educated at the Grammar School of Houghton-le-Spring. 
Thence he went to Hertford College, Oxford ; but re- 
moved from thence to Christ Church, where, in 1737, he 
took his degree of master of arts. One of his first 
sermons before the university, was directed against 
Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses, which produced 
a bitter reply from that powerful writer. After this, 
Mr. Romaine engaged in an edition of Calasio's Hebrew 
Concordance, into which he introduced some alterations, 
to serve the Hutchinsonian system. In 1748, he ob- 
tained the lectureship of St. Botolph, Bishopgate; the 
year following he was chosen lecturer of St. Dunstan, 
in the West ; and in 1750, he was appointed assistant 
morning preacher at St. George's, Hanover-square. Soon 
after this he was elected Gresham professor of astronomy, 
which situation he soon resigned. He obtained such 
popularity by his opposition to the bill for the naturali- 
zation of the Jews, that his publications on that subject 
were printed by the corporation of London. 

In 1764, he was chosen rector by the inhabitants of 


St. Andrew's by the Wardrobe, and St. Anne's Black- 
friars. This election produced a suit in Chancery, 
which was decided in his favour in 1776. In this situa- 
tion he continued for thirty years. He died on the 
26th of July, 1795. Besides the works already men- 
tioned, he wrote a Comment on the 107th Psalm; 
Twelve Sermons upon Solomon's Song; Twelve Dis- 
courses upon the Law and Gospel ; The Life of Faith. 
— Life by Cadogan. 


Peter Roques was born at Caune, in Languedoc, 
in 1685. He was minister of a French congregation 
at Basle, being appointed in 1719, and at Basle he 
died in 1748. 

He wrote : — The Evangelical Pastor ; this is a popular 
work: Elements of the Historical, Dogmatical, and 
Moral Truths contained in the Sacred Scriptures ; and 
Genuine Pietism. He also edited Moreri's Dictionary ; 
Saurin's Discourses on the Old and New Testament; 
Martin's Translation of the Bible, with prefaces, cor- 
rections, notes, and parallel passages, in 2 vols. 4to ; 
Basnage's Dissertation on Duelling, and Orders of 
Chivalry ; various theological and critical Dissertations ; 
controversial Treatises; and numerous papers inserted 
in the Journal Helvetique, and the Bibliotheque Ger- 
manique. — Moreri. 


John Roscellin, or Rousselin, a Schoolman, the founder 
of the Nominalists, flourished at the end of the eleventh 
and the beginning of the 12th century, and was a native 
of the French Province of Bretagne. Having distin- 


guished himself in the literature of the times, he was 
appointed to a canonrj of the Church of Cornelius, at 
Compiegne, in the Diocese of Soissons. 

The practice of Dialectics, and the questions arising 
out of a disputed passsage in Porj^hyry's Introduction 
to the Organum of Aristotle,, respecting the different 
metaphysical opinions entertained by the Platonists 
and Peripatetics of the nature of General Ideas, were 
the causes which led to the division between the Nomi- 
nalists and Piealists, the latter adhering to Plato, the 
first to Aristotle : disputes which stirred up frequent 
and angry debates in the schools, without any other 
result than that of sharpening their powers of argu- 
mentation. This long discussion was begun by Ilos- 
cellin, who, (on the testimony of his adversaries,) main- 
tained that the ideas of Genus and Species were nothing 
but mere words and terms (flatus vocis,) which we use 
to designate qualities common to different individual 
objects. He was led on by this doctrine to some here- 
tical opinions respecting the Trinity, which he was ulti- 
mately compelled to retract at Soissons, a.d. 1092. It 
is certain that Eoscellin is the first author who obtained 
the appellation of a Nominalist, and from his time the 
school previously established, which held the creed that 
Genus and Species were real essences, or types and 
moulds of things, (Universalia ante rem according to 
the phrase of the Schoolmen,) was throughout the pre- 
sent period perpetually opposed to Nominalism, whose 
partisans maintained that the Universalia, subsisted only 
in re, or 2)ost rem : nor was the difficulty ever definitively 

With respect to the doctrine of the Trinity, he held 
it to be inconceivable and impossible that the Son of 
God should assume the human nature alone, that is, 
without the Father and the Holy G host becoming Incar- 
nate also, unless by the Three Persons in the Godhead 
were meant three distinct objects or natures existing 

ROSE. 249 

separately (such as three angels or three distinct spirits,) 
though endued with one will and acting by one power. 

Having visited England he here excited a controversy 
of another kind, by maintaining, among other things, 
that persons born out of lawful wedlock ought to be 
deemed incapable of admission to holy orders. Some 
even of the prelates being in this condition, Roscellin 
made very powerful enemies, among whom was Anselm, 
Archbishop of Canterbury; and he was finally obliged 
to quit England. He then went to Paris, and by 
propagating his doctrine concerning the Trinity, occa- 
sioned such contests as made him glad to retire to 
Aquitaine, where he passed the rest of his days un- 
molested. He is supposed to have died about 1106. 
None of his writings are extant. — Tennemann. Moreri. 


Alexander Rose. (See the Life of Sage.) Of this 
venerable and excellent prelate we have the following 
brief memoir in the Life of Bishop Sage, published by 
the Spottiswoode Society : — " Born of an ancient family 
in the North of Scotland, he was educated and gradu- 
ated at King's College, Aberdeen ; but went through a 
theological course at Glasgow under the tuition of Dr. 
Gilbert Burnet, afterwards minister of Saltoun, in Had- 
dingtonshire, and the well-known Bishop of Salisbury. 
Having been admitted into holy orders, his first pre- 
ferment was the parish of Perth, which he left for the 
appointment of professor of divinity in the University 
of Glasgow. In 1684, through the influence of his 
uncle, the Primate of all Scotland, he was nominated 
by the crown to the Principality of St. Mary's College, 
in the University of St. Andrews. But his piety and 
talents recommended him for elevation to a higher 

2 50 HOSE. 

sphere of usefulness. Accordingly, in 1687, the royal 
mandate was issued for his consecration to the See of 
Moray, in the room of Bishop Colin Falconer deceased; 
but the Diocese of Edinburgh becoming vacant in the 
same year by the translation of Bishop Patterson to 
Glasgow, Dr. Rose was selected as his successor, and 
was translated to Edinburgh 'before,' says Keith, 'he 
had taken possession of the See of Moray.' Of this 
illustrious prelate in his high position in the episcopate, 
much has been already written by various authors; 
and his journey to London at the Revolution of 1688, 
his affecting interview with the Prince of Orange, by 
which the destiny of the Episcopal Church as an Estab- 
lishment was sealed, and his noble answer when asked 
to follow the example of those English Bishops who 
joined the standard of William, are so well known that 
they need not be repeated here. Deprived of his cathe- 
dral, spoiled of his revenues, and stripped of his civil 
dignities, this excellent man continued after the Revo- 
lution and overthrow of the Church in Scotland, to 
exercise the authority of a successor of the Apostles, of 
which no efforts of man could deprive him ; and under 
his auspices the sacred ark was directed during those 
trying and stormy times, when the face of the civil power 
was turned against the Church, and the ' arm of flesh' 
was lifted up in the vain endeavour to root out Catho- 
licity from Scotland. He is described by a contemporary 
as ' a sweet-tempered man, and of a venerable, aspect;' 
and these things, his excellent disposition and benign 
appearance, combined with his discretion, seem com- 
pletely to have disarmed the Presbyterians, even in those 
days of keen party spirit, and incautious malevolence 
between persons attached to opposite and hostile inte- 
rests, for we do not find that the enemies of the Church 
ever ventured to assail with false and malicious asper- 
sions the character of this genuine servant of God. 
Having outlived all the brethren of his order, and like* 

EU.E, DE LA. 951 

wise all the Bishops of England who had possessed sees 
before the Kevolution, he remained as the remnant of a 
band hallowed by their sufferings for conscience sake ; 
and his grey hairs went down to the grave with the re- 
spect of the clergy of his own communion, and of the 
laity of both nations, who, whatever were their opinions 
upon the question, admired the firm integrity of prin- 
ciple which actuated the Scottish prelates in their refusal 
to recognize the government of William and Mary, and 
the dignified patience with which they submitted to the 
loss of all those things which absorb and engage men's 
attention and time. He died in March, 17*20, and his 
mortal remains were interred in the Church of Restalrig, 
near Edinburgh, the cemetery of which, from its re- 
tired situation and other causes, was much used by the 
persecuted Episcopalians as a resting-place for their 
departed friends." 

ROTHEEAM, (see Scott.J 


Charles de la Rue. There are two French divines of 
this name; the first, a Jesuit, was born at Paris, in 
1643, and died in 17j^5. He determined to become 
a popular preacher. He took lessons in the art of de- 
claiming from the celebrated actor Baron, with whom 
he was well acquainted. He became the favourite 
preacher at court and in the capital. Voltaire says 
that he had two sermons, entitled, " The sinner dying," 
and " The sinner dead," which were so popular, that 
public notice was given by bills when they were to be 
delivered. It was thought extraordinary that one who 
so much excelled in reciting should set the example of 
reading his discourses, instead of repeating them from 

252 RUE, DE LA. 

memory ; but he asserted that not only time was saved 
by the indulgence, but that the preacher, at ease with 
his notes before him, could deliver himself with more 
animation. He was sent, after the dragoons had done 
their part, to make converts among the Protestants in 
the Cevennes, and had considerable success. Like many 
of his society, he joined talents for conversation, and 
the manners of the polite world, to the qualifications of 
a scholar and a divine, and he was chosen by the Dau- 
phiness and the Duke of Berry for their confessor. 
His Latin poems in four books, consisting of tragedies 
and miscellaneous pieces, have been several times 
printed. His French works are. Panegyrics of Saints, 
Funeral Orations, and Sermons. He was one of the 
learned men employed in the Dolphin editions of the 
classics, and Virgil fell to his share, first printed in 
1675, 4to. 

The other Charles de la Rue was a Benedictine of 
St. Maur, and was born, in 1684, at Corbie, in Picardy. 
Becoming a friend of Montfaucon he was persuaded by 
him to prepare an edition of all the works of Origen, 
the Hexapla excepted. Accordingly de la Rue applied 
himself to this task with becoming diligence, and in 
1783 published the two first volumes, in folio, with pro- 
legomena, and learned and useful notes. The third 
volume was ready for the press in 1757, when he was 
compelled to devolve the superintendence of the impres- 
sion on his nephew Vincent de la Rue, a learned mem- 
ber of the same order, whom he had chosen as an assis- 
tant in his labours. Charles de la Rue was carried off 
by a paralytic attack in 1739, in the fifty-sixth year of 
his age. From his papers his nephew carefully printed 
the third volume of Origen ; and with the aid of his 
materials he completed and published the fourth in 
1739. Vincent de la Rue died in l76'2.—Biog. Uni^ 



RuFiNUS, called by some Toranius, flourished in the 
fourth century, and is supposed to have been a native 
of Aquileia. He wss baptized in 869, and retiring to 
a monastery in Aquileia, devoted himself to theological 
studies. He became a presbyter of the Church, and 
becoming acquainted with St. Jerome, they vowed eternal 
friendship, a vow they were not destined to keep. Par- 
taking of the Ascetic fanaticism of the time, he dedi- 
cated himself in 371 to the monastic life, and to the 
study of the Ascetic discipline, under the monks of the 
deserts of Egypt. Visiting Rome on his way thither, 
his design recommended him to the confidence of 
Melania, a widow of a noble family and great wealth, 
who resolved to accompany him to that country, and to 
expend her riches on the establishment of monastic and 
charitable institutions. From Egypt he was compelled 
by the x\rians to flee into Palestine, where, with Melania, 
he took up his residence at Jerusalem. Here he built 
a monastery on Mount Olivet, where he lived for many 

At Jerusalem, he found Jerome, the friend of his 
youth, and with him and Bishop John, he formed a 
union for the advancement of theological science. All 
these at that time shared in the same love for the writ- 
ings of Origen. Jerome had indeed sought to make 
several of his works more widely known in the Western 
Church by means of translations, and had in his prefaces 
spoken of him with the greatest admiration. But when, 
in 390, the controversy concerning the opinions of Ori- 
gen w^as started between Epiphanius and John the 
Bishop of Jerusalem, (see the lives of Epiphanius and 
St. Jerome) Jerome sided with the opponents of Origen, 
while Rufinus maintained vehemently the cause of the 
bishop which was in defence of Origen. 



The friends were now separated, both being persons 
of excitable temper, until the year 396, when they be- 
came reconciled at the altar. But although the friendly 
relations between Jerome and Rufinus seem outwardly to 
have been restored again, yet the communion of spirits 
which had once been disturbed, certainly could not be so 
easily renewed, especially in the case of so irritable and 
suspicious a person as Jerome. It needed but a slight 
occasion to tear open again the slightly healed wound ; 
and this was given by Rufinus, though without any 
intention on his part, yet certainly not without his fault. 
In the year 397, he returned from his travels back to 
the West, and repaired to Rome. There he w^as in- 
duced, as he says, by the wishes of his friend Macarius 
(who being engaged in writing a w^ork against the astro- 
logical fate, was desirous of learning the views of Origen 
on this subject) to translate Origen's work Hepi dpxaiv 
into Latin. Now this, after what had taken place before, 
was manifestly a very unwise undertaking. This book, 
of all others, was directly calculated to stir up anew the 
narrow-minded zealots of the Roman Church against 
Origen ; and as the peculiar ideas of this work were so 
perfectly alien from the theological spirit of the Roman 
church, no good whatever would result from making it 
known by a translation. But Rufinus did not even 
furnish the means for studying and understanding Ori- 
gen as a historical phenomenon. He himself was too 
much carried away with wonder at the great man, and 
too much fettered by the dependence of his own mind 
on the dominant scheme of the Church, to be able rightly 
to understand Origen in his theological development. 
He was too little acquainted wdth the relation of the 
hidden depths of the Christian life and consciousness 
to the progressive evolution of the conception of them 
in time, to be able to form any correct judgment of the 
relation of Origen's theology to the Church scheme of 
doctrine in his own age. He took the liberty to modify 


the doctrines of Origen, especially in those passages 
which had reference to the Trinity, according to the 
decisions of the Council of Nice. But he frankly con- 
fesses, also, in the preface to his translation, that in 
such places he has not rendered the sense of Origen 
according to the existing readings. Only he af&rms, 
that he had introduced no foreign matter, but had sim- 
ply restored the original reading, which had been cor- 
rupted by heretics, as the harmony with other passages 
required. But, then, as he did not consistently carry 
through even this method, but left many passages unal- 
tered, which sounded no less heretical to these times, 
so he exposed himself none the less to be accused by 
the zealots of having found then in those passages 
nothing which would be considered as heretical, — in 
spite of his protestations, that, in this translation, it was 
not his design to exhibit his own views, but the original 
doctrines of Origen, and that nothing else was to be 
learned from it but these. At the same time, though 
perfectly aware of Jerome's excitable temper, and of the 
narrow and passionate spirit which characterized his 
principal friends at Rome, he was still imprudent enough 
to refer in his preface to the praise bestowed on Origen 
by Jerome, and to the similar plan of translating his 
works into Latin, which the latter had adopted. 

Scarcely was there time for this translation and pre- 
face to become known in Rome, when it excited among 
those people the most vehement feelings of surprise and 
displeasure. Two noble Romans, Pammachius and Oce- 
anus, who had kept up a correspondence with Jerome 
ever since the period of his residence in Rome, were 
extremely concerned for the reputation of his orthodoxy, 
and hastened to inform him of the scandal given to the 
Christians at Rome by Rufinus. They called upon him, 
by a faithful translation of that work, to exhibit Origen 
in his true colours, and to clear himself from the sus 
picion of entertaining the same doctrines of Origen, 


which Rufinus had cast upon him. Jerome wrote back 
in a tone of high-wrought excitement to his two friends 
and to Rufinus. Even at present, however, he continued 
to express himself with the same moderation concerning 
Origen ; he spoke highly of his great gifts, of his Chris- 
tian ardour, of his merits as an expounder of the Scrip- 
tures : — and he pronounced those to be the worst enemies 
of the great man, who had taken pains to publish those 
writings of his which ought to have remained concealed. 
" Let us not," said he, " imitate the faults of the man 
whose excellencies lie beyond our reach." But the rela- 
tions betwixt Jerome and Rufinus grew continually more 
hostile, and both of them in controversial, or more 
properly speaking, abusive tracts, full of passionate lan- 
guage, forgot their dignity both as theologians and as 
Christians ; as Augustine had the frankness to tell 
Jerome, when he called upon him for their own sakes, 
and out of respect to the weak, for whom Christ died, 
to put an end to these revilings. The influence of 
Jerome's powerful patrons, in Rome, however, could not 
hinder Rufinus from being justified by a letter addressed 
to him from the Roman Bishop Siricius. The more 
zealously, therefore, did they exert themselves to excite 
a more unfriendly feeling towards Rufinus in the mind 
of Anastasius, who, in the year 399, succeeded Siricius. 
But it was chiefly the influence of Marcella, a widow, 
and ancient friend of Jerome, which contributed to in- 
spire in the mind of this Roman bishop (who, according 
to his own confession, had until now heard but little 
or nothing about Origen) great anxiety and solicitude 
with regard to the spread of the Origenistic heresies. 
Rufinus was summoned before his tribunal. He excused 
himself, it is true, on account of his great distance, 
and for other reasons, from personally making his ap- 
pearance at Rome. But he sent in a letter of defence 
and justification, containing a full and explicit confession 
of his faith, appealing to the fact that on the question 


respecting the origin of the soul nothing had as yet been 
determined by the Church ; and declaring that he, as a 
translator, was in nowise responsible for the assertions 
of the writer translated by him. Anastasius, in the 
public declarations which he thereupon made, expressed 
himself with great violence against Origen, and also 
unfavourably towards Rufinus. 

In the year 410, the ravages of the Visigoths in Italy, 
under Alaric, compelled him to take refuge in Sicily, 
where he appears to have died the same or the succeed- 
ing year. He is now chiefly known as an ecclesiastical 
historian, and the continuator of Eusebius. Having 
made a Latin version of the work of Eusebius, he con- 
tinued the history of the Church to the death of the 
elder Theodosius (392). Both his translation and his 
original work are still extant. The former, through 
which Eusebius was for many ages known to the West, 
like his other translations, is only remarkable for the 
liberties which he has taken with the original : and the 
latter possesses so very little historical value, that it has 
been completely superseded by the labours of succeeding 
writers. But, defective as it w^as, the " Ecclesiastical 
History" of Rufinus no sooner appeared, than it was 
translated into Greek. 

His original works, besides the pieces in controversy 
with Jerome, already noticed, consist of, De Benedicti- 
onibus Judse et Reliquorum XI. Patriarch arum, Lib. II. ; 
Commentariorum in Hoseam Lib. III. cum Prefatione 
in xii. Minores Prophetas ; Comment in Prophetas Joel 
et Amos ; Expositio Symboli, ad Laurentium Episco- 
pum ; Historise Ecclesiasticse Lib. II., added by him to 
his Latin version of Eusebius, and continuing the his- 
tory of the Church to the death of the emperor Theodo- 
sius. He is by some thought to have been the author, 
but by others only the translator from some lost work 
of the Vitae Patrum, which constitute the second and 
third Books of Rosweide's collection. His Explanation 
z 3 

258 SA, OR SAA. 

of the Apostle's Creed is of great importance, inasmuch 
as it contains a complete catalogue of the books of the 
Old and New Testaments. All his works, excepting his 
Apologies for Origen, and declaration to Anastasius, 
were published at Paris by Sonnius, in 1580, fol. He 
translated from the Greek into Latin, The Works of 
Josephus; Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, reduced 
into nine books ; The Ten Books of the Recognitions 
of St. Clement of Rome; The Epistle to James, the 
Brother of our Lord ; and, The Book of Anatorius con- 
cerning Easter. — Cave. Dupin. Neander. Doivling. 


Emanuel Sa, or Saa, was born at Villa de Conde, in 
Portugal, in the year 1530, and at fifteen years of age 
became a Jesuit. After having filled the philosophical 
chair at Gandia, in Valentia, he was called to Rome in 
1557, and appointed interpreter of the sacred writings 
and professor of divinity in the seminary belonging to 
his order. Here he commenced preacher, and for many 
years attracted crowded audiences by his pulpit oratory. 
By Pope Pius V. he was employed in superintending, 
conjointly with Peter Parra, another Jesuit, a new edi- 
tion of the Bible. Afterwards he was sent to regulate 
the seminaries at Loretto, Milan, Genoa, and other 
principal cities in Italy, where he was as much admired 
and followed as a preacher as he had been at Rome. 
By his exertions, however, his health became so much 
injured, that he was obliged to decline all public engage- 
ments, and to retire to Arona in the diocese of Milan, 
where he died in 1596, in the 66th year of his age. 

He was the author of. Scholia in Quatuor Evangelia, 
1596, 4to, consisting of short, but learned and ingenious 
notes on the Four Gospels, partly original and partly 
selected from the labours of preceding commentators; 


Notationes in totam Sacram Scripturam, quibus turn 
omnes fere Loci difficiles, turn varise ex Hebraeo, Chal- 
daeo, et Graeco, Lectiones explicantur; these were pub- 
lished after his death, in 1598 ; and, Aphorismi Confes- 
sariorum ex Doctorum Sententiis collecti, 1595, 12mo. — 
Dupin. Moreri. 


Sabellius, an heresiarch of the third century, was born 
at Ptolemais, and was a disciple of Noetus. He resided 
either as bishop or as a presbyter in the Pentapolis of 
Cyrenaica. It was in the Pentapolis, about the year 
255, that he began to excite troubles in the Church 
by propounding his heresy. In the formation of his 
system, he employed the apocryphal (but which was 
considered by him the genuine) gospel of the Egyptians, 
in which Christ reveals to His disciples, that the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost, are all one and the same. 
Sabellius, like his predecessors, proceeded with the idea, 
that the distinction of persons or hypostases in God, 
would lead to the belief of a plurality of Gods, and his 
disciples were wont to inquire of those whom they wished 
to win over to their party, " Have we one God, or have 
we three Gods?" His doctrine was the following. In 
the beginning, God was the hidden, formless, unrevealed 
Monas, who afterwards manifested Himself in a Trinity. 
For when God, revealing Himself externally by the work 
of creation, came from His hidden primeval state, and 
entered into a relation with the world as its ruler and 
preserver, He was named the Father: when to effect 
the redemption of mankind, a second emanation from 
the Deity (immediately from the Father) went forth, it 
united itself in power and might (a/cpyeta fjLovrj, o^^^ Se 
ova-ias vTToa-Taa-ei) to the man Christ, Who had been 
formed by the Father in the womb of the virgin : in this 


union, and on account of the same, He was called the 
Son. Lastly, a third power proceeded from God, work- 
ing in the body of the faithful, the Church, enlightening, 
regenerating them, and perfecting their redemption : 
this power was named the Holy Ghost. Sabellius, it 
will therefore be seen, admitted a distinction between 
the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, but not a dis- 
tinction of persons, nor extending to eternity : His is no 
other than a distinction of three names, of three appel- 
lations of one and the same God, in the threefold rela- 
tion of Creator, Redeemer, and Sanctifier. The Re- 
deemer is, indeed, different from the Creator, another 
appearance {TrpoaoiTrov) ; not another hypostasis or person, 
only another power, another representation, another ema- 
nation from the Godhead, which, however, does not 
continue in its individuality, but, like the emanation 
named the Holy Ghost, returns, after the completion of 
its office, to the Father, from Whom it had proceeded, as 
a ray shot forth from the sun may be attracted back, and 
again received into it. It is only an expansion, occur- 
ring in time, and transitory, of the Father in the Son 
and in the Holy Ghost. Sabellius compared his Trinity 
to the union of the body, of the soul and of the mind in 
one person; to the sun, in which, in one substance, 
there are three distinct properties — the power of heat- 
ing, the power of enlightening, and its circumference ; 
and, lastly, to the distinction of graces which flow from 
one spirit. This Trinity is, therefore, not immanent, 
as is the Trinity of the Catholic Church, but emanent, 
consisting only of external relations of God with the 
world and with the Church. Sabellius fell into error 
by confounding the interior with the exterior, — the eter- 
nal wuth the temporal manifestation of God. — Cave. 


Henet Sacheverell. The history of Sacheverell be- 


longs rather to civil than to ecclesiastical history, and 
our notice of him, therefore, need be but short. He was 
born about 1673, was the son of a poor clergyman at 
Marlborough, and was educated by the kindness of his 
godfather, and placed at Magdalen College, Oxford, of^ 
which he became fellow. His regularity and polite 
manners rendered him a favourite tutor in the college, 
and his Latin poems, some of which appeared in the 
Musse Anglicanas, proved him an elegant scholar and a 
man of respectable talents. He was, at Oxford, chamber- 
fellow with Addison, w^ho inscribed his Farewell to the 
Muses to him, as his friend and colleague. He took 
his degree of M.A. in 1696, and that of D.D. in 1708. 
His first preferment was the living of Cannock, in 
Staffordshire, to which, in 1705, was added the preach* 
ership of St. Saviour's, Southwark. 

In a sermon, preached at St. Paul's on the fifth of 
November, 17 09, he inveighed against the ministry, the 
Dissenters, and the Low Church ; against toleration, the 
revolution, and the union; while he asserted the doc- 
trines of non-resistance, and the divine right of kings. 
This sermon, entitled, " The Perils of false Brethren," 
being printed, although a worthless composition, and 
allowed, even by the Tories, to be a rhapsody of raving 
and nonsense, gave offence to the ministry, who com- 
plained of it to the Commons ; in consequence of which, 
the prisoner was taken into custody and impeached. 
After a solemn trial, which lasted three weeks, Atter- 
bury, Smallridge, and Friend, assisting in the defence, 
he was declared guilty, and suspended for three years. 
His sermon was burnt before the Lord Mayor, in whose 
presence it had been delivered ; and another book of the 
author's, with a decree of the University of Oxford, on 
the indefeasible right of kings, were consigned to the 
same bonfire. 

This sentence of the Peers, designed as a punishment, 
was converted by the heat of party into a triumph. On 


proceding to North Wales, the preacher was everywhere, 
but particularly in Oxford, greeted with the honours due 
to a conqueror. In some places troops of horse lined 
the road, and the corporations went forth to meet him ; 
.in others, the hedges were festooned with garlands, the 
steeples decorated with standards, flags, and colours, 
and every man was marked out for vengeance and aggres- 
sion, who refused to raise the cry of " The Church and 
Sacheverell." At the expiration of his suspension, in 
3 713, these popular congratulations were renewed; he 
was requested to preach before the Commons, and the 
Queen presented him to the living of St. Andrew's, 

On his return to St. Saviour's, he preached in the 
Christian Temple, on the duty of praying for our ene- 
mies, and published his discourse. He now again ap- 
peared as an author. He was a political tool, and not a 
divine, and was one of those who set the example which 
was followed for nearly a century afterwards of correcting 
the Church of England, which belongs of right to all 
parties in the state, with one particular faction. Hence 
the Church, ill supported by that faction, has been an 
object of hatred to all other factions, and especially to 
the Whigs, whose hatred to the Church of England is 
an hereditary prejudice. Sacheverell died on the 5th of 
June, 1716. — HowelVs State Trials. Grant. 


Anthony Sadeel was born at the Castle of Chabot, in 
the Maconais, in 1534. He was educated at Paris in 
Calvinistic principles. He studied also at Toulouse 
and Geneva, and became acquainted with Calvin and 
Beza. At twenty years of age he was appointed as 
preacher at Paris. Here, he and his congregation were 
subjected to various persecutions and misrepresentations, 

SADEEL. 263 

and he first appeared as an author in defence of these 
proceedings. In 1558, he was cast into prison, from 
which he was released by the intervention of the King 
of Navarre. 

He now removed to Orleans; and when the danger 
seemed to be over he returned, and drew up a Confession 
of Faith, first proposed in a synod of the reformed clergy 
of France, held at Paris, which was presented to the 
king by the famous admiral Coligni. The king dying 
soon after, and the queen and the family of Guise renew- 
ing with more fury than ever the persecution of the 
reformed, Sadeel was obliged again to leave the metro- 
polis. In 156-2, he presided at a national synod at 
Orleans; and he then went to Berne, and finally to 
Geneva, where he was associated with the ministers of 
that place. Henry IV. gave him an invitation to his 
court, which he accepted, and was chaplain at the battle 
of Courtray, and had the charge of a mission to the 
Protestant princes of Germany ; but unable at length to 
bear the fatigues of a military life, which he was obliged 
to pass with his royal benefactor, he retired to Geneva in 
1589, and resumed his functions as a preacher, and 
undertook the professorship of Hebrew. He died in 
1591. Hie works are entitled, Antonii Sadeelis Clian- 
dsei Nobilissimi Viri Opera Theologica, Geneva, 1592, 
fol.; reprinted 1593, 4to ; and 1599 and 1615, fol. 
They consist, among others, of the following treatises, 
De Verbo Dei Scripto ; De Vera Peccatorum Remissione ; 
De Unico Christi Sacerdotio et Sacrificio ; De Spirituali 
et Sacramental! Manducatione Corporis Christi ; Posna- 
niensium Assertionum Refutatio ; Refutatio Libelli Clau- 
dii de Sainctes, intitulati, Examen Doctrinae de Coena 
Domini ; Histoire des Persecutions et des Martyrs de 
I'Eglise de Paris, depuis I'an 1557, jusqu'au Regno de 
Charles IX.; this was printed at Lyons, in 1563, 8vo, 
under the name of Zamariel ; and, Metamorphose de 
Ronsard en Pretre, in verse. — Melchior Adam. Chalmers. 

264 SAGE. 


In the life of this amiable and learned prelate, we shall 
be enabled from his Life published by Bishop Gillan, 
but more particularly from that prefixed to his works, 
published by the Spottiswoode Society, to present our 
readers with a view of the Church in Scotland in its 
transition state as it passed from an establishment 
into its present freedom from state control. Sage w^as 
born at Creich, in Fifeshire, in 1652, being the son of 
Captain Sage, and was educated at St. Andrew's. He 
became M.A. in 1669, and became parish schoolmaster, 
at Ballingray, in Fife, and afterwards at Tippermuir, in 
Perthshire. He was afterwards tutor to the children of 
Mr. Drummond of Cultmalundie, and accompanied his 
sons to the University of St. Andrews's. He was not 
ordained till 1686, when he officiated as a presbyter 
in the city of Glasgow till the Revolution. What cure 
he held is not known, but he was diocesan or Synod- 
clerk. He had been noticed kindly by Dr. Rose, after- 
wards Bishop of Edinburgh, and was ordained by the 
Archbishop of Glasgow, the uncle of Dr. Rose. He 
discharged his duties so well, that while his conduct 
gained for him the esteem of members of the Church, 
it procured for him also the good-will and respect of 
those without her pale. There was a remarkable in- 
stance of this in the treatment which he received at the 
hands of the Hill men, v*^ho persecuted and insulted 
the clergy just before the Revolution broke out. 

These disorderly fanatics, who were generally of the 
lower orders, were unswerving adherents to the Solemn 
League and Covenant, violently opposed to the ''usurp- 
ing'' goverment of the Stuarts, and animated by a deadl}' 
hatred to every thing in any way connected with bishops 
and their authority. Such being the main features in 
the character of these zealots, they only wanted a good 

SAGE. 265 

opportunity for shewing their antipathy to the Church, 
and inflicting injury and insult upon her ministers. In 
the palmy days of the Covenant, after the famous 1638 — 
those days when Henderson, and Loudon, and Johnston 
of Warriston, were in the zenith of their popularity and 
powers — they enjoyed such an opportunity, and they did 
not fail to improve it. The day of their triumph happily 
soon came to an end — Scotland was subdued by Crom- 
well, and even Scottish Presbyterianism had to bow 
down beneath the galling yoke of English Dissent. 
" Greek had met Greek " in this case, and the result 
was, that Cromwell ruled Scotland with a rod of iron, 
and the Covenanters, in lamenting their own misfor- 
tunes, were drawn off from persecuting the unfortunate 
Prelatists. At the Restoration, the government of 
Charles II., for its own security, kept a watchful eye 
upon the movements of the Covenanters, and restrained 
their irregularities by the strong arm of the law. At 
the commencement of the reign of the ill-fated James, 
the lawlessness of these disaffected persons was effec- 
tually kept in check ; but upon the news of the landing 
of the Prince of Orange in England, the king was 
obliged to order all his standing forces in Scotland to 
repair to the royal standard in the South. This, while it 
weakened the Scottish government, left the country in 
a defenceless state, and furnished a splendid occasion 
to the discontented and fanatical for creating distur- 
bances, and punishing those whom they chose to con- 
sider Malignants. The Hillmen, or Cameronians, seized 
the precious moment, and began a shocking system of 
persecution and cruelty against the incumbents of the 
different parishes, by which about two hundred ministers 
and their families were driven from their houses in the 
winter season, and cast upon the precarious benevolence 
of their neighbours. Their method of procedure has 
been thus narrated by a contemporary, and a sufferer from 
their violence : — " They assembled themselves in the 


266 SAGE. 

night time, and sometimes in the day, in small bodies, 
armed ; and in a hostile way went through the countries, 
forcing their entry into private men's houses, against 
whom they had any private quarrel, but most ordinarily 
into ministers' houses, where they with tongue and hands 
committed all outrages imaginable against the ministers, 
their wives and children ; where, having ate and drank 
plentifully, at parting they used to carry the minister 
out of his house to the churchyard, or some public place 
of the town or village, and there expose him to the peo- 
ple as a condemned malefactor — gave him strict charge 
never to preach any more in that place, but to remove 
himself and his family out of it immediately ; and for 
the conclusion of all this tragedy, they caused his gown 
to be torn over his head in a hundred pieces — of some 
they spared not their very clothes to their skirts. When 
they had done with the minister, they called for the keys 
of the church, locked the door and carried the keys with 
them ; and last of all they threw the minister's furniture 
out of his house in many places, as the last act of this 
barbarous scene. This was the most general method 
when the minister was found at home, but in case he 
was absent, they entered his house, made intimation 
of their will and pleasure to his wife and servants, bid- 
ding them tell him to remove from that place. If 
they found not a ready obedience, they would return 
and make him an example to others." 

Such was the real character of the system of " rabbling," 
which the clergy had to endure about the period of the 
Revolution. It seems, however, that the disorderly mob 
treated Mr. Sage with more mercy than they displayed 
generally to the rest of his brethren in the Diocese of 
Glasgow ; for, as his venerable biographer quaintly 
informs us — *' the saints contented themselves by giving 
him a ivarning to depart from Glasgow, and threatenings 
if he should ever adventure to return thither again." 
This forbearance on their part was singular enough, 

SAGE. 267 

when' it is considered that Mr. Sage was a strenuous 
opponent and an avowed disapprover of their principles 
and conduct. As a minister of the everlasting Gospel, 
which contains rules of faith and practice, he felt himself 
imperatively called upon both by argument and pathetic 
exhortation, to enforce the duty of loyalty and obedience 
to the " powers that be," which he saw was much depre- 
ciated by his countrymen. . Being firmly persuaded in 
his own mind of the truth of the Apostolical Succession, 
and convinced of the invalidity of Orders which do not 
emanate from duly consecrated bishops, he was careful 
in his sermons to set forth the necessity of communi- 
cating with the Episcopal Church. Having marked in 
the sacred Scriptures that striking feature of external 
unity by which the Church of the blessed Kedeemer is 
traced by the pens of the inspired writers, and the 
warnings which are thickly strewn upon the pages of the 
New Testament against " divisions," and instability in 
matters of religion, he was wont loudly to censure the 
prevalent disposition for " change," and to insist that 
separation from the Church of Scotland — receiving the 
Sacraments from other hands than those of her bishops, 
and inferior clergy — and frequenting places of worship, 
offered to God by unauthorised men, were acts, which 
constituted the sin of schism, and involved those who 
practised them in the serious consequences which the 
Word of God denounces against it. In these his dis- 
courses, he had. respect to two opposite parties by which 
the Church was at that time attacked — 1st, To the 
disciples of the Covenant, who, besides setting at nought 
the command to " give unto Caesar the things that are 
Caesar's," i.e. to obey the existing laws, and reverence 
the persons of those in whom authority was invested, 
carried their notions of " Gosjwl liberty' so far as to reject 
every sort of restraint upon their religious opinions, and 
to regard themselves as the only true interpreters of the 
meaning of the Bible, and the late discoverers of the 

ues SAGE. 

Scriptural model of the Church of Christ. What the 
pious and amiable Leighton used to say to them was 
strictly characteristic — " That they made themselves the 
standards of opinions and practices, and never looked 
either abroad into the world, to see what others were 
doing, nor yet back into the former times, to observe 
what might be warranted or recommended by antiquity." 
2nd,^ — To the members of the Romish schism, who, 
though loyal so far as civil politics were concerned, were 
the open enemies of the Church in Scotland. Believing 
that the Bishop of Rome is, jure divino, the Supreme 
Prelate of the Christian Church, and that all spiritual 
authority must flow through him, they regarded the 
Scotican Church, which rejected the Pope's authority 
in Scotland, as schismatical, and zealously strove to 
effect her overthrow both by secret stratagem and open 

To both these classes of men, the discourses of Mr.' 
Sage were directed, and he wielded against them "the 
sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God," — the 
Word of God, not as interpreted by Scottish Covenan- 
ting Presbyterians, nor by those who own the sway of 
an Italian Bishop, but by the Catholic Church, making 
herself heard in general Councils, the decrees of which 
were afterwards universally received by Christians both 
in the East and West — both in the Latin and Greek 
Churches. It is easy to imagine that discourses of such 
a nature were by no means palatable, and that a clergy- 
man, who in the " west" of Scotland was so bold as to 
preach them, stood a very fair chance of raising up a 
host of enemies against himself. There is, however, an 
intimate charm in consistency and earnestness, which 
cannot fail to make an impression on all who are not 
totally blinded by prejudice, and cause them, even though 
they do not coincide with a man's opinions, to have re- 
spect to his character. This was the case with Mr. Sage, 
at this memorable crisis of our national ecclesiastical 

SAGE. 269 

history. An uncompromising Catholic himself, he en- 
deavoured to persuade his schismatical countrymen to 
come within the pale of the Church, because he firmly 
believed her to be the only lawful dispenser of the Word 
and Sacraments. But his exhortations breathed the 
spirit of Christian charity, and evinced his affectionate 
earnestness for the souls of the people. Thus the malice 
of the enemies of the Church was disarmed, and they 
were compelled to esteem the bold asserter of the Apos- 
tolical claims. " To this," says Gillan, " it may in 
gome measure be imputed that he escaped those out- 
rageous insults and cruelties which the rabblers (after 
the example of their schismatical forefathers — the Cir- 
cumcilliones in Africk) acted against others of his bre- 
thren, especially those who had trimmed." 

Before the Revolution had occurred it was intended 
to place him in the divinity chair at St. Andrew's, but 
in the turmoil of the times the appointment was not 
effected. It has been already stated, that by the with- 
drawal of troops from Scotland at the outbreak of the 
Revolution, the Cameronians, or Hillmen, were enabled 
to exercise unheard of cruelties and insults towards the 
members of the then Scottish Establishment, and that 
by their illegal proceedings and fanatical violence, about 
two hundred incumbents were ejected from their parishes. 
We must now inquire in what light the new government 
viewed the conduct of those zealots, and whether they 
took any steps for restoring the unfortunate clergy to 
their benefices, of which they had been unjustly deprived. 
The sufferings of the clergy were so severe, that various 
accounts were sent up to London concerning them, in 
order to induce the authorities there to interfere in their 
behalf. The Bishop of Edinburgh, and many of the 
Scottish Episcopal Nobility, who were then in London, 
applied to their friends in high stations about the court, 
in the hope of persuading them to use their influence 
for the afflited clergy. But these representations ^nd 
A a3 

S70 SAGE. 

private appeals were all in vain. At last the clergy 
resolved to send up a public petition, properly attested, 
to the prince, and to depute one of their number to go 
to court and present it. Dr. Scott, Dean of Glasgow, 
was the person selected for this purpose. Having 
arrived in London, he laid the petition before the Prince, 
who saw at once the reasonableness of its prayer, and 
issued a proclamation on the 6th FebiTiary 1689, order- 
ing the peace to be kept, and forbidding any one from 
being persecuted or disturbed in the exercise of his 
religion, whatever that might be. But this proclama- 
tion was disregarded by the rabblers, and a serious riot 
occurred in the Cathedral of Glasgow on the very next 
Sunday after it was issued. Another representation 
therefore was made to the Prince of Orange through 
Dr. Fall, the Principal of Glasgow College, who was 
then in London ; but the only satisfaction, which he 
obtained, was an assurance that the case of the perse- 
cuted clergy should be referred to the Meeting of Estates, 
which was to be held on the 14th of March. 

The helpless ministers and their friends looked for- 
ward with much anxiety to the approaching day. The 
Estates were convened, and the first business of impor- 
tance which they transacted was hearing a letter from 
William read, recommending them " to enter with all 
speed upon such consultations with regard to the public 
good, and to the general interests and inclinations of 
the people as may settle them on sure and lasting 
foundations of peace." The macer entered the conven- 
tion, bearing a letter from the king, dated on board the 
St. Michael, 1st March, 1689, enjoining them to loyalty, 
and threatening them with punishment if they were 
disobedient. This epistle, however, was *' thrown aside 
with cool indifference," and they passed a vote decla- 
ratory of their determination " to continue undissolved 
until they settle and secure the Protestant religion, the 
government, Imvs, and liberties of the kingdom.'" This 

SAGE. 271 

declaration raised the hopes of the ejected ministers, 
who were not conscious of having any tendency to 
Popery, and who had rights and liberties sanctioned by 
law, which required the protection of their legislators. 
But, alas ! the bright prospects which had cheered them, 
became speedily overcast with a gloomy and portentous 
cloud. It soon became evident that theirs were not the 
" rights and liberties " which were to be protected. For 
numbers of the West Country mob came flocking into 
Edinburgh, and took their station about the place of 
meeting, where they insulted the Episcopal nobility and 
gentry, and especially the bishops, who claimed a seat 
in the Convention. The lives of the members were 
endangered by their tumultuous and violent proceedings, 
and accordingly the most obnoxious were obliged to retire 
from the meeting, and many of them, Lord Dundee 
among others, to leave the city, in order to escape the 
plots formed for their destruction. Having by this 
method of intimidation cleared the house of all " sus- 
pected " persons, and having obtained a body of stand- 
ing troops under General Mackay, the Convention passed 
a vote of thanks to those very persons who had rabbled 
the ministers, and complimented them as being " well 
affected to the Protestant interest." This was extremely 
disheartening to the ejected clergy, and greatly dimin- 
ished their chance of redress. But the death-blow to 
their hopes was yet to be fnflicted. On the 4th of April 
the Meeting of Estates passed a vote that King James 
had " forfaulted " his right to the Crown, and declared 
the throne vacant. On the 11 th they brought in their 
Claim of Right, in which the " Article" controverted by 
Bishop Sage in the Fundamental Charter occurs, and 
proclaimed William and Mary King and Queen of Scot- 
land. As yet nothing was directly done either for or 
against the clergy, and the Hillmen were amusing them- 
selves, as usual, in rabbling them from their livings ; 
but the minister of Ratho, near Edinburgh, having had 

?272 SAGE. 

a visit from these rioters, his case, which was specially 
referred, brought the subject of their sufferings before 
the Convention. And now came the fatal thrust. On 
the 13th it was resolved, that King James should be 
disowned — that all ministers of the Gospel should pray 
by name for William and Mary, as the de jure sove- 
reigns of the realm — and that the proclamation to this 
effect should be read by all ministers in Edinburgh after 
sermon next morning to their people, and by others on 
such days as appointed, threatening them with depriva- 
tion of their benefices if they refused to comply, and 
promising protection to all " then in possession and 
exercise of their ministry" who should obey it. It was 
proposed as an amendment by the Duke of Hamilton, 
the president, that those who had been forcibly extruded 
from their parishes should be included in this conditional 
protection of the government ; but this motion was over- 
ruled, upon the ground that, if carried, it would '• dis- 
oblige the Presbyterians," and might have very fatal 
(political) consequences." Accordingly, the ** rabbled" 
ministers and their starving families were omitted. 

The Convention of Estates, to which they had been 
taught to look for redress, turned a deaf ear to their cry, 
and by drawing away the shelter of the law, gave fresk 
encouragement to the mob to persevere in their lawless 
course against them. While this was the case with 
them, matters were not much better with their brethren, 
who still held their livings. The suddenness of the 
proclamation, and the importance of the duty required 
of them, took the Edinburgh clergy quite by surprize, 
and threw them into a state of perplexing doubt. They 
did not receive the astounding command till late 
on the Saturday evening, and they were ordered next 
morning to dethrone a sovereign, and transfer their 
allegiance to, and invoke the Divine blessing upon, 
another. As was to have been expected, many of them 
shrank from this difficult point of obedience, and begged 

SAGE. 273 

for time to consider. But those who did not comply 

with the edict were called before the Council on the 

following day, and forthwith deprived, although they 

offered many substantial pleas in justification of their 

conduct, in addition to that of the shortness of time 

afforded them for consideration — as for instance that the 

order to make public prayers for the new king and 

queen did not come to them through their ordinaries, 

whom alone, as conscientious ecclesiastics, they were 

bound to obey — that William and Mary had not accepted 

the crown — and other equally good reasons. All these 

arguments, however, were of no avail. By a hasty 

severity, unparalleled in Scottish history, the clergy in 

all the surrounding neighbourhood, who refused to obey 

the proclamation of the 13th of April, were ejected from 

their benefices, and the rabble in the meanwhile were 

anticipating the sharpness of the law. This posture of 

affairs continued until the Convention was converted 

into a parliament, which met under the authority of 

William and Mary, June 5th, 1689. Henceforth the 

"work" went more rapidly on. On the 19th of July, 

the doom of the Church as an establishment was sealed, 

by the passing of an act "abolishing prelacie." The 

Parliament adjourned on the 2nd of August ; and on 

the 22nd of the same month an edict was set forth 

by the privy council, at the instigation of the Earl of 

Crawford, " allowing and inviting parishioners and other 

hearers to inform against ministers who had not read 

the proclamation of the Estates, and prayed for King 

William and Queen Mary." 

Such a general invitation, proceeding from such an 
authority, had a very ready obedience given to it by an 
inflamed populace ; and as few men are without their 
secret enemies, it afforded an ample' opportunity for the 
gratification of private revenge. The result of it was, 
that in the course of a short time almost all the parochial 
clergy in the Merse, Lothians, Fife, Stirlingshire', Perth- 

274 SAGE. 

shire, besides some in Aberdeen, Moray, and Ross, were 
expelled. But the most iniquitous of all the irregular 
proceedings which occurred at this time, was an inhibitory 
act of the privy council, passed 29th December, by which 
the civil courts were enjoined not to take up the cases 
of the rabbled clergy, who should appeal to them for 
the recovery of their stipends, which had not been paid 
before their expulsion. It must be remembered that 
they had actually done the amount of labour, for which 
they were justly entitled to remuneration, and the law, 
if it had been permitted to have free course, would 
undoubtedly have decided in their favour; but the act 
of council precluded this, and shut their last remaining 
door of relief. Such were some of the main features of 
the proceedings which took place at this time. 

Sage appears to have taken up his residence in Edin- 
burgh after his having been " rabbled " out of Glasgow. 
Here he eagerly embraced every opportunity which pre- 
sented itself of applying the culture of true religion to 
the souls of his countrymen, and of supporting the 
cause of the Church. While any of the parochial in- 
cumbents in the Scottish metropolis retained possession 
of their churches, he was in the habit of assisting them 
in the performance of Divine service, and of occasionally 
relieving them from the burden of a sermon ; and after- 
wards, when the " inquisitorial tribunal " of the Kirk, 
acting upon the authority delegated to them by the 
parliament of 1690, had "purged out all insufficient, 
negligent, scandalous, and erroneous ministers,'" i. e. had 
by a system of continual vexation and insult, deprived 
all the Episcopal clergy in the city, both compilers and 
noncompilers, of their livings, Mr. Sage was appointed 
to the pastoral care of one of the principal " meeting- 
houses " in Edinburgh. The members of the Church, 
when they saw the clergy expelled from their parish 
churches, very properly fitted up places of worship or 
chapels in different parts of the city, in which they 

SAGE. 275 

might enjoy the benefit of authorized preaching, and 
have the Sacraments "rightly and duly administered." 

But he was not permitted long to pursue the even 
tenor of his way, in fulfilling his pastoral duties to the 
honour of God and the benefit of his fellow-Christians. 
The relentless jealousy of the Presbyterians, not content 
with driving the ministers from the parish churches, 
pursued them even into the privacy of the " meeting- 
houses ;" and with that selfish intolerance which was 
the main feature of all their proceedings, they resolved 
that the faithful people who adhered to the Church, 
should be deprived of the valued privilege of hearing 
the Word and receiving the Sacraments from those 
persons, whom they had been taught to regard as the 
■authorized priests of God. Accordingly, Mr. Sage and 
others of his brethren were dragged before the privy- 
council, and ordered to take the oath of allegiance and 
assurance; and when they candidly avowed that their 
conscientious scruples would not permit them to comply 
with the mandate, they were not only " forbidden to 
exercise any part of their ministerial function within 
the city, but also banished thence by an act of the 
council." It must be remembered, that those respec- 
table men had already suffered the " loss of all things" 
without complaint, and passively obeying the rigorous 
laws of the Convention, had retired into private life that 
they might possess " a conscience void of ofience ;" but 
even here they were not allowed to remain in peace. 
This is mentioned merely to show that Presbyterianism 
has not always been that friend of " civil and religious 
liberty," and " freedom of conscience," which its warm 
supporters and advocates in later times would persuade 
us to believe. 

From Edinburgh he retired to Kinross, and was after- 
wards chaplain in the family of the Countess of Callen- 
dar, and tutor to the young earl. When his engagement 
with Lady Callendar terminated, he became chaplain to 

276 SAGE. 

Sir James Stewart, of Grandtully. While officiating 
in the " meeting house " at Edinhurgh, he had com- 
menced the polemical warfare which ended only with 
his life, and had sent forth some of those controversial 
works which are such lasting monuments of his learning, 
abilities, and zeal. It seems to have been a principle 
with this eminent defender of Episcopacy to suffer no 
assailant, in the least worthy of an opponent, to remain 
long unmatched in the arena of controversy, and to 
permit no public circumstance to pass by in silence, 
if, by interfering, there was the slightest chance of 
either vindicating or advancing " the suffering Church." 
Thus, wherever he was, his watchful eye was intently 
fixed upon the movements of the enemy, and closely 
following them through all their torturous paths ; while 
his ready pen, directed by learning and zeal, was 
exerted in providing a counteracting remedy against 
their erroneous statements and hostile designs. Al- 
though, therefore, he had previousely written one or 
two able pamphlets, which seemed to be called for by 
passing events, his leasure and retirement at Kinross, 
afforded him an opportunity of executing a larger and 
more important work. Accordingly, at this time, he 
devoted himself to writing a treatise entitled " The 
Fundamental Charter of Presbytery, &c. examined and 
disproved ; " and w^hen it was finished, he sent it to 
London to be published ; for as he says himself in 
another place " it were easier to pluck a star from the 
firmament than to get anything published in Scotland 
against the tyranny of Presbytery, or in vindication of 
Episcopacy." The utmost care w^as used to conceal the 
name of the author of these offensive works, and it was 
hoped that the distance of the place of publication 
would have assisted to screen him from the notice of 
his enemies. In this, however, his friends were dis- 
appointed, and upon an early occasion he had a toler- 
ably strong proof given him, that he was a " marked 

SAGE. 377 

man," and had stirred up the wrath of the Presbyterians 
against himself. 

Being actuated by a great desire to see some dear 
friends in Edinburgh, and having some private business 
to transact there, he ventured to revisit the metropoUs ; 
but he had no sooner appeared upon the street than a 
privy-councillor, " whose greatest pleasure was to per- 
secute the Episcopal clergy," lodged intimation against 
him, and being apprehended, he was held to bail to quit 
the town forthwith, although the authorities connived 
at many of those who had been previously banished with 
him, remaining in it. Expelled again from Edinburgh 
by this severe order, he returned to Kinross, and still 
further employed his learned and eloquent pen in de- 
fence of the Church, and in confirmation of her prin- 
ciples. At this time he reared that invincible bulwark 
of Diocesan Episcopacy, entitled the " Cyprianic Age," 
the appearance of which sharpened the resentment of 
the Presbyterians, and made them doubly anxious to 
secure and silence so strenuous and powerful an oppo- 

The most severe blow inflicted upon the Episcopal 
clergy was dealt to them in 1695. An act of parliament 
was then passed " prohibiting and discharging any Epis- 
copal minister from hajnizing any children, or solem- 
nizing marriage betwixt any parties in all time coming, 
under pain of imprisonment" and perpetual exile! Like 
the Apostles when prohibited to preach any more in the 
Name of Jesus of Nazareth, the clergy chose rather to 
obey the voice of God than the commands of men, and 
using every precautionary method for avoiding detection, 
they went about administering the Sacraments of reli- 
gion, and preaching the Gospel to those, who knew the 
value of their spiritual! authority, and adhered through 
"evil report and good report" to their ministry. In 
vain did the EpiscopaUans expostulate against the seve- 
rity of the enactment, and represent it as striking at 


278 SAGE. 

the very root of their faith, which required them at 
least to have the Sacrments performed by proper admin- 
istrators — the government was deaf to their earnest 
entreaties, and their rehgious opponents exulted over 
their depressed condition. In this state they remained 
until the death of William in 1702, when a brighter 
day dawned, and induced them to hope that the time 
was now approaching when they would obtain " gentler 
and more equitable treatment." Queen Anne ascended 
the throne of her father, and her known attachment 
to the doctrine and discipline of the Anglican Church, 
led the members of the suffering sister Church in Scot- 
land to expect that she would sympathize wdth them, 
and shelter them under her powerful protection, from 
the tyranny of their schisraatical countrymen ; nor were 
they altogether disappointed. Although the expected 
relief did not arrive so soon as they could have wished, 
the soothing answer which the queen gave to their 
address and petition in the beginning of her reign, and 
her pointed discouragement of all legal prosecutions 
against them, greatly ameliorated the distressed state 
of the Church, and revived the drooping spirits of her 
members. The bare idea of toleration being granted 
to the fallen Church — an event to which the course of 
things pointed as likely to happen — roused the fears and 
animosity of the Presbyterians : and their leading minis- 
ters, in their sermons on public occasions, and through 
the press, inveighed loudly against it. Hence in 1703, 
a fierce polemical strife raged on this subject, and 
various combatants appeared on the field — such as the 
renowned David Williamson and Mr. George Meldrum, 
on the side of the Kirk. Among the foremost of the 
defenders of the Church, and of the rights of conscience 
on this occasion, Mr. Sage came forth, and'seizing upon 
Mr. Meldrum's " Reasons against Toleration," he over- 
turned them by that masterly reply so well known under 
the title of the " Reasonableness of Toleration," which 

SAGE. 279 

demonstrates not only the sound uncompromizing Church 
principles of our author, but the solidity of his learning, 
and the acuteness of his reasoning powers. Though 
Mr. Sage did not live to reap the full reward of his 
labour, his writings had an effect even at the moment. 
The Church for a year or more " had rest " from out- 
ward persecution, and a mighty change was working 
in the human mind with regard to the futility of the 
endeavour to fetter the conscience by acts of parliament, 
and to coerce a man against his convictions to own 
whatever system of religion the civil powers may choose 
to establish. 

During this brief period of tranquility, the attention 
of the governors of the Church was turned upon them- 
selves, and one of the most anxious subjects which 
occupied their minds was the duty of providing for the 
future succession of the Episcopal Order. By the death 
of the aged primate, Dr. Ross, in 1704, the number of 
bishops was reduced to five, most of whom, worn out 
with years and calamity, were tottering on the brink of 
the grave. In order, therefore, that the Apostolic line 
might not be interrupted, the venerable survivors re- 
solved to commit the sacred " Deposit" with which they 
had been entrusted, to " other faithful men, apt to teach, 
and govern." In consequence of this determination, 
Mr. Sage, and Mr. Fullarton the ejected ministers of 
Paisley, were selected by the fathers of the Church, as 
persons fit to be elevated to the episcopate, and were 
duly and canonically consecrated " in sacrario " of the 
house of Archbishop Paterson, at Edinburgh, on the 
25th of January, 1705 ; the Archbishop, Bishop Rose of 
Edinburgh, and Bishop Douglas of Dunblane perform- 
ing the holy rite. 

While those persons were thus solemnly invested with 
the episcopate, an agreement was entered into that they 
were not to have diocesan authority, or to interfere at all 
in the government of the Church. Expediency and the 

^80 SAGE. 

exigency of the Church were the inducements which led 
the bishops to insist on this stipulation, and to make a 
temporary deviation from the usual rule. It answered, 
indeed, the immediate purpose, for which it was designed 
by those excellent men, but like all other plans founded 
upon a short sighted policy, it was at length productive 
of great evil, and involved the Church in confusion 
and unseemly disputes. The controversies between the 
" College Party " and the assertors of " Diocesan Epis- 
copacy," are too well known to require further notice 

Being raised to the episcopate, Bishop Sage seems to 
have continued in the Grandtully family, executing his 
high and useful duties for the benefit of the limited 
circle around him. 

Bishop Sage died in Edinburgh, 17th June, 1711. 
His works are : — The Fundamental Charter ; The 
Cyprianic Age ; The Vindication of the Cyprianic 
Age ; An Account of the late Establishment of Pres- 
bytery by the Parliament of Scotland in 1690; Some 
Kemarks in a Letter from a Gentleman in the City to a 
Minister in the Country, on Mr. David Williamson's 
Sermon before the General Assembly, Edinburgh, 1703 ; 
A Brief Examination of some things in Mr. Meldrum's 
Sermon preached on the 6th of May, 1703, against a 
Toleration to those of the Episcopal Persuasion; The 
Eeasonableness of a Toleration of those of the Episcopal 
Persuasion inquired into purely on Church Principles, 
1704 ; The Life of Gawin Douglas, 1710 ; and an intro- 
duction to the Works of Drummond of Hawthornden, 
to which publication his friend the learned Ruddiman 
lent his assistance. Bishop Sage also wrote the second 
and third Letters concerning the persecution of the 
Episcopal Clergy in Scotland, and left several unfinished 
MSS., one intended to have been a system of Divinity, 
in which the Church and the Sacraments, as the chan- 
nels of grace, were to have occupied their proper place ; 


another containing a review of the Westminster Con- 
fession — a Treatise on the Culdees, and a History of the 
Commission of the General Assembly. — Life prejiiced to 
Works. Bishop Gillan. Bishop Russell. 


Gaspar Sagittarius was born at Lunenburg, in 1643, 
and in 1674, became professor of history at Halle. He 
died in 1674. He wrote : — On Oracles; On the Gates 
of the Ancients; The Succession of the Princes of 
Orange; History of the City of Herderwich ; Tractatus 
Varii de Historia Legenda; Historia Antiqua Nori- 
bergae ; Origin of the Dukes of Brunswick ; History of 
Lubeck; Antiquities of the Kingdom of Thuringia; 
History of the Marquises and Electors of Brandenburg, 
and many others, enumerated by Niceron. — Niceron. 


Claude de Satnctes, in Latin Sanctetius, was born at 
Perche, in 1595, and was admitted a canon regular of 
St. Cheron, near Chartres, at the age of fifteen. After 
passing through various preferments he was, in 1561, 
appointed principal of the College of Boissy, at Paris, 
and was employed as a champion for the Romish cause 
at the Conference of Poissy. He was one of the twelve 
French doctors sent to the Council of Trent, and in 
1575, he was made by Henry III. Bishop of Evreux. 
Forgetful of the royal favour he had received, he sup- 
ported with vehemence the interests of the League. 
Having been made prisoner by the troops of Henry IV. his 
papers were examined, and were found to contain an 
attempt to justify the assassination of Henry III.; for 
B b3 


which he was tried and condemned to be put to death 
as a traitor. However, in consequence of the interces- 
sion of the Cardinal de Bourbon, and some other pre- 
lates, his life was spared, and his sentence commuted 
for perpetual imprisonment. He died at the Castle of 
Crevecseur in 1591, when about sixty-six years of age. 
The most considerable of his works are : — a Treatise 
in Latin On the Eucharist, forming a large volume inr 
folio, which was printed in 1576, and has been much 
used by subsequent writers on the Catholic side of the 
question ; and an edition of a curious collection, entitled, 
Liturgise, sive Missse Sanctorum Patrum : Jacobi Apos- 
toli, et Fratris Domini, Basilii magni, Johannis Chry- 
sostomi, &c., 1560, 8vo, including several chapters of his 
own composition. Excepting The Acts of the Council 
of Rouen in 1581, which he published in Latin and 
French, and his own Synodal Statutes, his other works 
were all controversial. — Dupin. Moreri. 


Alphonso Salmeron was born at Toledo, in 1516. 
Going to Paris to complete his studies, he, with his 
friend James Laynez, surrendered himself to the gui- 
dance of Ignatius Loyola, underwent the initiating 
discipline of the spiritual exercises, and came forth 
from the process fired with zeal to carry forward the 
intentions of his master. He died at Naples, in 1585. 
His works which contain Commentaries on the Scrip- 
tures, were published in 8 vols. fol. (See the Life of 


John Saltmarsh was a Yorkshireman, and educated at 


Magdalen College, Cambridge. He was a chaplain to the 
army of Fairfax, a rebel in politics, > and an Antinomian 
in religion. He died at Elford, in Essex, in 1647. He 
published : — Free Orace, or the Flowings of Christ's 
Blood freely to Sinners ; Shadows flying away ; The 
Smoak in the Temple ; D awnings of Light ; Sparkles 
of Glory ; and, Wonderful Predictions. These books 
made a great noise, and were answered by writers of 
no ordinary name, particularly by the learned Thomas 
Gataker. — Gen. Diet. 


The public history of Sampson is so closely connected 
with that of Humphrey, that to the Life of Humphrey 
the reader is referred. (See also the Life of Parker.) 
Thomas Sampson was born at Playford, in Surrey, about 
the year 1617, and, according to Strype, was educated 
at Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, according to Wood, at 
Oxford. He objected to the habits at his ordination by 
Archbishop Cranmer, who seems to have yielded to the 
scruples expressed by himself and some others. In 
1551, he was presented to the living of All Hallows, 
Bread Street, London, which he resigned in 1553. In 
1554, he was promoted to the Deanery of Chichester. 
On the accession of Mary, he at first concealed himself, 
aud then fled to Strasburg, where he found a refuge. 
He had some share in the Geneva Bible. On the acces- 
sion of Elizabeth he returned home, not only confirmed 
in his aversion to the habits, but with such a dislike 
to the episcopal office, that he refused the Bishopric 
of Norwich. He continued, however, to preach, parti- 
cularly at St. Paul's Cross, where his wonderful memory 
and eloquence were greatly admired. In September, 
1560, he wa^s made a prebendary of Durham; and in 
Michaelmas term, 1561, he was installed Dean of Christ 


Church, Oxford. At this time Sampson and Humphrey 
were the only Proteetant preachers at Oxford of any 
celebrity. In 1562, he resigned his prebend of Durham, 
and became so open and zealous in his invectives against 
the habits, that, after considerable forbearance, he was 
cited, in 1564, with Dr. Humphrey, before the high 
commission court at Lambeth, and was deprived of his 
deanery, and for some time imprisoned. Notwithstand- 
ing his nonconformity, however, he was presented, in 
1568, to the mastership of Wigston Hospital, at Lei- 
cester, and had likewise, according to Wood, a prebend 
in the Cathedral of St. Paul, London. The queen also 
permitted him to hold the theological lectureship at 
Whittington College, in the metropolis, to which he had 
been elected by the Cloth Workers' Company. 

Mr. Soames observes that Sampson and Humphrey 
have left an authentic record of their sentiments, on the 
vesture question, in a letter to Bullinger, conjointly 
signed. The learned Swiss had argued for the habits 
on civil grounds. His English correspondents consider 
this reasoning unsound. Usages derived from the 
enemies of their religion, they contend could not be 
adopted without injuring it. Against such apparel, too, 
they protested, as a revival of abrogated Mosaic cere- 
monies, and an unsuitable adaptation to the simple 
ministry of Christ, of that which had served the Popish 
priesthood for theatric pomp. To that body and its 
friends they represent this concession as a triumph : 
occasioning exulting appeals to Otho's Constitutions, 
and the Pontifical, in proof that Protestants had been 
glad of dresses borrowed from their adversaries. This 
concession is lamented also as redolent of monkery, 
no less than of Popery and Judaism, as savouring of 
Pharisaical precision ; as the first step by which a con- 
ceit of sanctity in garments may again creep over men. 
Bucer is afterwards mentioned as an authority for deny- 
ing that prescribed apparel agrees with Christian liberty. 


He wished all such distinctions abolished, mindful of 
present abuse, anxious for a fuller declaration of detest- 
ing Antichrist, for a removal of all dissension among 
brethren. Such were the reasons why they strove to 
have every trace of Antichristian superstition buried in 
eternal oblivion ; why they could not agree to the obtru- 
sion of that which does not edify the Church; why 
they felt unable to join sound doctrine with halting 
worship ; why they would not maim Christ, when He 
might be entire, pure, and perfect ; why they preferred 
a pattern from reformed brethren, to one from Popish 
enemies ; why they shrank from dishonouring the ser- 
vice of that heavenly leader whom they and their foreign 
friends equally obeyed, by raising hostile banners, which 
it was their duty to demolish and detest. 

Everything from such men as Sampson and Hum* 
phrey, must at least be specious. Their objections 
have but slender chance of winning any higher character 
in modern times. But ability, aided by perseverance, 
will command attention from any age. In this case, too, 
were high moral worth, considerable station, and recent 
sufferings. Opposition to power and estahlished autho- 
rity is, besides, always popular. The dean of Christ 
Church, and the president of Magdalen, became, accor- 
dingly, the leaders of a powerful, energetic, and uncom- 
promising party. This must, however, be considered 
as accidental, neither of these remarkable men, appa- 
rently, having ever calculated upon any such distinction, 
or being likely to desire it. Humphrey's disposition 
was, indeed, eminently mild and moderate. Sampson 
showed himself more unbending, but his temper was 
very different from that of many who continued t?ie 
resistance that he and his brother-head began. 

He died in 1589. He married Latimer's niece, by 
whom he had two sons. His works are : — Letter to 
the professors of Christ's Gospel, in the parish of All- 
hallows in Bread-street, Strasburg, 1554, 8vo ; this is 

^86 SANCROFt. 

reprinted in the Appendix to Strype's Ecclesiastical 
Memorials : A Warning to take heed of Fowler's Psalter, 
London, 1576 and 1578, Svo; this was a Popish Psalter, 
published by John Fowler, once a Fellow of New College, 
Oxford, but who went abroad, turned printer, and printed 
the Popish controversial works for some years ; Brief 
Collection of the Church and Ceremonies thereof; and. 
Prayers and Meditations Apostolike ; gathered and 
framed out of the Epistles of the Apostles. He was 
also editor of Two Sermons of John Bradford, on Ptepen- 
tance, and the Lord's Supper. Baker ascribes to him 
a Translation of a Sermon of John Chrysostome, of 
Pacience, of the End of the World, and the Last Judg- 
ment, 1550, Svo; and of An Homelye of the Piesurrec- 
tion of Christ by John Brentius, 1550, 8vo. — Strpye. 
Wood. Soames. 


William Sancroft was born at Fresingfield, in Suffolk, 
in 1616. He received his primary education at Bury 
School, and proceeded thence to Emanuel College, Cam- 
bridge, of which he became a fellow in 1642. Several 
Letters addressed by him to his father have been pub- 
lished by Dr. D'oyley, and they impress us with the 
great amiability of the writer, especially one which 
relates to the death of a college friend. The Dissenters 
being in the ascendant in 1649, they deprived him of 
his fellowship. But though driven from the university, 
and silenced in the pulpit, he knew that the press was 
still open to him, and through it he sought to further 
the cause of social order and true religion. Two im- 
portant publications proceeded about this time from his 
pen, which were extensively circulated and read with 
great avidity ; both admirably adapted as prescriptions 
to heal the distempers of the times, and to induce a 
more healthful state of the political body. 


The first of these, in Latin, was called Fur Praedes- 
tinatus, being intended to expose the doctrines of rigid 
Calvinism, the extensive prevalence of which had ad- 
vanced very far in destroying all just and sound views 
of religion. The second, entitled " Modern Policies, 
taken from Machiavel, Borgia, and other choice authors," 
was designed to hold up to deserved contempt the hollow 
and false policy which had been too successful in raising 
many worthless and profligate persons to stations of 

He seems to have supported himself on his small 
paternal property, and out of that he saved something 
to assist poor Churchmen worse off than himself. In 
1659, he went abroad, but did not stay long, as at the 
Restoration he was appointed chaplain to Dr. Cosin, 
now appointed to the Bishopric of Durham, and at the 
consecration of his patron, with six other new bishops, 
he was selected to be the preacher. The Convocation 
assembled on the 8th of May, 1661, in which the last 
revision of our Prayer Book took place. It is well 
known that Mr. Bancroft was eminently useful in assis- 
ting in these alterations, although it is not easy to ascer- 
tain on what particular parts of the work, or to what 
extent, his services were employed. As he was not a 
member of the Convocation at the time, for he then held 
no preferments, his name does not appear among those 
to whom the preparation of any portion of the work was 
committed; and it seems that he was only privately 
employed, probably by the recommendation of Bishop 
Cosin, who bore a considerable share in this business, 
and in consequence of the confidence reposed in his 
talents, learning, and judgment. 

However it is specially recorded that he assisted in 
rectifying the calendar and the rubrics, and that, after the 
work was completed, he was one of those appointed 
by an order of the Upper House of Convocation for the 
supervision of the press. In the common accounts of 


his life, it is stated that he was the author of the 
Forms of Prayer prepared for the 30th of January and 
'^9th of May. But this does not appear from any com- 
petent authority. Bishop Burnet gives a remarkable 
account of this matter : he states, that when the new 
offices for the 30th of January and the 29th of May 
were under preparation, Sancroft drew them up in too 
high a strain ; that those which he produced were in 
consequence rejected, and others of a more moderate 
character adopted in their room. He adds, that, after- 
wards, when Sancroft was advanced to the See of Can- 
terbury, he procured the substitution of his own offices 
in the place of those formerly adopted, and got them 
" published by the king's authority, at a time when so 
high a style as was in them did not sound well to the 

As Burnet himself had no concern in the transaction, 
and does not state the authority from which he derived 
his information, it is impossible to ascertain in what 
degree there is any foundation for his representation. 
Two circumstances, however, should be mentioned to 
show that his statements are not strictly accurate. The 
first is, that, in the office for the 30th of January, no 
alteration of the slightest importance was made when 
Sancroft held the primacy, or has been made at any 
period subsequently to the first preparation of it : for 
it stands now, with very immaterial exceptions, precisely 
in the same form as it did at first. The second is, that 
the office for the 29th of May, as it was adopted with 
alterations after the death of Charles II. and during the 
primacy of Archbishop Sancroft, could not have been 
precisely that which he first proposed but which was 
rejected. For the 29th day of May being the day of 
King Charles's birth, as well as of his return, the office 
during his life-time was adapted to both these events. 
After his death, alterations were necessarily required, 
in order to make the office commemorative solely of the 


Restoration of the royal family. It is true that some 
further alterations and substitutions took place at this 
time ; and perhaps it may be allowed that mention is 
made in the new office of the Rebellion, and those con- 
cerned in it, in stronger terms than had been done in 
the former office, and this is probably the foundation 
of Burnet's assertion, that an office was adopted " of 
a higher strain." These alterations were of course made 
under Archbishop Sancroft's authority, although the fact 
of their having been introduced by himself, rests only 
on the statement of Bishop Burnet. 

The rapidity of Sancroft's rise seems to be surprising, 
as industrious mediocrity rather than great talents or 
profound learning was his characteristic. In 1662, he 
was elected master of Emanuel College, Cambridge ; in 
1664, he was appointed Dean of York, and soon after 
he was removed to the Deanery of St. Paul's. In this 
new situation he contributed much to the repairing of the 
cathedral ; and when it was destroyed by the fire of 
London, he gave £1400 towards rebuilding it. In 
1668, he was presented to the Archdeaconry of Canter- 
bury by Charles II., who, in 1677, raised him to the 
See of Canterbury. 

A more meek and gentle spirit few persons have pos- 
sessed than Archbishop Sancroft, but he was called to 
take his part in stirring times, when his firm principles 
enabled him to act a part which, if not the wisest accor- 
ding to our present notions, was certainly such as to 
command universal respect. And occasions were not 
wanting, on which Archbishop Sancroft maintained the 
disciphne of the Church with a just degree of dignity 
and firmness. A remarkable and unusual instance of 
this occurred in his suspension of Dr. Thomas Wood, 
Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, from his episcopal 
functions, on account of his neglect of his diocese and 
other misdemeanours. In this bishop we have an un- 
happy example of a very undeserving person raised to 

VOL. VIII. c c 


that important and dignified station in the Church by 
most unworthy and disgraceful means. It is recorded 
that he obtained his bishopric immediately from Charles 
II., through the interest of the Duchess of Cleveland, 
and that he recommended himself to her, by contriving 
that his niece, a wealthy heiress, to whom he was guar- 
dian, should marry the Duke of Southampton, son of 
the duchess. After he was placed in the bishopric, he 
grossly neglected the concerns of the diocese, residing 
entirely out of it, and performing none of the functions. 
In addition to this, he refused to build an episcopal 
house, although he received money for this purpose from 
the heirs of his predecessor, and although he cut down 
from the >estates of the see, as for this building, timber, 
which he afterwards sold. The Archbishop of Canter- 
bury considered that a case of this flagrant nature 
demanded the interference of his metropolitan authority. 
He accordingly, in April, 1684, suspended Bishop Wood 
from his episcopal dignity and functions. The bishop 
submitted some time after, and the suspension was taken 
off in May, 1686. However, this exercise of authority, 
temperedwith mildness, unfortunately seems to have failed 
in producing the desired effect ; for the bishop appears to 
have continued in the habit of residing at a distance 
from his diocese, and of neglecting its concerns. 

Archbishop Bancroft, though enthusiastically loyal, was 
devoted to the cause of true religion and the Church of 
England, and when a traitor king was on the throne, 
who sought to use his prerogative for the purpose of 
introducing Popery, he dared to defy him and to main- 
tain the sacred cause at the head of which he was 
providentially placed. He certainly acted too cautiously 
at first. When James appointed illegally an ecclesiastical 
commission, Archbishop Bancroft refused to act upon 
it, though nominated its head, but he only pleaded ill- 
health, though by his being forbidden the court, it is 
o\ed.v that his real feeling was understood. 


We must enter into further detail in regard to the 
events of the reign of James II., and we shall avail 
ourselves of the brief but spirited sketch of the iniqui- 
tous proceedings of the traitor king, given by Mr. 
Chermside, in his lecture on the trial and acquittal 
of the Seven Bishops. 

In 1688, a bill was drawn up and prepared to be laid 
before the parliament, entitled " An act for granting of 
Liberty of Conscience, without imposing of oaths and 
tests," — but before any parliamentary steps were taken 
in the matter, the king on the 27th of April, thought 
fit to republish his declaration of indulgence, and im- 
mediately thereupon appeared the following announce- 
ment in the Gazette : — 

" At the Court at Whitehall, May 4th. 

" It is this day ordered, by his majesty in council, that 
his majesty's late gracious declaration, bearing date the 
27th of April last, be read at the usual time of divine 
service, on the 20th and 27th of this month, in all 
churches and chapels, within the cities of London and 
Westminster, and ten miles thereabout: and upon the 
3rd and 10th of June next, in all other churches and 
chapels throughout this kingdom. And it is hereby 
further ordered, that the right reverend the bishops 
cause the said declaration to be sent and distributed 
throughout their several and respective dioceses to be read 

This was a blow well struck — well struck, that is, if 
it should prove successful ; but if not, then most disas- 
trous for the striker, as the event shewed beyond a doubt. 
Every eye in England, Churchman's, Nonconformist's, 
Romanist's, must needs be fixed upon the Bishops of 
the Church : the breathless anxiety of a whole nation 
awaited their decision, and the decision must be speedy, 
that is, if we remember the difficulties which then im- 
peded communication, and seemed likely to preclude a 


ready concert between the prelates. The clergy of Lon- 
don in those days enjoyed, as a body, a great reputation 
for worth and learning. Fowler and Patrick, Stilling- 
fleet, Sherlock, and Tillotson, were of their number; 
they met in consultation, and determined for their part 
to refuse the reading of the king's declaration. This 
resolution they made known to the archbishop, who had 
been busy in the meantime to summon to his council as 
many of his brethren as it was possible. A copy of the 
letter which he despatched to them on the occasion is pre- 
served in his own hand-writing. 

" My Lord, — This is only in my own name, and in 
the names of some of our brethren, now here upon this 
place, earnestly to desire you immediately upon the 
receipt of this letter to come hither with what conve- 
nient speed you can, not taking notice to any that you 
are sent for. Wishing you a prosperous journey and 
us all a happy meeting. 

" I remain your loving brother." 

On the 12th of May, a meeting took place at Lambeth, 
where there were present, besides Sancroft, the Earl of 
Clarendon, three bishops, Compton, Turner, and White, 
together with Tenison ; and it was then resolved not to 
read the declaration; but to petition the king to dis- 
pense with the obedience of the prelates, and to entreat 
all those within reach of London "to repair to the aid of 
their brethren forthwith. On the 18th another meeting 
took place at the archbishop's; the proposed petition 
was drawn up, written in the primate's own hand, and 
subscribed as well by him as by the following: — Dr. 
Lloyd, Bishop of St. Asaph, Dr. Ken, of Bath and 
Wells, Dr. Turner, of Ely, Dr. Lake of Chichester, Dr. 
White, of Peterborough, and Sir Jonathan Trelawney, 
of Bristol. 


**The humble petition of William, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and of divers of the suffragan bishops 
of that province (now present with him,) in behalf 
of themselves and others of their absent brethren, 
and of the clergy of their respective dioceses, 
humbly sheweth, — 
*• That the great averseness they find in themselves 
to the distributing and publishing in all their churches 
your majesty's late declaration for liberty of conscience, 
proceedeth neither from any want of duty and obedience 
to your majesty ; our holy mother the Church of England 
being both in her principles and in her practice unques- 
tionably loyal, and having, to her great honour, been 
more than once publicly acknowledged to be so by your 
gracious majesty ; nor yet from any want of due tender- 
ness to Dissenters, in relation to whom they are willing 
to come to such a temper as shall be thought fit, when 
that matter shall be considered and settled in parliament 
and convocation. But among many other considerations, 
from this especially, because that declaration is formed 
upon such a dispensing power, as hath been often de- 
clared illegal in parliament, and particularly in the years 
1662 and 1672, and the beginning of your majesty's 
reign ; and is a matter of so great moment and conse- 
quence to the whole nation, both in Church and State, 
that your petitioners cannot in prudence, honour, or 
conscience, so far make themselves parties to it, as the 
distribution of it all over the nation, and the solemn 
publication of it once and again, even in God's house 
and in the time of His Divine Service, must amount to, 
in common and reasonable construction. 

"And your petitioners will ever pray." 

The petition once drawn up and signed, there was 

no trace of hesitation or delay visible in the conduct of 

the bishops. Sancroft, who as we have already stated,- 

had the honour to be under the king's especial displea- 

c c3 


sure, for having denied to the Ecclesiastical Commission 
the sanction of his venerable name, was unable to appear 
at court, indeed had been for two years forbidden so to 
do. — (See Life of Bishop Compton.) — But the other six 
subscribers proceeded at once to seek an interview from 
the king, in order to present their petition. Of this 
interview no better account can be given than that which 
is printed amongst the other MSS. of the archbishop, 
of which the originals are in the Bodleian Library, 
at Oxford. 

In the evening of the same day, the petition being 
finished, all the subscribers, except the archbishop, who 
had been forbidden the court almost two years before, 
went over to Whitehall to deliver it to the king. In 
order thereto the Bishop of St. Asaph went first to the 
Earl of Middleton, principal secretary, in the name of 
all the rest, to desire his assistance for the introducing 
them to his majesty ; but he had been sick for a fort- 
night before, and so confined to his chamber. Then 
St. Asaph, (his brethren staying at the Earl of Dart- 
mouth's house,) went and made the like application to 
the Earl of Sunderland, desiring him to peruse the 
petition, and acquaint his majesty with it, that he might 
not be surprised at the delivery of it; and, withal, to 
beseech his majesty to assign the time and place, when 
and where, they might all attend him, and present this 
petition. The earl refused to inspect the petition, but 
went immediately and acquainted the king with their 
desire, and they were presently thereupon brought to 
the king in his closet, within his bed-chamber, when the 
Bishop of St. Asaph, with the rest (all being upon their 
knees,) delivered their petition to his majesty. The 
king was pleased (at first) to receive the petitioners and 
their petition very graciously, and upon the first opening 
of it to say. This is my Lord of Canterbury's own hand ? 
to which the bishops replied, Yes, sir, it is his own hand. 


But the king having read it over, and then folding it up, 
said thus, or to this effect : — 

" King. — This is a great surprise to me : here are 
strange words. I did not expect this from you. This 
is a standard of rebellion. 

** St. Asaph, and some of the rest, replied, that they 
had adventured their lives for his majesty, and would 
lose the last drop of their blood rather than lift a finger 
against him. 

" King, — I tell you this is a standard of rebellion. I 
never saw such an address. 

" Bristol (falling down upon his knees) said. Rebellion ! 
Sir, I beseech your majesty, do not say so hard a thing 
of us. For God's sake do not believe we are, are can be, 
guilty of a rebellion. 'Tis imposible that I or any of my 
family should be so. Your majesty cannot but remember 
that you sent me down into Cornwall to quell Monmouth's 
rebellion, and I am as ready to do what I can to quell 
another, if there were occasion. 

" Chichester. — Sir, we have quelled one rebellion, and 
will not raise another. 

" Ely. — We rebel, sir ! We are ready to die at your 

" Bath and Wells. — Sir, I hope you will give that 
liberty to us which you allow to all mankind. 

" Peterborough. — Sir, you allow liberty of conscience to 
all mankind ; but really this declaration is against our 

" King. — I will keep this paper. 'Tis the strangest 
address I ever saw ; it tends to rebellion. Do you ques- 
tion my dispensing powers ? Some of you have printed 
and preached for it when it was for your purpose. 

" Peterborough. — Sir, what we say of the dispensing 
power refers only to what was declared in parliament. 

" King. — The dispensing power was never questioned 
by the Church of England. 

'• St. Asaph. — It was declared against in the first 


parliament, called by his late majesty, and by that 
which was called by your majesty. 

" King. — (Insisting upon the tendency of the petition 
to rebellion) said, He would have his declaration pub- 

" B. and W. — We are bound to fear God and honour 
the king. We desire to do both ; we will honour you, 
we must fear God. 

" King. — Is this what I have deserved, who have sup- 
ported the Church of England, and will support it? I 
will remember you that have signed this paper, I will 
keep this paper ; I will not part with it, I did not expect 
this from you ; especially some of you. I will be obeyed 
in publishing my declaration. 

" B. and W. — God's will be done. 

" King.— What's that? 

** B. and W. — God's wiU be done, and so said Peter- 

" King. — If I think fit to alter my mind, I will send 
to you. God hath given me this dispensing power, 
and I will maintain it. I tell you there are seven 
thousand men, and of the Church of England too, that 
have not bowed their knees to Baal. 

" This is the sum of what passed ; as far as the 
bishops could recollect it ; and this being said they were 

The same night the petition was printed and circu- 
lated ; by whom it is not known, certainly not by the 
bishops themselves ; but all London and all England 
soon knew that the Church and the Crown were fairly 
confronted. The bishops had parried the blow, and the 
king must either strike again or tacitly allow himself to 
be defeated. As for the declaration and the order to 
read it in the churches, they were waste paper; the 
chief effect produced by this publication being this, that 
Baxter and all the wiser and truer of his Nonconformist 


brethren, took occasion to use the granted indulgence of 
preaching to thank and to extol the bishops for their 
determination. In London,, four only of the parochial 
clergy could be found to read it — in all England not 
above two hundred, out of a body of ten thousand, 
would do so; and in the diocese of Durham, Bishop 
Crew, a creature of the king's, is said to have suspended 
nearly two hundred of his clergy for refusing to read to 
their people the royal declaration. Even in those few 
churches where the reading was attempted, the congre- 
gations in many cases rose and left the churches so soon 
as the first words were pronounced. Such was the case 
at Westminster Abbey, where Sprat, the Bishop of 
Rochester, officiated as dean, and could scarce hold the 
paper in hand for trembhng. At Whitehall it was read 
by a chorister, for want of a better ; at Sergeant's Inn, 
the chief justice desiring it to be read, the clerk signifi- 
cantly declared that he had forgotten it. Similar scenes 
were enacted upon the second of the two appointed Sun- 
days. On that day, however, the 27th of May, the king 
had taken his resolution, and late in the evening a king's 
messenger arrived at Lambeth to serve upon the arch- 
bishop a summons, by which he was required to appear 
before his majesty in council, on the eighth of June, 
to answer for a misdemeanor ; a similar summons was 
served at once upon such others of the right reverend peti- 
tioners as were then in London, and despatched after 
the absent ones into their several dioceses. 

On the day appointed, about five in the evening, the 
whole seven attended at Whitehall, and upon being ques- 
tioned by the chancellor and the king as to the genuine- 
ness of the petition, whether it was indeed in the arch- 
bishop's hand, they at first, acting upon the advice of 
their counsel, were unwilling to be explicit in answer. 
The archbishop addressed himself to James and said, 
" Sir, I am called hither as a criminal, which I never 
was before in my life, and little thought I ever should 


be, and especially before your majesty; but since it 
is my unhappiness to be so at this time, I hope 
your majesty will not be offended that I am cau- 
tious of answering questions. No man is obliged to 
answer questions that may tend to the accusing of 

His majesty called this chicanery, and hoped he would 
not deny his hand ; whereupon Lloyd, of St. Asaph, 
urged that all divines of all Christian churches were 
agreed in allowing a man in their circumstances to 
refuse an answer. Still the king pressed for one, and 
at last, the primate said, that if he gave one it must 
be at the king's express command, " trusting to your 
majesty's justice and generosity that we shall not suffer 
for our obedience." The king refused then to give an 
express command, and the chancellor bade them then 
to withdraw ; they did so for a short time, and, upon 
their return, were commanded expressly by James to 
answer, and then, conceiving their condition to be 
allowed, they owned the petition. Again they were 
bidden to withdraw, and a third time were summoned 
into the royal presence for the purpose of being told 
by Jeffreys that they should be proceeded against " with 
all fairness, so he was pleased to say, in Westminster 
Hall ; they were then desired to enter into recogni- 
zances ; but to this also, by the advice given beforehand 
to them by eminent counsel, they objected; and although 
the archbishop professed himself and his brethren ready 
to appear and answer whensoever they should be called 
upon, neither the king nor the chancellor upon that 
occasion, nor the Earl of Berkeley, who afterwards 
endeavoured to alter their determination, could prevail 
upon them to disregard their determination, could pre- 
vail upon them to disregard their counsel's advice. 
The key to their conduct on this occasion is to be found 
in a letter from the Bishop of Ely to the primate which 
runs as follows :— - 


" Ely House, Friday mom. 
** May it please your grace, — We spent much time 
yesternight with our ablest and kindest advisers, who 
are unanimous in their opinion, that we should by no 
means answer particular questions, but keep to the 
generals ; what are the matters of misdemeanour against 
us ; and desire a copy of our charge. Two of our num- 
ber had a long discourse (even 'till past eleven at 
night) with Sir R. Sawry, from whom we received more 
instruction than from all the rest. That conference is 
summed up in the enclosed half sheet of paper, and 
our measures of answering are set down to us. The 
other papers are the minutes out of the counsel's book 
in my Lord Lovelace's case. All our wise friends are 
of the mind that we should give no recognizances. We 
shall attend your grace between two and three. (Cum 
deo.) Your grace's most obedient servant, 

"Fea. Ely." 

The next step was taken by the king : the bishops were 
committed to the Tower, by a warrant which fourteen 
privy councillors subscribed, and at the same time an 
order in council (signed by nineteen hands, amongst 
which is observable that of Father Peter the Jesuit) was 
issued for their prosecution by the law officers of the 
crown in the court of King's Bench. 

Never, perhaps, if we except the day on which these 
same illustrious and venerable accused were taken from 
their prison to the Justice-hall at Westminster, never 
were the banks of lordly Thames the theatre of such a 
scene, as they displayed, when these reverend champions 
of a nation's and a church's liberties embarked under 
an armed escort for the Tower of London. You might 
have thought, but for their unwonted attendants, that 
these prelates were pacing in solemn procession the long 
drawn isle of some giant cathedral ; for on the river's 
banks a countless multitude, forgetful of the noise and 


riot of a popular display of feeling, knelt in reverence 
to receive with prayers and tears the dignified and calm 
benediction of the persecuted Churchmen. Nay, the 
very guards caught the spirit of the crowd's emotion, for 
they too upon landing, knelt, and craved the blessing 
of their prisoners. It was a solemn hour too, that hour 
of landing, it was the time of evening prayer, and from 
the barge that brought them, the bishops forthwith betook 
themselves to the Tower Chapel, where, by a coincidence 
that did not fail to strike the minds of all men, the 
second lesson for the evening service proved to be that 
chapter of St, Paul, in which these fitting words occur : 
" Giving no offence in anything, that the ministry be 
not blamed ; but in all things approving ourselves as 
ministers of God, in much patience, in affiictions, in 
necessities, in distress, in stripes, in imprisonment." 

The fifteenth day of June saw again upon the river a 
band of prisoners passing in solemnity and triumph to 
their trial. A writ of Habeas brought the bishops upon 
that day before the King's Bench. " Of the immense 
concourse of people," says the Pope's Nuncio, writing to 
his court the events of that day — " who received them 
on the banks of the river, the majority in their imme- 
diate neighbourhood were upon their knees ; the Arch- 
bishop laid his hands on the heads of such as he could 
reach, exhorting them to continue stedfast in their faith ; 
they cried aloud that all should kneel, while tears flowed 
from the eyes of many." 

In court, the bishops were attended by nine and 
twenty peers, who had offered to be their sureties in 
case of need. Their counsel consisted of Sir Francis 
Pemberton, and Mr. Pollexton, accounted the most 
learned among the elder lawyers, Sir Creswell Levins, 
who endeavoured subsequently to back out of the duty 
of their defence, but was compelled by the attornies to 
proceed, Sir Robert Sawyer, Mr. Trely, and Mr. Somers, 
a man, as it subsequently proved, of superior intellect 


and great attainments, who being at that time in his 
thirty-eighth year, was yet at one of the consultations 
held upon this matter objected to as a person too young 
and too obscure to be retained in so important a cause. 
They also had the benefit of Sir John Holt's advice, 
a distinguished lawyer of Gray's Inn, whose name does 
not appear in the list of their counsel ; but who was 
recommended to them as a person both able and desirous 
to serve them, by Compton, the suspended Bishop of 
London. The bench was as unfavourable to their cause 
as it was possible for it to be. The Lord Chief Justice, 
Sir Robert Wright, and Mr. Justice HoUoway, had been 
placed there by the unscrupulous James, to betray rather 
than to explain or to administer uprightly the law. 
Allibone, who is described in contemporaries as an 
angry Papist, was virtually to try his own cause; for 
his seat on the bench depended solely upon that dis- 
pensing power of the king against which was in effect 
directed the petition of the bishops — his spirit too was 
subsequently shown by his conduct at the Croydon as- 
sizes, where in the teeth of the acquittal pronounced 
upon the bishops, he had the audacity to stigmatise 
them in his charge as guilty of a seditious libel, the 
very accusation which had been pronounced null and 
void in the court in which he himself sat upon their 
trial. One impartial judge then was all that could be 
counted, it was Mr. Justice Powell, whom, for his im- 
partiality, James arbitrarily dismissed within a fortnight 
of the bishops' acquittal. 

The day's proceedings commenced by reading the writ 
and return under which the bishops were brought into 
court. The attorney-general then moved that the infor- 
mation also be read, and the bishops be called upon 
to plead. To which their council objected on the 
ground of irregularity in the warrant, and also because 
the bishops being peers of parliament could not lawfully 
be committed for trial — they contended, therefore, that 



their lordships were not legally in court. The bench over- 
ruled both objections, and, after three hours debating, 
it was determined that the bishops should plead, and 
that without delay. They pleaded Not guilty, and upon 
their own recognizances (£200 the archbishop, £100 
the rest) to appear on the trial, which then was fixed 
for the 29th of June, they were enlarged. Even in 
this stage of the affair, the joy of the people seems to 
have been unbounded ; and yet, relying upon the temper 
of the bench, hoping, perhaps, to tamper with the jury, 
which the king took measures to effect, in a private 
interview with Sir Samuel Astry, clerk of the crown, 
whose business it was to form that body — the court 
party were confident enough as to the result of the trial, 
and the ominous words, fines, imprisonment, suspension, 
found their way into the talk of the town. 

Again the appointed day came round, and again the 
unshaken champions of the nation's and the Church's 
right, came into court, surrounded by admiring friends, 
and bringing with them the anxious earnest sympathy 
of almost all their fellow-subjects. It was a strange 
sight for those who could remember the ties which some 
forty years before had bound together England's bishops 
and her king — who could remember how Laud's blood 
shed upon the scaffold had been but precursor of the 
blood of Charles : it was strange for them to see the 
primate and his brethren stand confronted with the 
legal officers of James — to see the prelates of a Church 
which counted the father as her martyr arraigned as 
seditious libellers by order of his Popish son. 

But in truth, had the circumstances of the case been 
other than they were, had the question to be tried 
involved no such momentous consequences as it did, 
had the people, had the Church of England, nay had 
the whole of Protestant Europe, possessed no interest so 
vital and so deep in the doings of that day, as certainly 
was theirs, still the very persons of the calm and dignified 


accused bore with them such character, such dignity, as 
to make for ever memorable the day which heard them 

On the day of their final trial the bench was filled by 
the men mentioned before, Wright and Powell, Allibone 
and Holloway. The king's counsel first found a difii- 
culty in proving the hand-writing of the bishops who 
had subscribed the petition, and here an important 
witness, Blaithwaite, clerk of the privy council, was 
forced at last by Pemberton's close questioning to ac- 
knowledge the circumstances under which the bishops 
had owned it to the king; and though no promise of 
his majesty could be adduced directly intimating that 
he accepted the condition of impunity attached by them 
to their confession — still it was apparent to all men that 
the sovereign's honour was tarnished by taking advan- 
tage of a confession made as theirs had been. Then the 
defendants' counsel insisted much upon the indictment 
being laid in a wrong county, in Middlesex, instead of 
Surrey, where the alleged libel must needs, as it was 
shewn, have been written. After this they objected to 
the word publislimg, reminding the court that the petition 
was presented in the most private way imaginable to the 
king, and to no other person. Hereupon things were 
drawing to a close, the Chief Justice was beginning to 
sum up, when he was interrupted by Mr. Finch, who, 
on behalf of the bishops, asked him, whether what had 
been said concerning the writing and publication was 
evidence or no. — " For," said he, as it seemed incau- 
tiously, "if it be evidence, we have other matter to offer 
in answer." The king's solicitor-general took advantage 
of the interruption to send for Lord Sunderland, the 
president of the council, who upon the 18th of May had 
presented the bishops to the king. The bishops' other 
counsel were dissatisfied with Mr. Finch, and wished the 
chief justice to proceed forthwith ; this he refused to do, 
and an hour was spent in waiting for Lord Sunderland, 


When he came, his evidence given upon oath could not 
fully prove the delivery of the petition to the king ; after 
its giving, the bishops council were asked what else they 
had to plead. And now, thanks to Mr. Finch's most 
fortunate interruption, as we must call it at this day, the 
serious debate began in which, with equal boldness and 
skill, the defendants' advocates disproved the charge of 
seditious libelling brought against their clients, and, 
which to the nation was of weightier import still, estab- 
lished beyond doubt the illegality of this famous dis- 
pensing power, the engine which had wrought the 
greatest mischiefs done by James to the State and the 
Church committed to his kingly care. Wright and Alli- 
bone charged against the bishops as might have been ex- 
pected. Holloway, contrary to expectation, found heart 
to speak in favour of them, for which he shared the 
disgrace of Powell, who manfully maintained that the 
charges of libel or sedition were alike evidently unproved 
against the right reverend defendants, and asserted that 
the declaration which they had refused to read, sup- 
posed in the king a power of dispensation unknown to 
the laws of Britain. All night the jury passed in 
consultation, and all night long the bishops' friends 
watched anxiously the door of the room in which they 
were confined. Next morning, between the hours of 
niue and ten, the Court of King's Bench shewed such as 
you see it in Mr. Herbert's painting of the event. It 
was not seven men, nor seven bishops, but England, 
that awaited there the saying of the jury's foreman, Sir 
Roger Langley; and aa the words Not Guilty dropped 
from that foreman's lips, it seemed as if all England 
had caught up and was pealing them. You might have 
said a crested billow, fierce but impotent, had dashed 
itself in glassy fragments against some headland of 
proud rock erect, immovable, and that along the shore 
from bay to bay the echoing coast was sounding its 


This important historical event it has been necessary 
to give at length, and we have used the words of 
Mr. Chermside. It is referred to in several other lives. 
The remainder of Archbishop Bancroft's career may be 
briefly told. He felt that he ought to be a leader, and 
yet must have been conscious that he had no strength of 
mind to lead. He was an excellent martyr, but not 
fitted for a general. In the subsequent events of the 
Revolution, he perceived that a Revolution was neces- 
sary, and yet hesitated to transfer his oath of allegiance. 
He would have accepted William as a regent, the king 
being pronounced to be incompetent to reign, but he 
would not concede to him the name of sovereign. For 
refusing to take the oaths to William and Mary, he 
was suspended, and at last in 1691, deprived of his 
archbishopric. He retired to his paternal estate at 
Fresingfield, respected by all but the political zealots of 
the Revolution, and reverenced in history, if not as a 
great, yet certainly as a good man ; who boldly defended 
his Church against a tyrant, and yet rendered even to 
that tyrant the allegiance he conceived to be due to his 
legitimate sovereign. 

At Fresingfield, his native place, he lived in peace 
and happiness. After he had made the great sacrifice 
he had to principle, the natural turn of his mind must 
have been to justify to himself the line he had taken, 
by confirming and strengthening that view of things on 
which the resolution was founded. In addition to this, 
his more free and unreserved communications after his 
retirement were principally maintained with persons 
who had acted on the same views with himself; and, as 
many of these carried their feelings and prejudices on 
the subject which divided them from the rest of the 
nation, much farther than he did, the result seems to 
have been that his mind, besides being confirmed in its 
approbation of the part which he had taken, gradually 
advanced to a strong conviction of the error and even 

D D 3 


sinfulness of the part taken by others. Thus, as we 
shall find, he was induced to think and speak of those 
of the prelates and clergy who refused the new oath, and 
were in consequence ejected, as forming the true Church 
of England, while he looked upon the rest who remained 
in possession of their benefices, or were appointed to 
those vacated by the non-jurors, as forming an apostate 
and rebellious Church. And, under the influence of the 
same feelings, he was also induced to take steps which 
no friend to his memory can justify or approve, for lay- 
ing the foundation of a permanent schism in the Church 
of England. 

The first measure which he took for this purpose was 
the formal consignment of his archiepiscopal powers, on 
his retiring from the see, to Dr. Lloyd, the deprived 
Bishop of Norwich. 

The instrument, by which he appointed Bishop Lloyd 
his vicar in all ecclesiastical matters, is dated from hig 
"hired house," at Fresingfield, February 9th, 1691, 
rather more than half a year after his departure from 
Lambeth. He styles himself in it •• a humble minister 
of the metropolitan Church of Canterbury." He states 
that, having been driven by a lay force from the house of 
Lambeth, and not finding in the neighbouring city a 
place where he could conveniently abide, he had retired 
afar off, seeking where, in his old age, he might rest his 
weary head : and, as there remained many affairs of 
great moment to be transacted in the Church, which 
could be most conveniently attended to by one resident 
in London or its vicinity, he therefore appoints him 
(Bishop Lloyd) his vicar, and commits to him all the 
authority belonging to his place and pontifical or archie- 
piscopal office. The instrument proceeds " whomsoever 
you, my brother, as occasion may require, shall take and 
adjoin to yourself, shall choose and approve, confirm and 
appoint, all those, as far as of right I can, I in like 
manner take and adjoin, choose and approve, confirm 


and appoint. In a word, whatsoever you in matters of 
this kind may do, or think proper to be done, of what- 
ever magnitude or description it may be, you are confi- 
dently to impute to me." 

The instrument is curious, as showing the state of the 
archbishop's feeling at the time, and the firmness with 
which he maintained the principles he had imbibed. 
Bishop Lloyd continued to act under this commission 
till the day of his death, but with so much caution and 
prudence, as to give as little umbrage as possible to the 
bishops who were in possession of the sees. 

A second measure, which he took, or at least in which 
he concurred, still less justifiable, was the providing for 
a regular succession of nonjuring prelates and ministers. 
We derive our principal information on this subject 
from the author of the Life of Mr. Kettle well, one of 
the most eminent nonjurors. It is stated that at some 
period within the two or three first years after the 
Revolution, probably in the year 1691 or 1692, the 
exiled king ordered a list of nonjuring clergy to be 
sent over to him ; a list was accordingly made out, as 
perfect as could be procured in the existing state of 
things, considering the unwillingness which, for obvious 
reasons, many must have felt to have their names to 
a pear in such a list. Out of the number whose 
names were thus sent over, it is related that, at the 
request of the nonjuring bishops. King James nominated 
two for the continuance of the episcopal succession, the 
one to derive his spiritual functions and authority from 
Archbishop Sancroft, the other from Bishop Lloyd, of 
Norwich, the eldest suffragan bishop. The two ap- 
pointed were Dr. George Hickes and Mr. Thomas 
Wagstaffe: the former was consecrated by the title of 
Suffragan of Thetford, the latter by that of Sufiragan of 
Ipswich. The archbishop died before their consecration, 
and his archiepiscopal functions were performed on the 


occasion by the Bishop of Norwich, assisted by the other 
nonjuring bishops. 

His death occurred on the 24th November, 1693. 
The piety of his last moments was in keeping with his 
whole life. Mr. Needham one of his chaplains men- 
tions a few particulars relating to his habits, which are 
given as illustrative of the manners of that age. " He 
was," he states, " the most pious humble good Christian 
I ever knew in all my life. His hours for chapel were 
at six in the morning, twelve before dinner, three in the 
afternoon, and nine at night, at which times he was con- 
stantly present, and always dressed. His usual diet, 
when it was not fast day, was two small dishes of 
coffee, and a pipe of tobacco, for breakfast; at noon, 
chicken, or mutton; at night, a glass of mum, and a 
bit of bread, if anything." 

• Bancroft, though a learned and laborious scholar, pub- 
lished but little. His writings are : — Three Sermons, 
published at different times, and reprinted together in 
1694, 8vo. His few other publications consist of the 
Latin Dialogue already mentioned, entitled Fur Prsedes- 
tinatus, sive, Dialogismus inter quendum Ordinis Prae- 
dicantium Calvinistam et Furem ad Laqueum damnatum 
Habitus, &c., 1651, 12mo, containing an attack upon 
Calvinism ; Modern Politics, taken from Machiavel, Borgia, 
and other modern Authors, by an Eye-witness, 1653, 
12mo ; A Preface to Bishop Andrewes' Defence of the 
Vulgar Translation of the Bible, of which Sancroft was 
the editor. In 1757, Nineteen Familiar Letters of his 
to Mr., afterwards Sir Henry North, of Milden-hall, 
Bart., and which were found among the papers of that 
gentleman, were published in 8vo. His numerous col- 
lections in MSS. were purchased some years after his 
death by Bishop Tanner, and presented to the Bodleian 
Library. — D'oyley. Chetmside. 



Nicholas Sanders, (see Life of Jewell.) Of this person 
the following account is given by Jeremy Collier. He 
was born in Surrey, and educated in New College, Oxford, 
where he was king's professor of canon-law. When 
the times turned against his persuasion, he retired to 
Rome, where he was ordained priest, and commenced 
doctor of divinity. He attended Cardinal Hosius to 
the Council of Trent. And here by disputing and 
making speeches, he raised himself a considerable cha- 
racter. At last he was sent Nuncio into Ireland, which 
was looked on as a hazardous undertaking. And so it 
proved ; for upon the miscarrying of his treasonable 
practices, he was forced to abscond in the woods and 
bogs, where he perished with hunger. This Sanders 
was a desperate rebel ; his business in Ireland, as Rish- 
ton, who published his history, confesses, was to raise 
the natives upon the government ; or to speak in Rish- 
ton's words, to comfort the afflicted Catholics who had 
taken the field in defence of their religion. Cambden 
reports, that his pormanteau, found about him when 
dead, was stuffed with letters and harangues to animate 
the Irish in their revolt. And here, amongst other 
things, he gave them great expectations of succours from 
the pope and the King of Spain. 

His death occurred in 1583. He was the author of: 
" De Origine ac Progressu Schismatis Anglicani, Lib. 
III.," 8vo, which was published from his manuscript, 
in 1585, at Cologne, and was frequently reprinted in 
Catholic countries. The manner in which it is written, 
however, justifies the severe remark of Bayle, that it 
discovers " a great deal of passion and very little accuracy, 
two qualities which generally attend each other." Bishop 
Burnet has noticed a vast number of his errors and 
misstatements towards the close of the first and second 


parts of his "History of the Reformation." Sanders 
also wrote a treatise, entitled " Be Clave David, seu 
Regno Christi," published in 1588, &c.," " De Martyrio 
Quorundam Tempore Henrici VIII. et Elizahethse, 4to, 
published at Cologne, in 1610 ; an abusive account of 
" The Life and Manners of the heretic, Thomas Cran- 
mer ;" and various controversial treatises which are enu- 
merated in Moreri. Bayle. 


Robert Sanderson was born at Rotherham in York- 
shire, on the 19th of September, 1587, and having re- 
ceived his primary education at the Grammar School 
of Rotherham, he proceeded to Lincoln College, Oxford. 
Here he w^as distinguished for his industry as well as 
for his genius, and as regards religion he tells us in 
the preface to his Sermons, 1657, "I had a desire I 
may truly say, almost from my very childhood, to under- 
stand as much as it was possible for me, the bottom of 
our religion ; and particularly as it stood in relation both 
to the Papists, and (as they were then styled) Puritans ; 
to inform myself rightly, wherein consisted the true 
differences between them and the Church of England, 
together with the grounds of those differences : for I 
could even then observe (which was no hard matter to 
do), that the most of mankind took up their religion 
upon trust, as custom or education framed them rather 
than choice." 

At the university he generally devoted eleven hours a 
day to study ; by which industry he was enabled at an 
early period of life to go through the whole course of 
philosophy, and to obtain an intimate acquaintance with 
all the classical authors. From most of these he made 
large extracts ; and he also drew up indexes to them 
for his private use, either in a kind of Journal, or at 


the beginning and end of each book. The same assi- 
duity he continued to practise during the whole of his 
life, not only avoiding, but perfectly hating idleness, and 
earnestly advising others to "be always furnished with 
somewhat to do, as the best way to innocence and plea- 
sure." In ] G06, he was elected fellow of his college ; 
and in the following year he proceeded M.A. In 1608, 
he was chosen reader of logic ; and he discharged the 
duties of that appointment with such ability, that he 
was rechosen to it during the succeeding year. He 
also distinguished himself greatly in the capacity of 
college-tutor. In 1611, he was admitted to holy orders. 
Two years after he was chosen sub-rector of Lincoln 
College ; and he filled the same office in 1614 and 1616. 
In 1615, he published his lectures on logic, under the 
title of Logicse Artis Compendium, 8vo. In 1617, he 
took the degree of B.D. ; and in 1618, he was presented 
to the Rectory of Wibberton, in Lincolnshire : this 
living however, he resigned in the following year, on 
account of the unhealthiness of the situation ; and about 
the same time he was collated to the Rectory of Boothby 
Pannell, in the same county. 

Here, observes Isaac Walton, in his quaint and plea- 
sant style, he was so happy as to obtain Anne, the 
daughter of Henry Nelson, bachelor in divinity, then 
Rector of Haugham, in the county of Lincoln (a man of 
noted worth and learning.) And the giver of all good 
things was so good to him, as to give him such a wife as 
was suitable to his own desires ; a wife, that made his 
life happy by being always content when he was cheer- 
ful ; that was always cheerful when he was content ; that 
divided her joys with him, and abated of his sorrow, by 
bearing a part of that burden ; a wife, that demonstrated 
her affection by a cheerful obedience to all his desires, 
during the whole course of his life, and at his death 
too ; for she outlived him. 

And in this- Boothby Pannel he either found or made 


his parishioners peaceable, and complying with him in 
the constant, decent, and regular service of God. And 
thus his parish, his patron and he, lived together in a 
religious love, and a contented quietness : he not troub- 
ling their thoughts by preaching high and useless no- 
tions, but such, and only such plain truths as were 
necessary to be known, believed, and practised in order 
to the honour of God and their own salvation. And 
their assent to what he taught was testified by such a 
conformity to his doctrine, as declared they believed and 
loved him. For it may be noted he would often say, 
" That without the last, the most evident truths (heard 
as from an enemy, or an evil liver) either are not, (or are 
at least the less) effectual ; and usually rather harden, 
than convince the hearer." 

And this excellent man, did not think his duty dis- 
charged by only reading the Church-prayers, catechizing, 
preaching, and administering the sacraments seasonably ; 
but thought (if the law, or the canons may seem to 
enjoin no more, yet) that God would require more than 
the defective law of man's making, can or does enjoin ; 
even the performance of that inward law, which Al- 
mighty God hath imprinted in the conscience of all 
-■ good Christians, and inclines those whom he loves to 
perform. He considering this, did therefore become a 
law to himself, practising not only what the law enjoins, 
but what his conscience told him was his duty, in 
reconciling differences, and preventing law-suits, both 
in his parish and in the neighbourhood. To which may 
be added his often visiting sick and disconsolate families, 
persuading them to patience, and raising them from 
dejection by his advice and cheerful discourse, and by 
adding his own alms, if there were any so poor as to 
need it; considering how acceptable it is to Almighty 
God, when we do as we are advised by St. Paul, (Gal. vi. 
2) lieljp to hear one another's burthen, either of sorrow or 
want : and what a comfort it will be, when the searcher 


of all hearts shall call us to a strict account as well for 
that evil we have done, as the good we have omitted; 
to remember we have comforted and been helpful to a 
dejected or distressed family. 

Soon after he was made a prebendary of the Collegiate 
Church of Southwell. In 16Q5, he was chosen one of 
the clerks in Convocation for the Diocese of Lincoln ; 
as he was also in all the subsequent Convocations 
during the reign of Charles I. In 1629, he was in- 
stalled into a prebend in the Cathedral of Lincoln. In 
1631, at the recommendation of Laud, then Bishop of 
London, the king appointed him one of his chaplains 
in ordinary. In 1633, he was presented to the Eectory 
of Muston, in Leicestershire, which he held for eight 

At the time of his being first appointed a proctor to 
Convocation, the vehemence with which Calvinistic pecu- 
liarities were forced upon the public induced Sanderson 
as well as others to examine the subject ; and it was 
about the year 1625, that he drew up for his own satis- 
faction, such a scheme (he called it Pax EcclesicB) as 
then gave himself, and has since given others such 
satisfaction, that it still remains to be of great esti- 

" When I began,"says he, " to set myself to the study of 
divinity as my proper business, which was after I had the 
degree of Master of Arts, being then nearly twenty-one 
years of age, the first thing I thought fit for me do, was 
to consider well of the articles of the Church of England, 
which I had formerly read over, twice, or thrice, and 
whereunto I had subscribed. And because I had then 
met with some Puritanical pamphlets written against 
the liturgy and ceremonies, although most of the argu- 
ments therein are such as needed no great skill to give 
satisfactory answers unto, yet for my fuller satisfaction 
(the questions being de rebus agendis, and so the more 
suitable to my proper inclination) I read over, with great 



diligence and no less delight, that excellent piece of 
learned Hooker's Ecclesiastical PoHty. And I have 
great cause to bless God for it, that so I did, not only for 
that it much both cleared and settled my judgment for 
ever after in many very weighty points (as of scandal, 
Christian liberty, obligation of laws, obedience, &c.) 
but that it also proved (by His good providence) a good 
preparative to me (that I say not antidote) for the reading 
of Calvin's Institutions with more caution than perhaps 
otherwise I should have done. For that book was com- 
mended to me, as it was generally to all young scholars, 
in those times, as the best and perfectest system of 
divinity, and fittest to be laid as a groundwork in the 
study of that profession. And indeed, being so prepared 
as he said, my expectation was not at all deceived in the 
reading of those Institutions. I found, so far as I was then 
able to judge, the method exact, the expressions clear, 
the style grave and unaffected : his doctrine for the most 
part conform to St. Augustine's ; in a word, the whole 
work, very elaborate, and useful to the Churches of God 
in a good measure ; and might have been, I verily believe, 
much more useful, if the honour of his name had not 
given so much reputation to his very errors. I must 
acknowledge myself to have reaped great benefit by the. 
reading thereof. But as for the questions of Election, 
Eeprobation, Effectual Grace, Perseverance, &c., I took 
as little notice of the two first, as of any other thing 
contained in the book ; both because I was always afraid 
to pry much into those secrets, and because I could not 
certainly inform myself from his own writings, whether 
he were a Supralapsarian, as most speak him, and he 
seemeth often to incline much that way, or a Sublapsa- 
rian, as sundry passages in the book seem to import. 
But giving myself mostly still to the study of moral 
divinity, and taking most other things upon trust, as 
they were in a manner generally taught, both in the 
schools and pulpits in both universities, I did for many 


years together acquiesce, without troubling myself any 
further about them, in the more commonly received 
opinions concerning both these two, and the other points 
depending thereuj)on : yet in the Sublapsarian way ever, 
(which seemed to me of the two the more moderate,) 
rational and agreeable to the goodness and justice of 
God ; for the rigid Supralapsarian doctrine could never 
find any entertainment in my thoughts, from first to 

" But in 1625, a parliament being called, wherein I 
was chosen one of the clerks o-f the Convocation for the 
Diocese of Lincoln, during the continnance of that par- 
liament, which was about four months, as I remember, 
there was some expectation that those Arminian points, 
the only questions almost in agitation at that time, 
should have been debated by the clergy in the Convo- 
cation. Which occasioned me, as it did sundry others, 
being then at some leisure, to endeavour by study and 
conference to inform myself, as thoroughly and exactly 
in the state of those controversies, as I could have oppor- 
tunity, and my wit could serve me for it. In order 
whereunto, I made it my first business to take a survey 
of the several different opinions concerning the ordering 
of God's decrees, as to the salvation or damnation of 
men : not as they are supposed to be really in mente 
divind, (for all His decrees are eternal, and therefore 
co-eternal, and therefore no priority or posteriority among 
them) but quoad nostrum intelligendi modum, because we 
cannot conceive or speak of the things of God, but in 
a way suitable to our own finite condition and under- 
standing; even as God Himself hath been pleased to 
reveal Himself to us in the Holy Scriptures by the 
like suitable condescensions and accommodations. Which 
opinions, the better to represent their differences to the 
eye uno quasi intuitu, for their more easy conveying to 
the understanding by that means, and the avoiding of 
confusion and tedious discoursings, I reduced into five 


schemes or tables, much after the manner as I had 
used to draw pedigrees, (a thing which I think you 
know I have very much fancied, as to me of all others 
the most delightful recreation); of which scheme, some 
special friends to whom I shewed them, desired copies ; 
who, as it seemeth, valuing them more than I did, (for 
divers men have copies of them, as I hear, but I do not 
know that I have any such myself) communicated them 
farther, and so they are come into many hands. These 
are they which Dr. Reynolds, in his Epistle prefixed to 
Master Barlee's Correptory Correction, had taken notice 
of. Having all these schemes before my eyes at once, 
so as I might with ease compare them one with another, 
and having considered of the conveniences and incon- 
veniences of each, as well as I could, I soon discerned 
a necessity of quitting the Sublapsarian way, of which 
I had a better liking before, as well as the Supralap- 
sarian, which I could never fancy." Dr. Hammond's 
Pacific Discourse of God's Grace and Decrees, a. d. 
1660. Hammond's Works, vol. i. p. 669. It may be 
worth observing that this collection of schemes or tables 
must not be confounded with the tract published by 
Isaac Walton under the title Pax Ecclesice, which Wal- 
ton attributes to the year 1625. In that tract it is 
plain, that he still retains the Sublapsarian opinion : 
and there are other reasons to prove that the tracts 
are not the same. 

In 1636, when the court was entertained at Oxford, 
Sanderson was created D.D. In 1642, the king ap- 
pointed him regius professor of divinity at Oxford, and 
canon of Christ Church ; but he was prevented by the 
civil wars from entering on his professorship till four 
years afterwards, and even then he held it undisturbed 
only little more than twelve months. When, in 1643, 
the parliament summoned the famous Assembly of 
Divines to meet at Westminster, for the purpose of 
deliberating on ecclesiastical affairs, Dr. Sanderson was 


nominated one of that body. However, he dedined 
taking his seat amongst them ; and afterwards he re- 
fused to take, at first the Covenant, and then the 
Engagement. The consequence of his refusal to take 
the Covenant, was the sequestration of his Rectory of 
Boothby Pannel, in 1644; but, so great was his repu- 
tation for piety and learning, that he was not deprived 
of it. He had the principal share in drawing up " The 
Reasons of the University of Oxford against the solemn 
League and Covenant, the negative Oath, and the Ordi- 
nances concerning Discipline and Worship;" and when 
the parliament had sent proposals to the king for a peace 
in Church and state, his majesty desired that Dr. 
Sanderson, with the Doctors Hammond, Sheldon, and 
Morley, should attend him, and give him their advice how 
far he might with a good conscience comply with them. 
This request was at that time rejected; but in 1647, 
and 1648, when his majesty w^as at Hampton Court, and 
the Isle of Wight, it was complied with, and Dr. San- 
derson both preached before the king, and had many 
public and private conferences with him, from which his 
majesty declared that he received the greatest satisfac- 
tion. While he was at Hampton Court, by the king's 
desire he drew up a treatise, containing his sentiments 
on the proposal which parliament had made for the 
abolition of episcopal government as inconsistent with 
monarchy. What he wrote upon this subject was 
published in 1661, under the title of Episcopacy, as 
established by Law in England, not prejudicial to regal 
Power, 8vo. In 1648, Dr. Sanderson, on account of his 
adherence to the royal cause, was ejected from his pro- 
fessorship and canonry at Oxford by the parliamentary 
visitors, and withdrew to his living of Boothby Pannell ; 
whence he was soon after carried prisoner by the parha- 
mentary party to Lincoln, for the purpose of being 
exchanged for Mr. Clarke, a Puritan divine and minister 
of Allington, who had been made prisoner by the king's 
E E 3 


party. This exchange having been agreed upon, Dr. 
Sanderson was released upon articles, by which it was 
engaged that he should be restored to his living, and 
that he should remain there undisturbed. 

Here, observes Walton, he hoped to have enjoyed him- 
self in a poor, yet in a quiet and desired ^J^ivacy ; but 
it proved otherwise. For all corners of the nation were 
filled with Covenanters, confusion, committee-men, and 
soldiers, defacing monuments, breaking painted glass 
windows, and serving each other to their several ends, 
of revenge, or power, or profit; and these committee- 
men and soldiers were most of them so possessed with 
this covenant that they became like those that were 
infected with that dreadful plague of Athens ; the plague 
of which plague was, that they by it became maliciously 
restless to get into company, and to joy (so the historian 
saith) when they had infected others, even those of their 
most beloved or nearest friends or relations ; and so 
though there might be some of these covenanters that 
were beguiled, and meant well ; yet such were the 
generality of them, and temper of the times, that you 
may be sure Dr. Sanderson, who though quiet and 
harmless, yet was an eminent dissenter from them, 
could therefore not live peaceably ; not did he. For the 
soldiers would appear, and visibly oppose and disturb 
him in the church when he read prayers, some of them 
pretending to advise him how God was to be served more 
acceptably ; which he not approving, but continuing 
to observe order and decent behaviour in reading the 
Church service, they forced his book from him, and tore 
it, expecting extemporary prayers. 

At this time he was advised by a parliament man of 
power and note, that loved and valued him much, not 
to be strict in reading all the Common Prayer, but to 
make some little variation, especially if the soldiers came 
to watch him ; for if he did, it might not be in the 
power of him and his other friends to secure him from 


taking the covenant, or sequestration : for which reasons 
he did vary somewhat from the strict rules of the rubric. 

Of the Prayer Book he told his friend Isaac Walton, 
" That the Holy Ghost seemed to assist the composers ; 
and, that the effect of a constant use of it would be, 
to melt and form the soul into holy thoughts and 
desires : and beget habits of devotions." This he said : 
and " that the Collects were the most passionate, proper, 
and most elegant comprehensive expressions that any 
language ever afforded; and that there was in them 
such piety, and that, so interwoven with instructions, 
that they taught us to know the power, the wisdom, the 
majesty, and mercy of God, and much of our duty both 
to Him and our neighbour; and that a congregation 
behaving themselves reverently, and putting up to God 
these joint and known desires for pardon of sins, and 
their praises for mercies received, could not but be more 
pleasing to God, than those raw unpremeditated expres- 
sions which many understood not, and so to which many 
of the hearers could not say Amen." 

For some years before the Restoration the hand of 
poverty pressed heavily upon Dr. Sanderson, but he 
bo»e all his afflictions with unrepining resignation, and 
continued to maintain the cause of the suffering Church 
with vigour and courage. He hazarded his safety, says 
Walton, by writing the large and bold preface, now ex- 
tant, before his Sermons, first printed in the dangerous 
year, 1655. With respect to this admirable treatise, it 
is to be wished that it were printed as a tract and cir- 
culated, as being adapted to the present age as much as 
to that for the benefit of which it was especially written. 
One or two extracts we shall make. Having declared 
that he preached as much against Popery as against 
Protestantism, he remarks of the Puritans, " that they 
preach against Popery, I not at all mishke ; only I could 
wish that these two cautions were better observed, than 
(as far as I can make conjecture of the rest, by the pro- 


portion of what hath come to my knowledge), I fear they 
usually are, by the more zealous of that party, viz. 1. 
That they do not through ignorance, prejudice, or pre- 
cipitancy, call that Popery, which is not; and then, 
under that name and notion, preach against it. 2. That 
they would do it with the less noise, and more weight. 
It is not a business merely of the lungs, but requireth 
sinews too ; or, to use their own metaphor, let them not 
think that casting of squibs will do the deed, or charging 
with powder alone : that will give a crack indeed, and 
raise a smoke ; but unless they have bullet as well as 
powder it will do little execution. " 

In another place, alluding to the charge brought 
against the Liturgy that the ceremonies are Popish, he 
says of the Puritans : " their opinion is, that the things 
enjoined are popish and superstitious, and consequently 
unlawful to be used, and this they render as the reason 
of their nonconformity. And the reason were certainly 
good, if the opinion were true. For the popishness first, 
unless we should sue out a writ de finihus regendis, it 
will be hard to find out a way how to bring this contro- 
versy to an issue, much less to an end, the term hath 
been so strangely extended, and the limits thereof (if yet 
it have any) so uncertain. If they would be entreated to 
set bounds to what they mean by Popish and Popery, by 
giving us a certain definition of it, we should the sooner 
either come to some agreement, or at least understand 
ourselves and one another the better, wherein and how 
far we disagreed. In the meantime it is to me a won- 
der, that if reason would not heretofore, yet the sad 
experience of the ill consequents so visible of late time, 
should not have taught them all this while to consider 
what infinite advantage they give to the Eomish party to 
work upon weak and wavering souls, by damning so 
many things under the name of Popery, which may to 
their understandings be sufficiently evidenced, some to 
have been used by the ancient Christians long before 


popery was hatched, or but in the egg, and all to have 
nothing of superstition or Popery in them, unless every 
thing that is used in the Church of Rome become 
thereby popish and superstitious. Nor V7hat great ad- 
vantage they give to our newer sectaries to extend the 
name yet farther : who, by the help of their new lights, 
can discern Popery, not only in the ceremonies formerly 
under debate, but even in the churches and pulpits 
wherein they used to call the people together to hear 
them. These are by some of them cried down as popish, 
with other things very many which their Presbyterian 
brethren do yet both allow and practise ; though how 
long they will so do is uncertain, if they go on with the 
work of reformation they have begun, with as quick 
dispatch and at the rate they have done these last two 
seven years. The having of godfathers at baptism, 
churching of women, prayers at the burial of the dead, 
children asking their parent's blessing, &c., which for- 
merly were held innocent, are now by very many thrown 
aside as rags of Popery. Nay, are not some gone so far 
already as to cast into the same heap, not only the 
ancient hymn Gloria Patri (for the repeating whereof 
alone some have been deprived of all their livelihoods) 
and the Apostles' Creed ; but even the use of the Lord's 
Prayer itself? — And what will ye do in the end thereof? 
And what would ye have us to do in the meantime, 
when you call hard upon us to leave our Popery, and yet 
would never do us the favour to let us know what it is ? 
It were good therefore, both for your own sakes that you 
may not rove in infinitum, and in compassion to us, that 
you would give us a perfect boundary of what is Popery 
now, with some prognostication or ephemerides annexed, 
(if you please,) whereby to calculate what will be Popery 
seven years hence. 

" But to be serious, and not to indulge myself too much 
merriment in so sad a business, I believe all those men 
will be found much mistaken, who either measure the 


Protestant religion by an opposition to Popery, or account 
all Popery that is taught or practised in the Church of 
Eome. Our godly forefathers to whom (under God) we 
owe the purity of our religion, and some of which laid 
down their lives for the defence of the same, were sure of 
another mind, if we may from what they did, judge what 
they thought. They had no purpose (nor had they any 
warrant) to set up a new religion, but to reform the old 
by purging it from those innovations which in tract of 
time (some sooner, some later,) had mingled with it, and 
corrupted it both in the doctrine and worship. Accord- 
ing to this purpose they produced, without constraint 
or precipitancy, freely and advisedly as in peaceable 
times, and brought their intentions to a happy end ; as 
by the result thereof contained in the Articles and 
Liturgy of our Church, and the prefaces thereunto, doth 
fully appear. From hence chiefly, as I conceive, we are 
to take our best scantling whereby to judge what is, and 
what is not, to be esteemed Popery. All these doctrines 
then, held by the modern Church of Rome, which are 
either contrary to the written word of God, or but super- 
added thereunto as necessary points of faith, to be of all 
Christians believed under pain of damnation; and all 
those superstitions used in the worship of God, which 
either are unlawful as being contrary to the word, or 
being not contrary, and therefore arbitrary and indif- 
ferent, are made essentials, and imposed as necessary 
parts of worship : these are, as I take it, the things 
whereunto the name of Popery doth properly and pecu- 
liarly belong. But as for the ceremonies used in the 
Church of Rome, which the Church of England at the 
Reformation thought fit to retain, not as essential or 
necessary parts of God's service, but only as accidental 
and mutable circumstances attending the same for order, 
comeliness, and edification's sake ; how these should 
deserve the name of popish, I so little understand, that 
I profess I do not yet see any reason why, if the Church 


had then thought fit to have retained some other of those 
which were then laid aside, she might not have lawfully 
so done, or why the things so retained should have been 
accounted popish. The plain truth is this : The Church 
of England meant to make use of her liberty, and the 
lawful power she had (as all the Churches of Christ have, 
or ought to have) of ordering ecclesiastical affairs here, 
yet to do it with so much prudence and moderation, that 
the world might see by what was laid aside, that she 
acknowledged no subjection to the see of Rome ; and by 
what was retained, that she did not recede from the 
Church of Rome out of any spirit of contradiction, but 
as necessitated thereunto for the maintenance of her 
just liberty. The number of ceremonies was also then 
very great, and they thereby burdensome, and so the 
number thought fit to be lessened. But for the choice 
which should be kept, and which not, that was wholly in 
her power, and at her discretion. Whereof, though she 
were not bound so to do, yet hath she given a clear and 
satisfactory account in one of the prefaces usually pre- 
fixed before the Book of Common Prayer." 

It is curious to observe that a fact continues to exist 
just as Sanderson found it in the 17th century. He 
says, " that in those counties, Lancashire for one, where 
there are the most and most rigid Presbyterians, (mean- 
ing Puritans) there are also the most and most zealous 
Roman Catholics." 

The Restoration found Dr. Sanderson an old man. 
He was reinstated in his professorship and canonry, in 
August, 1560 ; and, to the great satisfaction of the true 
friends of the Church, was included with Sheldon, Mor- 
ley, and others, in the list of bishops consecrated in 
October following. 

The see chosen for him was that of Lincoln. He 
possessed it about two years and a half; a short time, 
yet long enough to enable the Church to appreciate his 
public labours, and the diocese to taste his munificence. 


A principal share was taken by him in the additions 
and alterations made in the Liturgy by the Convocation 
of 1661 : in particular, the general Preface to the Com- 
mon Prayer Book is of his composition. He augmented, 
at his own cost, several poor livings in his diocese; 
repaired the palace at Buckden, on which Bishop Wil- 
liams had, in the last reign, bestowed a princely ex- 
pense, but which had been ruined in the civil war ; and, 
after distinguishing his brief tenure of the episcopal 
office by some farther proofs of his liberality, he expired, 
in January, 1663, without having made any provision 
for his family. His preparations for his departure out 
of the world were made with the pious serenity to be 
expected from the previous tenor of his life. The day 
before his death he received the Church's absolution ; 
pulling off his cap at the performance of that solemn 
service in order that the hand of the chaplain employed 
in it might rest on his bare head. 

Bishop Sanderson was unquestionably one of the 
ablest of our English divines. " That staid and well 
weighed man," it was said by his contemporary Ham- 
mond, " conceives all things deliberately, dwells upon, 
them discreetly, discerns things that differ exactly, pass- 
eth his judgment rationally, and expresses it aptly, 
clearly, and honestly." A profound scholar, a judicious 
divine, a great preacher, a matchless casuist; — in poverty 
and oppression, patient and courageous — in prosperity 
and high station, simple and self-denying — distinguished, 
in every variety of circumstances, by the same Christian 
bearing and unaffected piety, — Sanderson holds an emi- 
nent place among those true sons of the Church of Eng- 
land, whose memory she cherishes with joy and thank- 
ness ; and he probably realized the hope, often expressed 
by him, that " he should die without an enemy." 

The principal works of Bishop Sanderson are: — 1. 
" Logicse Artis Compendium," 8vo, ]615. 2. " De Jura- 
menti Promissorii Obligatione, Prselectiones VII.," 8vo, 

SANDYS. 325 

1647. The translation of this work, made by King 
Charles I., was printed in 8vo, in the year 1655. 3. 
" Censure of Mr. Anthony Ascham's Book of the Confu- 
sions and Revolutions of Government," 8vo, 1649. As- 
cham was English resident at Madrid, in the time of the 
Rump Parliament. 4. " Thirty-six Sermons : ad aulam, 
clerum, magistratum, populum," foL, 1658. Of the 
discourses contained in this invaluable collection of 
divinity, several had before appeared separately, and 
twelve as collected into a 4to volume, in 1632. To the 
eighth edition, printed in 1689, is prefixed the interest- 
ing Life, by Walton. 5. " De Obhgatione Conscientiae 
Praelectiones," 4to, 1661. 6. "Episcopacy, as estab- 
lished by law in England, not prejudicial to the Regal 
Power," 8vo, 1661. 7. " Preface to Ussher's work on 
The Power communicated by God to the Prince, and the 
Obedience required of the Subject," 4to, 1661. 8. "Ar- 
ticles of Visitation and Enquiry concerning Matters 
Ecclesiastical," 4to, 1662. 9. "Nine Cases of Con- 
science Resolved." Several of these had been already 
published at different times. 8vo. 1678. 10. " Bishop 
Sanderson's Judgment concerning Submission to Usur- 
pers." Annexed, with other tracts, to Walton's Life of San- 
derson, 1678. 11. "Discourse of the Church, &c., first, 
concerning the Visibility of the True Church ; secondly, 
concerning the Church of Rome," 1688. This tract was 
published by Dr. Ashton, of Brasenose College, Oxford, 
from a MS. communicated to him by the domestic chap- 
lain who attended Bishop Sanderson on his death-bed. 

Dr. Sanderson is mentioned by Brian Walton among 
those learned friends who assisted him in his Polygot 
Bible. — Works. Isaac Walton. Cattermole. 


Edwin Sandys, or Sandes, descended from the ancient 
yOl. yiii. f f 

326 SANDYS. 

barons of Kendal, was born near Hawkshead, in Fur- 
ness Fells, in 1519. He received his primary educa- 
tion most probably at the School of Furness Abbey, and 
in 1532 or 1533, went to St. John's College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated in 1539. In 1547, he became 
Master of Catherine Hall; about which time he was 
also Vicar of Haversham, in Buckinghamshire, and a 
Prebendary of Peterborough. He embraced the doc- 
trines of the Reformation and married. At the death 
of Edward VI., he was also a Prebendary of Carlisle 
and Vice-chancellor of the University of Cambridge. 
When Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, after the death 
of Edward VI., was in arms for the cause of Lady Jane 
Grey, he marched through Cambridge on his way to 
attack the Princess Mary. He persuaded Dr. Sandys 
to maintain Lady Jane's title in a Sermon before the 
university. Dr. Sandys did not hesitate to undertake an 
office which would have laid the new queen, had Lady 
Jane succeeded, under obligations to him. The spe- 
culation, however, failed by the success of Mary, and 
Dr. Sandys found himself in prison instead of being 
in a palace. He contrived to escape and arrived at 
Antwerp, in 1554. Finding that he was not in safety 
at Antwerp, he proceeded to Strasburg. Here he 
took up his abode for the present, and here unques- 
tionably spent the most gloomy portion of his life. 
His own health was at this time deeply injured ; he 
fell sick of a flux (the usual concomitant of hardships 
and afflictions,) which continued without abatement for 
nine months ; his only child died of the plague ; and 
his beloved wife, who had found means to follow him 
about a year after his flight from England, expired of 
consumption in his arms. In addition to his sor- 
rows, the disputes concerning Church discipline broke 
out among the English exiles, on which several of his 
friends left the place. After his wife's death, he went 
to Zurich, where he was entertained by Peter Martyr, 

but, his biograplier thinks, the time did not permit him 
to receive any deep tincture either as to doctrine or dis- 
cipHne from Geneva or its neighbours. Within five 
weeks the news of Queen Mary's death arrived ; and 
after being joyfully feasted by Bullinger, and the other 
ministers of the Swiss Churches, he returned to Stras- 
burg, where he preached ; after which Grindal and he 
set out for their native country together, and arrived in 
London on the day of Queen Elizabeth's coronation. 

In the month of March following, the queen and her 
council appointed him one of the nine Protestant divines 
who were to hold a disputation against an equal number 
of the Popish clergy, before both houses of parliament 
at Westminster. He was also one of the commissioners 
who were selected to prepare a new liturgy, and to de- 
liberate on other matters for the reformation of the 
Church. On the 21st December, 1559, he was conse- 
crated Bishop of Worcester. When, about the year 
1565, it was determined that a new translation of the 
Bible (called afterwards Parker's, or the Bishops' Bible) 
should be made. Dr. Sandys, on account of his great 
skill in the original languages, was one of the bishops 
who were appointed to undertake that work, and he 
had allotted to him as his portion the first and second 
books of Kings, and the first and second books of 

At his first visitation in 1560, five or six priests were 
presented to him for living in a state of concubinage, 
and he took occasion, on that account to deliver in his 
cathedral a sermon shewing the necessity of permitting 
priests to marry. In 1570, on the translation of his 
friend Grindal to York, he succeeded him in the see 
of London, from which, in 1576, he was translated to 
York, on the removal of Grindal to Canterbury. In 
1577, Archbishop Sandys resolved to visit the whole of 
his province. Such a general visitation he was induced 
to make, it is said, in consequence of the complaints of 

328 SANDYS. 

Dr. Barnes, Bishop of Carlisle, that he had in vain 
attempted to bring the clergy of his diocese to an abso- 
lute conformity, owing to the lax government, which had 
been exercised over them by his predecessor ; and that 
his province abounded in Non-conformists, whom he 
could not reduce to the established orders of the Church. 

He had much trouble with Whittingham, Dean of 
Durham, who had, in the unsettled state of affairs,, 
obtained the preferment without having been ordained. 
The archbishop was determined to enforce the discipline 
of the Church, although perhaps he had as little regard 
to the necessity of episcopal ordination as Whittingham. 
The Archbishop of York was indeed more of a practical 
partizan than a divine, and seems chiefly to have studied 
theology as necessary to his worldly advancement. He 
was in his heart opposed to the doctrine and discipline 
of that Church, to enforce which, in order that he might 
find favour with the government, he was harsh and 
severe. When first he came from abroad, being a liberal, 
he was strongly opposed to the use of clerical habits, 
but when he was a bishop he was a strict enforcer oi 
conformity upon the Puritans. His real sentiments 
came out in his last will: — " I am persuaded," says he, 
" that the rites and ceremonies by political institution 
appointed in the Church, are not ungodly nor unlawful, 
but may for order and obedience sake be used by a good 
Christian — but I am now, and ever have been persuaded, 
that some of these rites and ceremonies are not expedient 
for this Church now ; but, that in the Church reformed, 
and in all this time of the gospel, they may better be 
disused by little and little, than more and more urged." 

He has the bad preeminence of being the first English 
bishop who, by his prudence or parsimony, laid the 
foundation of a fortune in his family, which has justified 
their subsequent advancement to a peerage. With his 
father's savings, the manor of Ombersley, in Worcester- 
shire, was purchased by Sir Samuel Sandys, the eldest 


son, whose descendants, since ennobled by the family 
name, still remain in possession of that fair and ample 

His life was rendered a scene of perpetual contention 
and warfare, in which he had numerous enemies by whom 
many attempts were made to ruin his reputation and 
interest. One scheme which was planned with this 
view was of a most atrocious nature. He quarrelled 
alike with Papists and Protestants, with the clergy who 
were under him, and with his brethren on the episcopal 
bench. He seldom kept house at York or Southwark, 
but lived in obscure manor houses on his estates, to 
accumulate a fortune for his children. Nevertheless, he 
was active in the discharge of his duties and zealous as 
a preacher. He died in 1588. Twenty two of his dis- 
courses were collected together in 1616, and printed in 
■ito. — Life hy Whitaker. Strype. 


Of Adrian Saravia, who was honoured by the personal 
friendship and professional confidence of the illustrious 
Hooker, it is to be regretted that few details can be given. 
He was of Spanish extraction, and was a native of Artois, 
where he was born in 1531. In 1582, he was professor 
of divinity at Leyden. Being well skilled in ecclesi- 
astical antiquity, he was a strong assertor of episcopacy, 
which, raising against him the hostility of those with 
whom he was associated, he threw himself on the pro- 
tection of the Church of England in 1587. He had 
some time before recommended himself to the episcopal 
communion, by his Answer to Beza's book, De triplici 
Episcopatu. Not long after his arrival in England, 
he published a very learned book, De diversis Gradibus 
Ministrorum Evangelii. In this tract, he proves bishops 
not only of a superior degree, but of a different order 
3 F F 


from priests. This book was dedicated to the ministers 
of the Belgic Churches, where, though not very welcome, 
it passed without contradiction. But Beza, Danseus, and 
the rest of the Genevians gave it a warmer reception. 
They looked upon the principles as subversive of their 
ecclesiastical government, and therefore resolved to try 
their strength upon it. Beza, it seems, had other busi- 
ness, and therefore left the undertaking to Danaeus. 
This man, whose talent lay more in railing than rea- 
soning, made little of it. Beza therefore finding it ne- 
cessary to reinforce Danseus, published an answer in the 
year 1593, to which Saravia replied the next year. Beza 
after this seemed to have had enough of the controversy 
and lay by. As for Saravia, his merit was not overlooked 
by the English bishops. He was made prebendary of 
Westminster, and considered in other respects to his 
satisfaction. In the year 1594, be published a vindi- 
cation of his former book, of which an account is given 
by Strype, who says, " the reason that moved him to write 
upon this argument, viz., that the three orders of minis- 
ters were anciently and universally used in the Christian 
Church, was, as he tells us himself, that he had observed, 
how there were certain scandalous libels (which he had 
read before he came into England) of evil-tongued men 
set forth ; therein impudently and rudely, with reproaches 
and railing speeches, set upon, not only the persons of 
those who were placed over the Church of England, 
but also the episcopal dignity and degree itself. Which 
error, he said, was much greater than they could be 
persuaded of, who defended it with the very great scan- 
dal, not only of the Church of England, but of all the 
Christian Churches whatsoever. 

"That what he had done therefore, was not only, 
(whatsoever some thought) to defend the dignity of the 
English bishops; but that his end was, if not to take 
away, yet, at least,- to lessen the offences given by some 
of their own men, in many places, to the bishops of 


all the Churches of Christ, as well of France as Ger- 
many, and other learned men, and such as were not 
ignorant of the ancient government of the Church ; and 
to supple the wound which they then had made, and 
would never heal, and as much as might be, to remove 
the remoras of the propagation of the doctrine of the 

" That he had therefore some notes lying by him, con- 
cerning the necessity of bishops, and the dignity of 
the ministers of the gospel, comprised in a few chap- 
ters, which he thought once to have presented to the 
States of Holland. Afterwards, coming into England, 
he fell into discourse of this subject with some pastors 
of this Church, who wondered at his opinion of bishops 
and seemed to him to believe, that he rather brought 
it to their ears as a matter of discourse, than that he 
truly thought so in his own mind ; besides, he saw 
their own Churches (i. e. in the Low Countries, where 
he lived) look that w^ay, as favouring the seditious and 
schismatic party of the Church of England, and might 
give this faction in England, some cause to depart 
from and contemn this Church. That he therefore on 
that account, to free those Churches where he lived, 
and whereof he was a member, from such suspicion, 
took upon him the pastoral ministry in the Church of 
England, and withal set forth his tract of the different 
Degrees of Ministers in the Church ; whereby he might 
(in the name of the reformed Churches abroad) give a 
testimony to the world of a conjunction of their minds 
in one and the same faith. And this he was invited 
to do by the good example of the bishops of the Church 
of England, who, notwithstanding their rites and cere- 
monies were different from those of the Churches abroad 
among whom he lived, yet did not only bear and suffer 
strangers to use their own customs and rites in their 
dioceses, but also friendly embraced and cherished them. 
( As they did the Dutch and French people in London, 


Canterbury, Norwich, Colchester, Sandwich, Southamp- 
ton, &c.) And therefore he added, that they did ill, 
whosoever separated and divided one from another, 
because of external rites and ceremonies. 

"And when he saw, that all the best sort of men did 
not abstain from the communion of their Churches 
abroad, in like manner he always thought, that he 
himself ought to hold communion with the Churches 
of England, in all places where he should live. And 
that whensoever it happened that he should be present 
in their churches when the Lord's Supper was cele- 
brated, he partook with them in those sacred symbols 
of the peace and unity of Christians. And that it was 
a certain sign of a very w^ak judgment, or else of a 
Pharisaical pride and conceit, to refuse the communion 
of the Church, (in which Christ, and grace obtained 
for us by Christ, is purely taught) only for different 
external rites. 

" The same learned foreigner farther spake his mind 
concerning this venerable order of bishops, and declared 
how they came to be so much opposed ; which, me- 
thinks, deserves to be recorded, being historical. Olivi 
Episcopos, &c. ' That heretofore no good man did dis- 
allow of bishops and archbishops ; but now it w^as come 
to pass, by the hatred of the Bishop of Rome's tyranny 
and his party, that these very names were called into 
question ; and that by divers, on a different account ; 
some, because they believed that such things as were 
invented by Anti-christ, or by those who made way for 
him, were to be banished forth without of the Church ; 
others, more modest, thought for the reverence of an- 
tiquity, that they were to be borne withal, (although 
they approved them not,) until they might conveniently 
with the thing itself, be antiquated. They dared not 
openly indeed condemn bishops and archbishops, whom 
they knew to have presided over the Church, and that 
with great fruit and benefit: but they were willing to 


let them go, because they saw some reformed Churches 
of these times, which had received the Gospel, and re- 
jected the tyranny of the Romish bishop, and had cast 
off all the government of bishops, did not approve these 
fathers, and were more pleased with a new form of eccle- 
siastical government, as believing it to be instituted by 
our Lord and Saviour Himself, and most different from 
all ambition and tyranny, &c. But,' added he, 'why 
I do not in like manner approve that form, this is my 
reason, because it doth not seem to be sufficiently de- 
monstrated by the Word of God, nor confirmed by any 
example of those that were before us, our ancestors, as 
being partly unknown to them, and partly condemned 
in such as were heretics.' 

•' Therefore, of this new manner of governing the 
Church, he was, he said, of the same opinion that others 
held of the government of bishops, namely, that it was 
human, [as Beza did,] and to be borne with, till another 
that was better could be obtained: and, on the other 
hand, that which was disallowed of, as human, seemed 
to him to be divine ; as being that which, as well in the 
Old as New Testament, was instituted by God. But 
because it had been defiled by the wicked deeds of men, 
that which was to be attributed to man's impiety was 
ascribed [amiss] to the function ; as if no like calamity 
might happen to this new kind of government, &c. If 
any objected, that there were many corruptions in the 
government of bishops, of that matter he intended no 
disputation ; but that the same complaint might be 
made of the government of civil magistrates ; but no 
man in his wits ever thought that a fit reason to remove 
from the magistracy all those who were over the com- 
monwealth, [how well soever they governed.] 

" The question then was, whether our Lord forbade a 
primacy, with more eminent power, among the pastors 
of the Church, and ministers of the Gospel : that a 
pastor might not be set over a pastor, and a bishop over 

334 SAHPI. 

a bishop, to preserve external polity; not how bishops 
had used their authority. If any were minded to accuse 
bishops and their consistories, either of neglect of their 
duties, or for unjust judgments given, there was nobody 
hindered but that such things might be brought before 
the chief magistrate. That, for his part, he undertook 
the defence of no bishop, nor was he so considerable to 
do it ; nor had they need of his defence ; they were able 
to speak for themselves, and to answer their detractors. 
All that he did was to lament, that the ancient order, 
necessary for preserving discipline in the kingdom of 
Christ, and most diligently observed by the fathers, 
should be quite taken away : and that he exceedingly 
feared, lest by the calamity of that age, it might be 
wholly taken away ; because he saw the men of his 
times were so disposed, as to desire that the whole min- 
istry of the Church might be reduced to the bare preach- 
ing of the Gospel. These were the sentiments of 
Saravia, that learned stranger, which was the cause of 
his writing his thoughts concerning the ej)is copal order." 
He died in 1613, and was interred in Canterbury 
Cathedral. All his works were published in 1611, in 
folio. He must have acquired a very extensive knowledge 
of the English language, as we find his name in the first 
class of those whom James I. employed in the new 
translation of the Bible. — Collier. Strype. Walton. 


Saepi, commonly called Father Paul, or Fra Paolo, was 
baptized by the name of Peter, but according to an 
iniquitous custom of the Romish Church took the name 
of Paul when he entered the order of the Servites. 
He was born at Venice, in 1552. He was the son 
of a merchant who had come from St. Veit to Venice, 
and of a lady of the Venetian family of Morelli, 

SARPI. 835 

which enjoyed the privileges of cittadinanza. His 
father was a little, swarthy, impetuous, quarrelsome 
man, who had ruined himself hy erroneous speculations. 
His mother was one of those beautiful Venetian blondes 
not unfrequently to be seen ; her figure was large, and 
her character marked by modesty and good sense. Her 
son resembled her in his features. 

A brother of hers, Ambrosio Morelli, was then at the 
head of a school which enjoyed peculiar reputation, and 
was principally devoted to the education of the young 
nobility. Of course the master's nephew was admitted 
to share the instruction. Nicoli Contarini and Andrea 
Morosini were Paolo's school-fellows, and were very inti- 
mate wfth him. In the very threshold of his life he 
formed the most important connexions. 

Nevertheless, he did not suffer himself to be restrained 
either by his mother or by his uncle, or by these con- 
nexions, from following his inclination for solitude, and 
entering a convent of Servites as early as in his four- 
teenth or fifteenth year. 

Sarpi spoke little, and was always serious. He never 
ate meat, and till his thirtieth year drank no wine ; he 
abhorred lewd discourse : '• Here comes the maiden," 
his companions used to say when he appeared, "let us 
talk of something else." Every wish, inclination, or 
desire he was capable of, was fixed on those studies 
for which he was endowed with remarkable aptitude. 

He possessed the inestimable gift of rapid and just 
apprehension ; for instance, he always recognized again 
a person whom he had once seen, or when he entered 
a garden, he saw and remarked everything in it at a 
glance ; his vision, both mental and bodily, was clear 
and penetrating. Hence he applied himself with par- 
ticular success to natural sciences. His admirers ascribe 
to him the discovery of the valves in the blood vessels, 
and of the dilatation and contraction of the pupil, the 
first observation of the dip of the needle, and of a great 

386 SARPI. 

many other magnetic phenomena, and it cannot be 
denied that he took a Uvely share both in the way of 
suggestion and discovery, in the labours of Aquapen- 
dente, and still more of Porta. To his physical studies 
he added mathematical calculations, and the observation 
of intellectual phenomena. In the Servite library in 
Venice, was kept a copy of the works of Vieta, in which 
many errors of that author were corrected by the hand 
of Fra Paola : there was also preserved there, a little 
treatise of his on the origin and decline of opinions 
among men, which, if we may judge from the extracts 
given from it by Foscarini, contained a theory of the 
intellectual powers, which regarded sensation and 
reflexion as their foundations, and had much analogy 
to the theory of Locke, if it did not quite so strictly 
coincide with it, as some have asserted. Fra Paolo 
wrote only as much as was necessary : he had no 
natural promptings to original composition: he read 
continually, and appropriated what he read or observed : 
his intellect was sober and capacious, methodical and 
bold ; he trod the path of free enquiry. 

With these powers he now advanced to questions of 
theology and of ecclesiastical law. 

It has been said he was in secret a Protestant ; biat 
his Protestantism could hardly have gone beyond the 
first simple propositions of the Augsburg Confession, 
even if he subscribed to these : at all events, Fra Paolo 
read mass daily all his life. It is impossible to specify 
the form of religion to which he inwardly adhered ; it 
was a kind often embraced in those days, especially by 
men who devoted themselves to natural science, — a 
mode of opinion shackled by none of the existing sys- 
tems of doctrine, dissentient and speculative, but neither 
accurately defined nor fully worked out. 

Thus much, however, is certain, that Fra Paolo bore 
a decided and implacable hatred to the temporal autho- 
rity of the pope. This was perhaps the only passion 

SARPI. 337 • 

he cherished. Attempts have been made to attribute 
it to the refusal of a bishopric for which he had been 
proposed ; and who may deny the effect which a morti- 
fying rejection, barring the path of natural ambition, 
may have even on a manly spirit? Nevertheless, the 
true cause lay far deeper. It was a politico-religious 
habit of thought, bound up with every other conviction 
of Sarpi's mind, corroborated by study and experience, 
and shared with his friends, his contemporaries, the 
men who once had assembled at Morosini's, and who 
now swayed the helm of the state. Before the keenness 
of his penetrating observation vanished those chimerical 
arguments, with which the Jesuits laboured to prop 
up their assertions, and those doctrines, the real foun- 
dation of which was, in fact, to be looked for only in 
a devotion to the Roman See, created by a by-gone con- 
dition of society. 

About the year 1602, commenced the great contro- 
versy between the Republic of Venice and the Pope of 
Rome. It is not necessary here to enter into the details. 
The story is the oft-repeated one. On the one hand the 
most unjustifiable pretensions were advanced by the 
Pope, which, under the direction of father Paul, were 
reasonably and manfully resisted by the Rulers of the 
Republic, who, nevertheless, in the end submitted to an 
unworthy compromise. The conduct of Paul Sarpi 
throughout the affair was such as to raise him to the 
highest consideration in Europe. Pending these dis- 
putes, being appointed theologian and one of the coun- 
sellors of the Republic, he drew up a treatise entitled, 
Consolation of Mind to tranquillize the Consciences of 
good Men, and to prevent their entertaining any Dread 
of the Interdict, published by Paul V. As this work was 
designed for the sole use of government, it was not pub- 
lished by the author, but was locked up in the archives 
of the republic; whence a copy having some years 
afterwards been clandestinely obtained, it was published 


• 338 SARPI. 

at the Hague in 1725, both in the Italian and French 
languages. In the same year an English version of it 
appeared in London. Sarpi also published a translation 
of A Treatise on Excommunication, by Gerson, both in 
Latin and Italian, with an anonymous letter prefixed to 
it. This work was immediately condemned by the In- 
quisition ; whose sentence Bellarmine undertook to sup- 
port in a strain of sophistical reasoning, which Sarpi 
ably detected in An Aj^ology for Gerson. To the suc- 
ceeding champions for the papal see, among whom were 
Baronius and Bzovius, Sarpi made an unanswerable 
reply in a piece entitled, Considerations on the Censures 
of Paul V. 

Sarpi had also a share in some other treatises in this 
memorable controversy ; particularly in A Treatise on 
the Interdict, published in the names of seven divines 
of the republic. At length the papal court cited Sarpi 
by a decree, October 30, 1606, under penalty of excom- 
munication, to appear in person at Rome, and justify 
himself from the heresies of which he was accused. 
Despising, however, the thunders of the Vatican, he 
refused to submit to the citation. 

Even when the pope had come to an understanding 
with the republic, the court of Rome could not forgive 
Sarpi's attacks on the pope's authority ; and some of its 
fanatical adherents were persuaded that it would be a 
highly meritorious action to make away with a man who 
had been condemned for heresy. Sarpi received inti- 
mations from various quarters that designs were formed 
either against his liberty or his life ; but, trusting to the 
accommodation which had taken place, and the rectitude 
of his own conduct, he lived in a state of security which 
gave his enemies favourable opportuities of carrying 
their plans into execution. Returning to his monastery 
on the evening of the 5th of October, 1607, he was 
attacked by five assassins armed with stilettoes, who 
wounded him in fifteen places, and left him for dead 

SARPI. 339 

upon the spot. Providentially, none of these wounds 
proved mortal, though three of them were exceedingly 
dangerous. No sooner was the senate informed of this 
murderous attempt, than, to show their high regard for 
the sufferer, and their detestation of such a horrid 
attempt, they broke up immediately, and came that night 
in great numbers to his monastery ; ordered the physi- 
cians to bring them regular accounts of him : and after- 
wards knighted and richly rewarded Acquapendente, 
for the great skill which he discovered in curing him. 
That Sarpi himself entertained no doubts respecting the 
quarter from which this wicked aim at his life proceeded, 
appears from his saying pleasantly to his friend Acqua- 
pendente one day while he was dressing his wounds, 
that they were made Stylo Romanse Curiae. One of the 
weapons, which the assassin had driven with such force 
into Sarpi's cheek that he was obliged to leave it in the 
wound, was hung up at the foot of a crucifix in the 
Church of the Servites, with this inscription, Deo Filio 

Sarpi himself was now aware of the necessity of living 
more privately in his monastery. In this retirement 
he wrote his Account of the Quarrel between Paul V. 
and the Republic of Venice, published in 1608. His 
attention was directed in the next place to the arrange- 
ment and completion of his celebrated History of the 
Council of Trent, for which he had long before collected 
ample materials. It was first published in London, by 
Sir Nathaniel Brent, (by whom also it was translated 
into English,) in 1619, in folio, under the feigned name 
of Pietro Soave Polano, which is an anagram of Paolo 
Sarpi Venetiano, and dedicated to James I. by Anthony 
de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalatro, then a resident 
in England. It was afterwards published in the original 
Italian, the French, and other languages; and in 1736, 
father Courayer published in London a new French 
translation of it in 2 vols, folio, illustrated with valuable 

340 SAUEIN. 

critical, historical, and theological notes. Sarpi also 
in the retirement of his monastery, wrote : — A Treatise 
on Ecclesiastical Benefices, pointing out the means by 
which the Church had acquired its immense revenues, 
and the abuses which had taken place in the disposal 
of them ; A Treatise on the Inquisition; De Jure Asylo- 
rum ; a Treatise On the Manner of conducting the 
Government of a Republic, so as to insure its Duration ; 
and a continuation of Minuccio Minucci's, Archbishop 
of Zara's, History of the Uscocchi, from 1602 to 1616. 
The articles already enumerated, together with a volume 
of Letters, are all the productions of Sarpi's pen which 
have been published. 

He died on the 14th of January, 1623, in the seventy- 
second year of his age. 

Of Paul Sarpi's History of the Council of Trent, 
Ranke concludes an elaborate criticism with saying: 
" His authorities are diligently collected, very well 
handled, and used with superior intelligence ; nor can 
it be said that they are falsified, or that they are 
frequently or essentially perverted ; — but a spirit of 
decided opposition pervades the whole work. 

" In this way Sarpi struck anew into a different course 
from that commonly pursued by the historians of his 
day. He gave to their system of compilation the unity 
of a general tone and purpose : his work is disparaging, 
condemnatory, and hostile ; he set the first example of 
a history which accompanies the whole progress of its 
subject with increasing censure ; far more decided in 
this than Thuanus, who first made a cursory use of 
this method. Sarpi has found numberless imitators on 
this score. (See the Life of Pallavicini.) — Fulgentio. 
Life of Walton. Johnson. Hanke. 


James Saukin was born at Nismes, in 1677, and upon 


the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, in 1685, he went 
with his father into exile, and having settled at Geneva, 
was educated there. In his seventeenth year he quitted 
his studies to enter the army, and made a campaign as a 
cadet in Lord Galloway's company. But he quitted the 
army, and returned to his studies at Geneva in 1696. 

In 1700, he went to Holland, and thence to England, 
where he continued nearly five years, and preached with 
great acceptance among his fellow refugees in London. 
In 1703 he married. Two years afterwards he returned 
to Holland, where he became pastor to a Church of 
French refugees, who were permitted to assemble in the 
chapel belonging to the palace of the Princes of Orange 
at the Hague, in which he officiated for the remainder of 
his life. He died in 1730, in the fifty-fourth year of his 
age. He was the author of 12 volumes of Sermons, five 
of which were published by himself, between the years 
1708 and 1725, in 8vo, and the remainder from his MSS. 

Saurin also published, The State of Christianity in 
France ; A Compendium of Christian Divinity and Mo- 
rality, in the Catechetical Form; and. Discourses His- 
torical, Critical, and Moral, on the most memorable 
Events of the Old and New Testament. This last, 
which is his principal work, forms 6 large folio volumes. 
He died before the 3rd volume was completed, which 
was finished by Roques, who added a fourth volume on 
the Old Testament; Beausolve adding two other volumes 
on the New Testament. — Life prefixed to the Translation 
of his Sermons by Robinson. 


This extraordinary person is regarded by some as a 
patriot and reformer, and by others he is represented 
as a fanatic and a demagogue. Impartial history, while 
it cannot entirely acquit him of fanaticism, vyill represent 
G G 3 


hira as a pious and disinterested man whose generous 
spirit was roused to indignation by the iniquities of the 
Church of Rome, and whose objects were noble. He 
was born on the 21st of September, 1452. He was 
educated at first by his grandfather, and on his death 
his father procured for him teachers from whom he 
became acquainted with Greek and Roman literature, 
the study of which had been lately revived. He was 
intended for the medical profession, but having been 
crossed in love, he suddenly determined " to leave the 
world," as the Romanists style it, and in 1475, he sought 
refuge in the Dominican Cloister at Bologna, acting thus 
in opposition to the wishes of his father. 

Rigid in all the observances of his ascetic rule, hum- 
ble, holy, devoted, Savonarola soon obtained as high a 
reputation for sanctity as for learning; for a time he 
was entirely occupied in reforming himself, and his 
companions were glad to share the credit of his piety, 
while as yet their repose was undisturbed by that in- 
convenient goodness which aims at reforming others. 

In his lonely cell, by fervent prayer and devout medi- 
tation he learnt more and more of the attributes of God, 
and of the nature of His commands to His creatures. 
It seems natural that an honest mind, enlightened by 
just ideas of the Deity, should look for truth in the 
agreement of written revelation with the light of natural 
conscience, and with the providential government of the 
universe, since, each emanating from the source of truth, 
they must agree perfectly together, though sometimes 
their connection is concealed ; and that in any apparent 
contradiction it should suspect some error in the inter- 
pretation of one of these. Savonarola knew his Bible 
well ; he observed that the consciences of his Romish 
brethren, clergy as well as laity, were so far from re- 
sponding to its precepts that the general tone of morals 
was thoroughly opposed to the spirit of the New Testa- 
ment, and his first alarm was the discovery of this 


darkened conscience ; he did not yet fully perceive the 
deeper evil, that by the false interpretations of his 
Church, Scripture itself was wrested to support those 
who called evil good, though suspicions of false doctrines 
are often mingled with censures of moral guilt. 

In the New Testament he devoted his special attention 
to the study of the Apocalypse, but he did not confine 
himself to the New Testament ; he had indeed a strong 
partiality for the Old. The brothers of his order were 
surprised at the predilection of Savonarola for a book 
which had fallen into such neglect in the seats of reli- 
gion ; — most of all, they wondered at the great attention 
and regard which he paid to the more ancient writings. 
"Why," demanded the monks of Savonarola, "do you 
study the Old Testament ? Surely it is of no use to go 
over again the past, and perplex our minds with the 
understanding of fulfilled histories ?" To this question 
Savonarola replied by another — " For what purpose then 
has God preserved these writings? and why have the 
fathers of the Church equally expounded the Old Testa- 
ment and the New, and recognized the inter- dependency 
of the one with the other?" Not a reason for study, but 
an excuse for their indolence, was what the monks had 
desired — so they left Savonarola unanswered, and the 
Scriptures unread. 

When he was ordained he soon became celebrated as 
a preacher, although in his first attempts at sacred 
oratory he appears to have failed. And from an early 
period in his career he assumed the position of a re- 
former. In the year 1485, he preached in Brescia, 
where he there describes the state of the medieval 

" The popes have attained through the most shameful 
simony and subtlety the highest priestly dignities, and 
even then, when seated in the holy chair, surrender 
themselves to a shamefully voluptuous life and an insa- 
tiable avarice. The cardinals and bishops follow their 


example. No discipline, no fear of God is in them. 
Many believe in no God. The chastity of the cloister 
is slain, and they who should serve God with holy zeal 
have become cold or lukewarm. The princes openly 
exercise tyranny. Their subjects encourage them in 
their evil propensities, their robberies, their adulteries, 
their sacrileges. But, after the corrupted human race 
has abused for so many centuries the long-suffering of 
God, then at last the justice of God appears, demanding 
that the rulers of the people, who with base examples 
corrupt all the rest, should be brought to heavy punish- 
ment, and that the people of Asia and Africa, now 
dwelling in the darkness of ignorance, should be made 
partakers of the light." 

From this time his fame as a preacher and even as a 
prophet spread far and wide, until in 1487, he became 
Prior of St. Marco in Florence. The monastery of St. 
Marco had been founded by Cosmo di Medici, and as 
the patronage still remained in his family, they naturally 
expected the deference which former priors had willingly 
paid to protectors so powerful and so worthy. Savona- 
rola however looked with a jealous eye upon the autho- 
rity of the Medici as hostile to liberty ; he refused on 
his induction to acknowledge Lorenzo as head of the 
republic, and shunned his presence when he visited the 
monastery, alleging that he held communion with God 
and not with man : when reminded that Lorenzo was 
in the garden, he inquired, "Did he ask for me?" 
"No." "Then let him proceed with his devotions." 
By reviving in example and precept the austere rule of 
St. Dominic, he became obnoxious to all those in his 
convent into whom he could not infuse some portion of 
his own enthusiasm, and to whom his conduct was a 
constant reproach. He was a great enemy to idleness ; 
slept but four hours, being present day and night in 
choir at all sacred offices ; and he gave audiences at 
certain times to all who wanted his help in resolving 


conscientious scruples. His greatest recreation was 
when a little leisure remained to be passed with the 
novices : he often said to the old fathers, " Do you wish 
I should preach well ? give me time to converse with my 
children." While with them he ever spoke of divine 
things and of the Sacred Scriptures, and acknowledged 
that this way he had learned much, for that God often- 
times spoke and expounded His revelation by these sim- 
ple youths as by pure vessels full of the Holy Spirit. 
The cells of the monks were frequently visited by their 
prior, who heard or inquired what was the subject of 
their conversation : if it concerned eternity, he excited 
them to greater animation, mingling in it, and remind- 
ing them that God was present ; if they were not occu- 
pied in celestial things, he adroitly changed the strain 
to something holy in such a way that none were embar- 
rassed, and all became accustomed to spiritual converse. 
He was strictly abstemious, and no man ever doubted 
his chastity. He desired the coarsest and most patched 
clothing ; once in consulting about reformation with two 
abbots of Vallambrosa, he happened to glance at their 
cowls, which were of beautiful velvet, and smiled; the 
abbots, somewhat blushing, said by way of excuse, " Bro- 
ther, do not wonder at the fineness of our cowls, they 
last so much the longer;" the brother replied, •' What a 
pity St. Benedetto and St. Gio. Gualbert did not know 
this secret, they would have worn the same." 

Not content with monastic reform, Savonarola pro- 
ceeded openly to attack the authority of the Medici, 
accusing them of aiming at the sovereignty of the state ; 
and, according to the account of some contemporary 
authors, predicting the fall of the family under Pietro 
and the approaching death of Lorenzo. The latter how- 
ever showed no disposition to punish this presumption, 
but merely restrained Savonarola from giving public 
lectures, and declared that all attempts to reform the 
morals of the Florentines met with his hearty concur^ 


rence. He gave also very decided testimony of his 
esteem for the character of the reformer, in sending for 
him when at the point of death, that he might receive 
his confession and bestow absolution. Savonarola went. 
To his inquiries if Lorenzo continued firm in the Catho- 
lic faith, the latter replied in the affirmative. Then he 
exacted a promise that whatever had been unjustly 
obtained from others should be restored ; Lorenzo an- 
swered, " Certainly, father, I shall do so' or if not able, 
I shall strictly enjoin the duty on my successors." To 
an exhortation on bearing death with fortitude, he re- 
plied, " Cheerfully, if it be the will of God;" but when 
Savonarola further insisted that he should re-establish 
the independence of Florence, he refused to comply, 
and the father departed without absolving him. Poli- 
tiano, who might probably have been present, says that 
Savonarola did give absolution, but as his narrative does 
not agree so well with the characters of the parties as 
that of Pico, the friend and biographer of Savonarola, 
and as he was a man to whom all religious ordinances 
were indifferent, if not contemptible, he is very likely 
to be incorrect : impartiality is out of the question in 
both cases. 

Pietro di Medici succeeded his father, but could not 
hold the reins of government with so firm a hand, and 
Florence was soon distracted by factions. 

Savonarola now took a more decided part in affairs of 
state. Not only in the Duomo and St. Marco, which 
were crowded, but in the public squares, he harangued 
assembled thousands, bitterly inveighing against the 
corruptions of the pontifical court, no less than against 
the general licentiousness of manners and the domineer- 
ing spirit of the Medici. He even delivered prophecies 
of future miseries, to the utterance and accomplishment 
of which friends and enemies alike bear witness : the 
latter attributing them to his uncommon sagacity and 
extensive information; the former to the immediate 


inspiration of the Holy Spirit, — both probably consider- 
ing as deliberate assertion many things which were but 
scintillations of his fiery eloquence, and which rather 
threatened than foretold the disastrous future. 

But his politics did not distract his mind from his 
spiritual duties as a preacher; and at Florence, as for- 
merly at Brescia, we find him drawing a picture of the 
state of religion, when Popery was predominant. " In 
our days," says he, " when all Christians have come to 
such a pass, that they communicate only once a year, 
and that with very sorry preparation, they are worse 
than the heathen were, and every day become more 
depraved. Every year they confess their sins, and yet 
return to the same sins, promising God every time to 
live better, but never performing their promises. Our 
priests, who without devotion and reverence administer 
the Supper, are yet worse than the laity. Thus because 
Christians have forsaken the true service of Christ, they 
are now-a-days fallen into such blindness, that they know 
not what the name of Christian means, and wherein the 
true service of God consists. They occupy themselves 
with outward ceremonies, and know nothing of the inner 
service of God. Seldom or never they read the Sacred 
Scriptures, or if they read them, they understand them 
not; or if they understand them, they have no taste 
for them — yea, they only say, * Our soul is disgusted 
with this vulgar feast. Who will give us to hear Cicero's 
eloquence, and the sounding words of the poets, the soft 
diction of Plato, and the acuteness of Aristotle? For 
the Scriptures are far too simple, contain food only fit 
for women. Preach to us the refined and sublime.' 
And thus the preachers accommodate themselves to 
the people. Since they could no more endure sound 
doctrine, the people have given themselves to lies, 
they invite such teachers as suit their itching ears, they 
turn themselves away from the truth, and follow cun- 
ningly-devised fables. Also the princes and heads of 


the people will not hear the truth, but say, * Preach to 
us what pleases us, preach to us flatteries, and tell us 
something good.' And hence. Christian people now 
wander in great darkness." 

Of the state of the monasteries and the ill effects of 
the constrained celibacy of the clergy we have his opinion 
thus stated: — "'The chastity of the cloister is slain!' 
Had not the celibacy of the clergy become a futile pretext, 
provoking fornication and adultery, and encouraging con- 
cubinage ? Had not the Church become a brothel ? was 
not the Church of Rome even the Mother of Harlots ? 
Was it not written on her front, blazoned shamelessly 
on the folds of her tiara ? Did she any longer attempt 
to conceal it ? was not the veil altogether withdrawn ? 
Innocent VIII. regarded as no crime what he had in- 
herited as a custom. The clergy were rendered dissolute 
by an absurd regulation, which outraged nature without 
ministering to grace, and violated the precept of Scrip- 
ture, declaring, that ' Marriage is honourable in all.' 
The cloisters were grossly immoral — most odious prac- 
tices were indulged — all due to what Luther calls ' the 
hell of celibacy.' " Savanarola had not arrived at this 
perception; he was a monk. He thought it right to 
take the vow of chastity — he had taken it, and he kept 
it. In all the relations of life, he w^as a sincere man ; 
and it was this which made him sternly heroic — which 
fitted him for a reformer — which predisposed him for the 
martyr's crown. 

It does not fall within our province to narrate the 
political conduct of Savonarola ; it is sufficient to say 
that in acting as he thought for the good of his country 
he was always opposed to the family of the Medici. The 
exiled partisans of the Medici carried their complaints 
to Rome, where they were favourably received ; the pope 
lent a willing ear to accusations against his most formid- 
able adversary, Savonarola. He was now doubly ob- 
noxious as the political favourer of the French, and the 


bold denouncer of the enormous vices of the pontifical 
court and family : not only opposing them in sermons, 
but writing to the emperor and the King of Spain, 
representing the Church as falling into ruin, and en- 
treating the convocation of a general council, in which 
he undertook to prove that the Church was without a 
head, since he, who had obtained tlie chair of St. Peter 
by bribery, was unworthy not only of his high dignity, 
but of the name of Christian. Copies of these letters 
were sent to Rome, and they exasperated Alexander to 
the utmost ; rich, clever, and a pope, he could not fail to 
have a party, ami found the Franciscans willing instru- 
ments of vengeance against a member of the rival order ; 
many volunteered a service more applauded and better 
recompensed at Rome than any other ; but there was 
some difficulty in finding vulnerable points in the cha- 
racter of Savonarola, and in those of his doctrines which 
were most practically obnoxious. The pope sent for a 
learned bishop, and said : — 

'* I wish you to controvert the sermons of this brother." 

Bishop. — " Holy father, I will do it ; but I must have 
arms to oppose and overcome him." 

Pope. — " How arms?" 

Bishop. — " This brother says w^e ought not to keep 
concubines, be licentious, or commit simony — he says 
true ; what can I answer to this ?" 

Pope. — " What is to be done in this matter ?" 

Bishop. — "Reward him, make him a friend by honour- 
ing him with a red hat, provided he leaves off prophe- 
sying, and retracts what he said." 

In pursuance of this plan, a learned man, Ludovrco, 
was sent to Savonarola, who received him kindly, and 
argued with him three days ; Ludovico, failing to con- 
vince by reason, offered the cardinalate, which Savona- 
rola refused, and invited his guest to hear the preaching 
next morning, when, after repeating his denunciations 
more violently than ever, he declared he would have no 



other red hat than one tinged by the blood of mar- 
tyrdom. The messenger returned persuaded that the 
brother was indeed a true servant of God. 

After the failure of this lenient measure, the pope 
first silenced, and then excommunicated the refractory 
monk, causing the sentence to be read in the Duomo of 
Florence : for a while Savonarola submitted, and relin- 
quished his pulpit to Domenico da Pescia, and other 
friends ; he hesitated to shake off an authority which 
had long been the cement of the ecclesiastical fabric, 
however unjustly it was now exercised, but soon he 
resumed his functions in defiance of the pope's mandate, 
affirming that he knew it was the will of God he should 
not submit to the decisions of such a corrupt tribunal, 
and declared that he should be condemned of God, if 
ever he asked absolution for this resistance. 

In this proceeding he was upheld by the magistracy 
of Florence, as appears by the spirited letter they sent 
to Alexander. 

The effect of Savonarola's eloquence and especially 
of his preaching was wonderful and beneficial, and by 
success he was morally injured. While at a distance 
from the world his mind had been open to the reception 
of all truth, he had listened to the Word of God almost 
exclusively, and learned purer doctrines than those trans- 
mitted through a corrupt Church, doctrines which Luther 
continued to learn with a mind wholly bent on theolo- 
gical investigation, and communicated to others gradu- 
ally as they were presented to himself; but Savonarola, 
with only an imperfect apprehension of them, plunged 
into the temporal affairs of men, to use for their benefit 
the little knowledge he had acquired, and amidst the 
confusion and error by which he was surrounded, had 
much difficulty in holding fast that little, and no leisure 
to enlarge his store. The men with whom he was neces- 
sarily associated in the prosecution of his designs in- 
fected him with their superstitions ; the injustice and 


opposition he encountered disturbed the exercise of his 
cool judgment ; it was not till after the conclusion of his 
poHtical career that he advanced again beyond his times, 
and left behind both the world and the Church of Kome 
in his nearer approach to Divine Truth. 

Exhausted by fatigue, abstinence, and incessant emo- 
tion, Savonarola fell sick and was compelled to retire 
from public duties, and commit the exposition of his 
doctrines principally to Domenico da Pescia, whose zeal 
outran his judgment ; he appears to have interrupted 
his master's expression of confidence in God, " Who," 
he said " would, if necessary, enable him to pass unhurt 
through the fire," into an appeal to miracles in support 
of his doctrine ; and though repeatedly warned not to 
give way to a wild imagination, he suffered himself to 
be so far transported in the heat of declamation as to 
accept a challenge thrown out by a monk of the Minor 
Observantines, and refer the decision between their re- 
spective opinions to the result of an ordeal fire ! This 
barbarous proposition had not hitherto been noticed by 
Savonarola, who always denied that it originated with 
him or his party. The turbulent and divided multitude 
gladly caught at the promise of a spectacle, and the 
magistrates, some of one party and some of another, 
agreed to try this mode of ascertaining the truth, though 
there were some who either moved by humanity, or as 
one might suppose, for the purpose of throwing ridicule 
upon the whole affair, affirmed that it would be quite 
as satisfactory, and much less cruel, if the two monks 
were immersed in a tub of water (for their greater com- 
fort w^arm water,) and he who came out dry was to be 
considered the conqueror. 

A day was appointed for the trial. Savonarola with 
his champion, at the head of a numerous procession, 
appeared at the place, and thundered out the psalm 
" Let the Lord arise and scatter his enemies." The 
Franciscan came ; the flames were kindled ; when Savo- 


narola, finding that the adverse party was not to be inti-' 
midated, proposed that Domenico should be allowed to 
carry the host with him into the fire. This was ex- 
claimed against by the whole assembly as an impious 
and sacrilegious proposal. It was, however, insisted 
upon by Domenico, who thereby eluded the ordeal. But 
the result was fatal to the credit of Savonarola. The 
populace insulted and turned against him. His enemies, 
after a sharp conflict, apprehended him, with Domenico 
and another friar, and dragged them to prison. An 
assembly of ecclesiastics, directed by two emissaries from 
Eome, sat in judgment upon them. The resolution and 
eloquence of Savonarola disconcerted his judges at the 
first examination ; but upon the application of torture, 
his constancy gave way, and he acknowledged the impos- 
ture of his pretending to supernatural powers. He and 
his companions were condemned to be first strangled and 
then burnt, and the sentence was put in execution on 
the 23rd of May, 1498, before an immense crowd of 
spectators, a part of whom still venerated him as a saint 
and martyr, while the rest execrated him as a hypocrite 
and seducer. — Life and Times of Savonarola. Foreign 


This illustrious man and distinguished missionary was 
born at Sonnenburg, in the province of Bradenburg, 
in 1726. He was educated at the University of Halle, 
and there formed his resolution to engage in missionary 
labour. Having determined to make India the seat of 
his ministry, he sailed for Tranquebar, on the Coroman- 
del coast, in 1750, to superintend the Danish Mission. 
In 1766, he became one of the missionaries of the Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge, to which the Danish 
mission was afterwards transferred. He removed first to 

SCOT. 353 

Trinchinopoly, and afterwards to Tanjore. He also went 
on a successful embassy from the presidency of Madras 
to Hyder Ali at Seringapatam ; and in 1783, he, through 
the influence of his high moral reputation, saved Tanjore, 
then besieged by Hyder's troops, from the horrors of 
famine. In 1785, he engaged in a scheme for the estab- 
lishment of schools throughout the country for the pur- 
pose of teaching the natives the English language, which 
was carried into effect at Tanjore and other places. In 
1787, the Raja of Tanjore confided to the care of Schwartz 
his successor Maha Sarbojee, a minor, who, some years 
afterwards, manifested his fihal affection for his tutor 
and protector by erecting a monument, by Flaxman, to 
his memory in the mission church at Tanjore. Schwartz 
died February 13th, 1798. 


Thomas Scot, alias Rotherham, a munificent bene- 
factor to Lincoln College, Oxford, was born at Rotherham, 
in Yorkshire, from whence he took his name, but that 
of his family appears to have been Scot. He rose by his 
talents and learning to the highest ranks in Church and 
State, having been successively fellow of King's College, 
Cambridge, master of Pembroke Hall, chancellor of that 
university, prebendary of Sarum, chaplain to King Ed- 
ward IV., provost of Beverley, keeper of the Privy Seal, 
secretary to four kings, Bishop of Rochester and Lincoln, 
Archbishop of York, and lord-chancellor. His buildings 
at Cambridge, Whitehall, Southwell, and Thorp, are 
eminent proofs of his magnificent taste and spirit. 

He was promoted to the see of Lincoln in 1471, and 
we learn from his preface to his body of statutes, that a 
visit through his diocese, in which Oxford then was, 
proved the occasion of his liberality to Lincoln College. 
On his arrival there, in 1474, John Tristroppe, the third 
h H 3 

354 SCOTT. 

rector of that society, preached the visitation sermon 
from Psalm Ixxx. 14, 15 : — " Behold and visit this vine, 
and the vine-yard which thy right hand hath planted, 
<&c." In this discourse, which, as usual, was delivered in 
Latin, the preacher addressed his particular requests to 
the bishop, exhorting him to complete his college, now 
imperfect and defective both in buildings and govern- 
ment. Rotherham is said to have been so well pleased 
with the application of the text and subject, that he 
stood up and declared that he would do what was desired. 
Accordingly, besides what he contributed to the build- 
ings, he increased the number of fellows from seven to 
twelve, and gave them the livings of Twyford in Buck- 
inghamshire, and Long Combe in Oxfordshire. He 
formed also in 1479, a body of statutes, in which, after 
noticing with an apparent degree of displeasure, that 
although Oxford was in the diocese of Lincoln, no col- 
lege had yet made provision for the natives of that dio- 
cese, he enjoined that the rector should be of the Diocese 
of Lincoln or York, and the fellows or scholars should 
be persons born in the Dioceses of Lincoln and York, 
and one of Wells, with a preference, as to those from the 
diocese of York, to his native parish of Rotherham. This 
prelate died in 1500 at Cawood, and was buried in the 
Chapel of St. Mary, under a marble tomb which he had 
built. — Chalmers. 


John Scott was born at Chippenham, in Wiltshire, in 
1638. He was originally intended for trade, but after- 
wards went to New Inn Hall, Oxford, where he matricu- 
lated in 1657. When ordained he came to London, 
where he officiated in the perpetual curacy of Trinity in 
the Minories, and as Minister of St. Thomas's, in South- 
wark. In 1677, he was presented to the Rectory of St, 

SCOTT. 355 

Peter Le Poor, in Old Broad-street : and was collated to 
a prebend in St. Paul's Cathedral, in 1684. In 1685, 
he accumulated the degrees of bachelor and doctor in 

His great work was the Christian Life. The first part 
was published in 1681, 8vo, with this title, *' The Christian 
Life, from its beginning to its consummation in Glory, 
together with the several means and instruments of 
Christianity conducing thereunto, with directions for 
private devotion and forms of prayer, fitted to the several 
states of Christians;" in 1685, another part, "wherein 
the fundamental principles of Christian duty are as- 
signed, explained, and proved;" in 1686, another part, 
" wherein the doctrine of our Saviour's meditation is 
explained and proved." This admirable work was 
strongly recommended to students of divinity by the late 
Dr. Lloyd, Bishop of Oxford. 

When Popery was encroaching under Charles XL and 
James II. he was one of those champions who opposed it 
with great warmth and courage, particularly in the dedi- 
cation of a sermon preached at Guildhall Chapel, Nov. 
5, 1683, to Sir William Hooker, lord-mayor of London, 
in which he declares that " Domitian and Dioclesian 
were but puny persecutors and bunglers in cruelty, com- 
pared with the infallible cut-throats of the apostolical 

After the Revolution, he was offered the Bishopric of 
Chester, which he refused from scruples about the Oath 
of Homage, as he did afterwards another bishopric, the 
Deanery of Worcester, and a prebend of Windsor, because 
they were the places of persons who had been deprived. 
In 1691, he succeeded Sharp, afterwards Archbishop of 
York, in the Rectory of St. Giles-in-the-Fields ; and in 
the same year he was made canon of Windsor. He died 
in 1694. Besides the Christian Life, he published also 
Examination of Bellarmine's Eighth Note concerning 
Sanctity of Doctrine; The Texts Examined, which 


Papists cite out of the Bible concerning Prayer in an 
Unknown Tongue ; Certain Cases of Conscience resolved, 
concerning the lawfulness of joining with Forms of 
Prayer in public worship ; A Collection of Cases and 
other discourses lately written, to recover Dissenters 
to the Communion of the Church of England, 1685, 
4to. All his works were published in 2 vols., folio, 
1104:.— Wood. Biog. Diet. 


This admirable writer, whose works still live, and which 
found an editor of late years in the late incomparable 
Bishop Jebb, did much in a short time, since he was 
called to his reward in his twenty- seventh year. Of a life 
so short, little is known. He was born in June, 1650, at 
Salton, in East Lothian, and was son of the Bishop of 
Aberdeen. In the University of Aberdeen, he received 
his education, and so distinguished himself, that at 
the age of twenty, he was enabled to fill the office of 
professor of philosophy, with honour to himself and 
with profit to his pupils. 

He maintained his authority among the students in 
such a way as to keep them in awe, and at the same 
time to gain their love and esteem. Sunday evenings 
were spent with his scholars in discoursing of, and 
encouraging religion in principle and practice. He 
allotted a considerable part of his yearly income for 
the poor; and many indigent families of different 
persuasions, were relieved in their difficulties by his 
bounty, although so secretly that they knew not whence 
their supply came. 

Having been a professor of philosophy for four years, 
he was at the age of twenty-three admitted into holy 
orders, and settled at Auchterless, a small village about 
twenty miles from Aberdeen. Here his zeal and ability 


in his great Master's service were eminently displayed. 
He catechised with great plainness and affection, and 
used the most endearing methods to recommend religion 
to his hearers. He endeavoured to bring them to a close 
attendance on public worship, and joined with them 
himself at the beginning of it. He revived the use of 
lectures, looking upon it as very edifying to comment 
upon and expound large portions of Scripture. In the 
twenty-fifth year of his age, he was appointed professor of 
divinity in the King's College, Aberdeen, which he at 
first declined, but when induced to accept it, he applied 
himself with zeal and diligence to the exercise of this 
office. After he had guarded his pupils against the 
common artifices of the Roman missionaries in making 
proselytes, he proposed two subjects for public exercise : 
the one, of the pastoral care, the other, of casuistical 

The inward dispositions of this excellent man, are 
best seen in his writings, to which his pious and blame- 
less life was wholly conformable. His days, however, 
were soon numbered ; in the twenty- seventh year of his 
age, he fell into a consumption, which wasted him by 
slow degrees ; but during the whole time of his sickness 
he behaved with the utmost resignation, nor did he 
ever show the least impatience. He died June 20, 
]778, in the twenty-eighth year of his age, and was 
buried in King's College Church, in Old Aberdeen. 
His principal work is entitled *' The Life of God in 
the Soul of Man," which has undergone many editions, 
and has been thought alike valuable for the sublime 
spirit of piety which it breathes, and for the purity 
and elegance of its style. He left his books to the library 
of his college, and five thousand marks to the office of 
professor of divinity. He composed a form of morning 
and evening service for the Cathedral Church of Aber- 
deen, which may be seen in Orem's Description of the 
Canonry of Old Aberdeen, printed in No. 3. of the 

358 SECKER. 

Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica." His treatise on 
the " Life of God," &c, was first printed in his hfe-time 
by Bishop Burnet about 1677, without a name, which 
the author's modesty studiously concealed. It went 
through several subsequent editions, and was patro- 
nised by the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, 
and was reprinted in 1786, with the addition of •' Nine 
Discourses on important subjects," by the same author, 
and his Funeral Sermon, by Dr. G. G. — EncyclopcEdia 
Perthensis. Bihl. Topog. Britan. 


Of this prelate, Pope said, ** Seeker is decent ;" and 
decent and decorous he was, without excellence, in 
every department of life. He was respectable as a 
scholar, as a divine, as a writer, as a parish priest 
and as a bishop. And he lived at a period when a 
government hostile to the Church, looked out for res- 
pectable mediocrity, to fill the highest ecclesiastical 
stations. He was born in 1693, at Sibthorpe, in the 
Vale of Belvoir, in Nottinghamshire. His parents were 
dissenters, and he was educated for the dissenting 
ministry. But having perceived the errors of dissenting 
principles, he declined to officiate in the capacity of a 
minister, although with his usual cautious moderation 
he abstained from declaring himself a Churchman. In 
1716, he applied himself to the study of physic, both 
in London and at Paris. He had been acquainted with 
the celebrated Joseph Butler when he was at a Dis- 
senting School, at Tewksbury, and while at Paris he 
received an offer from Butler, now preacher at the Rolls, 
to obtain for him a preferment in the Church of 
England, if he would conform. He was enabled to 
make the offer through his intimacy with Mr. Edward 
Talbot, son of the Bishop of Durham, Seeker acceded 

SECKER. 869 

to the proposal, and proceeding with his usual regard to 
propriety, took his medical degree at Leyden, in 1721, 
and, entering at Exeter College, Oxford, received a 
degree by diploma at that university after a year's 

Having been ordained by the Bishop of Durham, his 
progress was rapid. He was made chaplain to Bishop 
Talbot ; he had the living of Hough ton-le- Spring, which 
he exchanged in 1727 for that of Ryton, and a prebend 
of Durham ; in 1 732, he was nominated one pf the 
king's chaplains, and in the following year Hector of St. 
James's, Piccadilly. In that year he went to Oxford 
to take his degree of doctor of laws (not being of sutfi- 
cient standing for that of divinity.) On this occasion he 
preached his celebrated Act Sermon, on the advantages 
and duties of academical education, which was printed 
at the desire of the heads of houses, and quickly passed 
through several editions. . Early in 1 735, he was made 
Bishop of Bristol. In 1737, he was translated to 
Oxford. In 1750, he gave up the Rectory of St. James's, 
and his Durham prebend, and was made Dean of St. 
Paul's. In 1758, he became Archbishop of Canterbury. 

Bishop Porteus observes, that when translated to 
the Metropolitan See, all designs and institutions that 
tended to advance good morals and true religion, he 
patronized with zeal and generosity. He contributed 
largely to the maintenance of schools for the poor, to 
rebuilding or repairing parsonage houses and places of 
worship, and gave at one time no less than £500 
towards erecting a chapel in the Parish of Lambeth, 
to which he afterwards added near d6 100 more. To the 
Society for promoting Christian Knowledge he was a 
liberal benefactor, and to that for propagating the Gos- 
pel in Foreign Parts, of which he was the president, 
he paid much attention ; was constant at all the meetings 
of its members, (even sometimes when his health would 
ill permit it,) and superintended their deliberations with 

360 SECKER. 

consummate prudence and temper. He was sincerely 
desirous to improve to the utmost that excellent insti- 
tution, and to diffuse the knowledge and belief of 
Christianity as wide as the revenues of the society, 
and the extreme difficulty of establishing schools and 
missions amongst the Indians, and of making any 
effectual and durable impressions of religion on their 
uncivilized minds, would admit. But Dr. Mayhew, of 
Boston, in New England, having in an angry pamphlet 
accused the society of not sufficiently answering these 
good purposes, and of departing widely from the spirit 
of their charter; with many injurious reflections inter- 
spersed on the Church of England, and the design of 
appointing bishops in America; his grace on all these 
accounts thought himself called upon to confute his 
invectives, which he did in a short anonymous piece, 
entitled. An Answer to Dr. Mayhew's Observations on 
the Charter and Conduct of the Society for propagating 
the Gospel ; printed for Rivington, 1764, and reprinted in 
America. The strength of argument, as well as fairness 
and good temper, with which this Answer was written, 
had a considerable effect on all impartial men, and even 
on the doctor himself, who plainly perceived that he had 
no common adversary to deal with ; and could not help 
acknowledging him to be "a person of excellent sense, 
and a happy talent at writing ; apparently free from the 
sordid illiberal spirit of bigotry; one of a cool temper, 
who often shewed much candour, was well acquainted 
with the affairs of the society, and in general a fair rea- 
soner." He was therefore so far wrought upon by his 
*' worthy answerer," as to abate much in his Reply of 
his former warmth and acrimony. But as he still would 
not allow himself to be "wrong in any material point," 
nor forbear giving way too much to reproachful language 
and ludicrous representations, he was again animad- 
verted upon by Mr. Apthorpe, in a sensible Tract, 
entitled, "A Review of Dr. Mayhew's Remarks," &c., 

SECKER. 361 

printed also for Rivington, in 1765. This put an end 
to the dispute. The doctor on reading it declared he 
should not answer it, and the following year he died. 

It appeared evidently in the course of this controversy, 
that Dr. Mayhew, and probably many other worthy 
men amongst the Dissenters both at home and abroad, 
had conceived very unreasonable and groundless jea- 
lousies of the Church of England, and its governors ; 
and had in particular greatly misunderstood the pro- 
posal for appointing bishops in some of the Colonies. 
TJie chief reasons for desiring an establishment of this 
nature, were, the want of persons vested with proper 
authority, to administer to the members of the Church 
of England the ancient and useful office of confirmation ; 
to superintend the conduct of the episcopal clergy ; and 
to save candidates for the ministry the trouble, cost, and 
hazard of coming to England for ordination. It was 
alleged, that the expence of crossing the Atlantic for 
that purpose could not be less than £100, that near a 
fifth part of those w^ho took that voyage had actually 
lost their lives ; and that in consequence of these dis- 
couragements, one half of the Churches in several pro- 
vinces were destitute of clergymen. Common humanity, 
as well as common justice, pleaded strongly for a remedy 
to these evils ; and there appeared to be no other eflPec- 
tual remedy but the appointment of one or more bishops 
in some of the episcopal Colonies. The danger and 
inconveniences, which the Dissenters seemed to appre- 
hend from that measure, were thought to be effectually 
guarded against by the mode of appointment which was 
proposed. What that mode was, may be seen in the 
following extract from the archbishop's Answer to Dr. 
Mayhew, in which he explains concisely and clearly the 
only plan for such an establishment that was ever meant 
to be carried into execution. 

" The Church of England is, in its constitution, epis- 
copal. It is, in some of the Plantations, confessedly the 


362 . SECKER. 

established Church ; in the rest are many congregations 
adhering to it ; and through the late extension of the 
British dominions, it is likely that there will be more. 
All members of every Church are, according to the prin- 
ciples of liberty, entitled to every part of what they 
conceive to be the benefits of it, entire and complete, 
so far as consists with the welfare of civil government. 
Yet the members of our Church in America do not thus 
enjoy its benefits, having no Protestant bishop within 
three thousand miles of them ; a case which never had 
its parallel before in the Christian world. Therefore 
it is desired that two or more bishops may be appointed 
for them, to reside where his majesty shall think most 
convenient; that they may have no concern in the least 
with any persons who do not profess themselves to be of 
the Church of England, but may ordain ministers for 
such as do; may confirm their children when brought 
to them at a fit age for that purpose ; and take such 
oversight of the episcopal clergy, as the Bishop of Lon- 
don's commissaries in those parts have been empowered 
to take, and have taken without offence. But it is not 
desired in the least that they should hold courts to try 
matrimonial or testamentary causes ; or be vested with 
any authority now exercised, either by provincial gover- 
nors, or subordinate magistrates ; or infringe or diminish 
any privileges or liberties enjoyed by any of the laity, 
even of our own communion. This is the real and 
the only scheme that hath been planned for bishops in 
America ; and whosoever hath heard of any other, hath 
been misinformed through mistake or design. And as 
to the place of their residence," his grace further de- 
clares, "that it neither is, nor ever was intended or 
desired to fix one in New England ; but that episcopal 
colonies have always been proposed." 

The doctor on reading this account confessed that, if 
it were the true one, "he had been misinformed himself, 
Stud knew of others who had been so in common with 

SECKER. 363 

him; and that if such a scheme as this were carried 
into execution, and only such consequences were to 
follow, as the proposer had professedly in view, he could 
not object against it, except on the same principle that 
he should object against the Church of England in 

As it came however from an unknown writer, he 
thought himself at liberty to consider it as nothing more 
than the imaginary scheme of '.a private man, till it was 
confirmed by better authority. It now appears to have 
come from the best authority, and it is certain that this 
mode of establishing bishops in xlmerica, was not in- 
vented merely "to serve a present turn," being precisely 
the same with that proposed by Bishop Butler twenty 
years ago; and with that mentioned by his grace, in 
his Letter to the Right Honourable Horatio Walpole, 
written when he was Bishop of Oxford, and published 
since his death by his executors, Mrs. Catherine Talbot, 
and Dr. Daniel Burton; in which the whole affair is set 
in a right point of view, his own sentiments upon it 
more fully explained, and an answet given to the chief 
objections against such a proposal. 

Bishop Porteus remarks, " It is a very remarkable 
circumstance, and a complete justification of the arch- 
bishop's sentiments and conduct on the subject of an 
American episcopacy, that notwithstanding the violent 
opposition to that measure when he espoused it, yet no 
sooner did the American Provinces become independent 
States, than application was made to the English bishops 
by some of those States, to consecrate bishops for them 
according to the rites of the Church of England. And 
accordingly three bishops were actually consecrated here 
some years ago, one for Pensylvania, another for New 
York, and a third for Virginia." 

He died in 1768, and was buried in the church-yard 
of Lambeth parish. He expended upwards of £300 in 
arranging and improving the MS. library at Lambeth. 


He also made it bis business to collect books in all 
languages from most parts of Europe, at a great expense, 
and left them to the library at his death. The greatest 
part of his noble collection of books he bequeathed to 
the archiepiscopal library of Lambeth. To the MS. 
library there he left a large number of valuable MSS. 
written by himself on a great variety of subjects, critical 
and theological. His well known Catechetical Lectures, 
and his MS. sermons, hg left to be revised by his two 
chaplains, Dr. Stinton and Dr. Porteus, by whom they 
were published in 1770. 


Obadiah Sedgwick was born at Marlborough, in Wilt- 
shire, in 1000, and educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford; 
after which he obtained the Vicarage of Coggeshall, in 
Essex; but in the rebellion he removed to London, and 
was chosen preacher at St. Paul's, Covent-garden, and a 
member of the Westminster Assembly of Divines. 

Wood says, " that while he preached at Mildred's, 
which was only to exasperate the people to rebel and 
confound episcopacy, it was usual with him, especially 
in hot weather, to unbutton his doublet in the pulpit, 
that his breath might be the longer, and his voice more 
audible, to rail against the king's party, and those who 
were near him, whom he cdWed popish counsellors.'' The 
same author adds, " He was a great leader and abettor 
of the Reformation pretended to be carried on by the 
Presbyterians ; whose peaceable maxims, like razors set 
with oil, cut the throat of majesty with a keen smooth- 
ness. This he did in an especial manner, in Sept , 1644, 
when he, with great concernment, told the people several 
times, that God was angry with the army for not cutting 
off delinquents.'" 

It has also been said, that Mr. Sedgwick was " a 

SEED. 365 

preacher of treason, rebellion, and nonsense," even in 
his sermons before the parliament. 

In 1653, or 1654, he was appointed one of the tryers 
or examiners of ministers ; and soon after one of the 
commissioners of London for ejecting " ignorant and 
scandalous ministers," that is, orthodox and pious 
divines. These Covenanters who were so loud in their 
clamour when, at the Restoration the clergy of the 
Church of England were restored to their property, not 
only ousted them when they had the power, but ma- 
ligned and misrepresented them as some of their suc- 
cessors are still accustomed to do. 

He died in 1658. He pubHshed :— The Fountain 
Opened ; An Exposition of Psalm xxiii. ; The Anatomy 
of Secret Sins ; The Parable of the Prodigal ; Synopsis 
of Christianity; and other works long since for- 
gotten, the list of which occupies more than a page 
in Pteid's History of the Westminster Divines.— TFoorf. 


Little is known of the life of this very clear headed and 
learned divine, whose writings stand next perhaps to those 
of Dr. Waterland in the controversies of the last century. 
He was born at Clifton, near Penrith, in Cumberland, 
and educated at Lowther, and at Queen's College, 
Oxford, of which he was chosen fellow in 1732. The 
greatest part of his life was spent at Twickenham, where 
he was curate to Dr. Waterland. In 1741, he was 
presented by his college to the living of Enham, in 
Hampshire, where he died in 1747. 

He published : — Discourses on several important 
Subjects, 2 vols. 8vo ; his Posthumous Works, con- 
sisting of Sermons, Letters, Essays, &c., in 2 vols. 8vo, 
were published in 1750. 

3 II 

366 SHARP. 


Nicholas Seraeius was born at Rambemlliers, in Lor- 
raine, in 1555. He studied at Cologne, and there 
became a Jesuit. He died at Mentz, in 1609. His 
collected works were published in Mentz, in three tomes, 
fol. Of these, the most esteemed w^ere : — Commentaries 
on several Books of Scripture : Prolegomena on the 
Holy Scriptures ; Trihseresium, seu de celeberrimis 
tribus, apud Judaeos, Pharisaeorum, Sadducaeorum, et 
Essenorum Sectis ; an edition of this work was pub- 
lished at Delft, in 1703, with the addition of the trea- 
tises of Drusius and Scalier, on the same subject ; De 
rebus Moguntinis. — Gen. Biog. Diet. 


James Sharp was born in 1618, at Banff Castle, Banff- 
shire, and was educated at King's College, Aberdeen. 
In 1638, he fled from persecution and retired to Eng- 
land, being expelled from his college for refusing to take 
the Covenant. Although he was only twenty years of 
age, his merit was such that he attracted the kindly 
notice of such men as Saunderson, Hammond, and 
Jeremy Taylor. He did not remain long in England, 
but was driven back to his native air by severe indis- 
position. Through the interest of the Earl of Rothes, 
he was appointed to the chair of philosophy at St. Leo- 
nard's College, in the University of St. Andrew's. He 
resigned the professorship soon after, and retired to the 
living of Crail. 

Sharp was more of a politician than a divine, and 
though he preferred episcopacy as a form of Church 
government, and even avowed his predilection to Crom- 
well, yet he did not consider it as a necessary or divine 

SHAEP. 367 

institution. There seems, therefore, to have been very 
little inconsistency in his conduct either in holding office 
under the Presbytery, or in being instrumental in the 
re-establishment of episcopacy. 

The Presbyterians were at this time divided into two 
parties, the Remonstrators or Protestors, and the Resolu- 
tioners. To account for the origin of the two parties 
we must look back to the year 1688, when a General 
Assembly, called by Charles I., became guilty of high 
treason, and refused to rise when legally dissolved by 
the king. This illegal assembly condemned the Liturgy 
— Book of Canons — Book of Ordination — and the Court 
of High Commission. It repealed all the acts of Assem- 
bly for the preceding forty years ; condemned, deposed, 
and excommunicated the bishops, as an Anti-christian 
corruption; declared them infamous, and worse than 
heathens and publicans. It refused to rise when dis- 
solved by the king's commissioner ; but, indeed, all the 
succeeding parliaments and assemblies both met and 
enacted laws contrary to the royal authority. At that 
period, the General Assembly exalted itself above the 
crown and parliament, and actually repealed acts of 
parliament. A new oath was invented, called the 
Solemn, League and Covenant, and imposed, contrary 
to all law, upon all men and women, and even children 
were compelled to take it ; and such as refused were ex- 
communicated. The consequence of excommunication in 
Scotland, at that time, was the confiscation of all their 
moveables, and that their persons were placed beyond 
the protection of the laws. The lives of the bishops, 
therefore, were now at the mercy of every man who might 
lift their hands against them, to avoid which they fled 
to England. Such was the unhappy posture of Charles's 
affairs, that he found himself under the necessity of 
ratifying their illegal acts of assembly, in the parliament 
of 1641. By that mutilated and illegal parliament, 
episcopacy was abolished, and the Presbyterian system 

368 SHARP. 

established. The Solemn League and Covenant was 
sworn by the now dominant Presbyterians, and all men 
forced to comply with it ; the object of which was to 
" endeavour the extirpation of Popery, Prelacy, (that is 
Church government by archbishops, bishops, their chan- 
cellors and commissaries, deans, deans and chapters, 
archdeacons, and all other ecclesiastical officers depend- 
ing on that hierarchy,) superstition, heresy, schism, pro- 
faneness and whatsoever shall be found contrary to 
sound doctrine and the power of godliness." The con- 
vention, or parliament, as it had been called, of 1641, 
abolished patronages by an ordinance, which by the godly 
was thought " worthy of being written in letters of gold." 
It is a singular fact, that in the history of Presbytery, 
whenever it reached a point when, in their own opinion, 
it had neither spot nor wrinkle, it immediately began 
to backslide. " After this," says Willison in his Testi- 
mony, " a mournful scene opened, by the breaking divi- 
sion that entered into the Church, which tended to stop 
the progress of reformation work, and make way at 
length for restoring Prelacy. This was occasioned by 
some ensnaring questions put to the commission in 
December, 1650, by the king, (Charles 11.) and parlia- 
ment, (which they had better have declined to answer,) 
concerning the admission of persons into places of public 
trust, civil and military, who formerly had been opposers 
of the Covenanted reformation, upon their making public 
profession of their repentance ; those who were for ad- 
mitting them being called Puhlic Resolutioners, and thos,e 
against it being called Protestors.'' 

The Protestors or Remonstrators, were the violent and 
fanatical Presbyterians attached to the Solemn League 
and Covenant. The Resolutioners were the remains of 
the Episcopal clergy, and were by far the greatest pro- 
portion of the kingdom. 

Sharp was a Resolutioner. He occupied so eminent 
a place in his party that he represented them when 


SHARP. 369 

Cromwell was in Scotland, and sought to reconcile reli- 
gious differences. He was consulted by Monck, who 
seems to have relied much on his judgment when de- 
signing to restore the king. He was sent to Breda, and 
conferred with Charles the Second, and " in all his 
transactions," says Guthrie, " he seems to have acted 
with great prudence and frankness towards his consti- 
tuents ; I can see no great ground for the violent charge 
brought by Bishop Burnet against the former, for ingra- 
titude and treachery towards his constituents ; — he fairly 
tells Douglass that he would not appear for Presbytery 
in any other way than within his own sphere." 

He seems to have been desirous at first of establishing 
the moderate Presbyterian system, to which he belonged 
in Scotland. But he soon perceived that every thing 
was tending towards the re-establishment of Episcopacy, 
to which he had always inclined, without thinking it 
essential. He writes from London : " From any obser- 
vation I can make, I find the Preshijterian cause wholly 
given up and lost. The influencing men of the Presby- 
terian judgment are content wdth Episcopacy of Bishop 
Usher's model, and a Liturgy somewhat corrected, with 
the ceremonies of surplice, cross in baptism, kneeling at 
communion, if they be not imposed by a canon, suh 
poena aut culpa. And for the Assembly's Confession, I 
am afraid they will yield it to be set to the door ; and 
that the Articles of the Church of England, with some 
amendments, take place. The moderate Episcopalians 
and Presbyterians fear, that either the high Episcopal 
men be uppermost, or that the Erastians carry it from 
both. As for those they call rigid Presbyterians, there 
are but few of them, and these only to be found in the 
province of London and Lancashire, who will be incon- 
siderable to the rest of the nation. A knowing minister 
told me this day, that if a synod should be called by the 
plurahty of incumbents, they would infallibly carry Epis- 
copacy. There are many nominal, /eit; real Presbyterians. 

370 SHARP 

The cassock-men do swarm here ; and such who seemed 
to be for Presbytery, would be content of a moderate 
Episcopacy. We must leave this in the Lord's hands. 
Who may be pleased to preserve to us what He hath 
wrought for us. I see not what use I can be longer 
here. I wish my neck were out of the collar. Some 
of our countrymen go to the Common Prayer. All matters 
are devolved into the hands of the king, in whose power 
it is to do absolutely what he pleases, in Church and 
state. His heart is in His hand, upon whom are our 
eyes." In another letter of the same date, Mr. Sharp 
says, '* I find our Presbyterian friends quite taken off 
their feet, and what they talk of us and our help, is 
merely for their own ends. They stick not to say, that 
had it not been for the vehemency of the Scots, Messrs. 
Henderson and Gillespie, &c., set forms had been con- 
tinued ; and they tvere never against them. The king and 
(Scottish) grandees are nholly for Episcopacy ; the Epis- 
copal men are very high." — " The parliament when it 
meets will make all void since 1639, and so the king 
will be made king, (that is, absolute there ; in Scotland, 
to wit, as here,) and dispose of places and offices as he 

Sharp acted according to the best of his judgment. 
He had never been a Covenanter : he represented the 
old episcopal clergy who had been ousted by the red 
hot Presbyterians, and the more moderate of the Pres- 
byterian party. He evidently supposed that in consenting 
to the shadow of episcopacy to which he was called upon 
to yield, he had the majority of his constituents with him, 
and by the enthusiasm with which he was received when 
he returned to Scotland, he had reason to believe that he 
had judged correctly. Every thing was to remain the 
same as under the Presbyterian system ; no liturgy; no 
ceremonies ; no cross in baptism, no altars, no kneeling 
at the Eucharist, no chancels were to be introduced : only 
the chief pastor of each diocese was to be a consecrated 

SHARP. 371 

person. Well might the English Presbyterians exclaim, 
" What would our brethren in Scotland be at ? What 
would they have ?" The restoration of Episcopacy, says 
Guthrie, was inevitable. In 1661, came forth the act 
Rescissory by which were rescinded all the acts by the re- 
bellious parliaments since 1633, and the Church was thus 
virtually restored to what it was in 1612. The next step 
was to restore the right of presentation to the patrons of 
Scottish benefices, of which right they had been deprived 
in 1649. And at last came forth the Proclamation from 
Whitehall, declaring it to be the king's pleasure to restore 
the government of the Church by archbishops and bishops 
as it stood settled in 1637. 

Sharp acted unwisely in accepting the j^rimacy under 
such circumstances. The Covenanters were enraged 
beyond endurance, and as they could not vent their rage 
on the king, they singled out Sharp. These feelings were 
expressed by the most malignant and profligate Covenanter 
then in existence, the Earl of Lauderdale, who addressed 
the following words to Sharp : — " Mr. Sharp, bishops you 
are to have in Scotland ; and you are to be Archbishop 
of St. Andrew's. But, whoever shall be the man, I will 
smite him and his order, below the fifth rib." And well 
did he make this flagitious saying good ! For when he 
perceived that the restoration of bishops was inevitable, 
his malignity found a resource in the resolution to make 
Episcopacy hateful and intolerable. " My lord," he ex- 
claimed with an oath, to the Earl of Glencairn, who 
had expressed his anxiety for a limited, sober, and 
moderate Episcopacy, — " My lord, since you are for 
bishops, and must have them, bishops you shall have : 
and higher than they ever were in Scotland : and that 
you shall find." It is well known that he was faithful 
to this threat. He succeeded, to his heart's content, in 
making the cause he wished to ruin, utterly detestable, 
by often labouring in its behalf with the merciless 
ferocity of an inquisitor. 

372 SHARP. 

That the view we have taken of Sharp's principles are 
correct, namely, that he regarded Episcopacy as expe- 
dient, but not essential to the validity of holy orders, 
appears from what took place in the preliminaries to 
the consecration of himself and three other Scottish 
clergymen. Kirkton says, " first, there was a question 
to be answered, and that was, whether they were to be 
re-ordained presbyters, yea, or no ? Sharp desired they 
might be excused, and that their Presbyterian ordina- 
might be sustained. Episcopal they could not have; 
and the former English bishops had sustained Spottis- 
wood's Presbyterian ordination in the year 1610; but 
Sheldon was peremptory — either they must renounce 
their old Presbyterian ordination, or miss their expected 
Episcopal coronation ; so they were cont€nt rather to 
deny themselves to be presbyters, than not to be re- 
ceived bishops ; and when they consented, Sheldon told 
Sharp that it was the Scottish fashion to scruple at every 
thing, and swallow any thing. But with a great pro- 
cess of change of vestments, offices, prayers, bowing to 
the altar, and kneeling at the communion, they were 
re-ordained presbyters, and consecrated bishops both in 
one day, and this was a preface to a fat Episcopal ban- 
quet, and so their work ended. This was done Decenii- 
ber, 1661." 

Wodrow, in the printed history, gives the same account 
in nearly the same words ; but in his *' Analecta," he 
relates a hearsay story, as follows :—" January, 1707. 
This day, Mr. James Webster told that his author had 
this account from Bishop Hamilton; that after the 
Restoration, Sharp, Leighton, Hamilton, and Fairfowl, 
four of them, were at London ; and that there were 
only two of them that were re-ordained, that were Sharp 
and Leighton : that when Sharp got the gift of the 
Archbishopric of St. Andrews from the king, he came 
to Juxon, Bishop of London, with the orders ; and who 
says that is very good, but Mr. Sharp, where are your 

SHARP. 373 

orders? You must be re-ordained presbyter, before you 
can be consecrated bishop. He said he behoved to con- 
sult with his brethren, and returned and told them that 
they behoved to be re-ordained. Mr. Hamilton and the 
others said, that they were ordained before the thirty- 
eight, by bishops. Mr. Leighton said, J will yield, 
(although) I am persuaded I was in orders before, and 
my ministrations were valid, and that they do it cumu- 
lative, and not privative ; and although I should be 
ordained every year, I will submit." 

The reception of the new prelates in Scotland was 
enthusiastic. On the 6th of April, the primate and 
the other bishops arrived at Berwick-on-Tweed. Many 
of the nobility, gentry, and ministers went from Edin- 
burgh as far as Cockburn's-path, a hamlet about eight 
miles beyond Dunbar, to meet and escort them into 
the capital. A vast multitude of inferior note met 
them at Musselburgh, whence they were conducted 
into Edinburgh, in triumph ; " and with all reverence 
and respect received and embraced them, in great pomp 
and grandeur, with sound of trumpet and all other 
curtesies requisite. This done on Tuesday, the 8th of 
April, 1662." This is corroborated by Wodrow ; but 
he adds, " which was not a little pleasing to Sharp's 
ambitious temper." There is no doubt it would be 
pleasing not only to him, but to all those who wished 
for the peace of their country, or that the wounds of 
the Church should be healed. It is pleasing, even at 
this day, when the Covenanting fire is smouldering in 
its ashes, to see with what unanimity so good a work 
was received by " the generality of the new upstart 
generation; who had no love to Presbyterial govern- 
ment ; feeding themselves with the fancy of Episcopacy." 
Let the Covenanters say what they will, this demonstra- 
tions is a decided proof of " the inclinations of the 
people." It is an incontrovertible fact, and recorded too 
by Wodrow, that "the generality of the people were 


374 SHARP. 

wearied" of the Presbyterial yoke, and none but the 
bigoted Covenanters were opposed to the Episcopal 

Soon after his arrival at the Scottish metropolis, the 
primate consecrated other bishops to the vacant sees. 
Kirkton, followed by Wodrow, indulges his maUce in 
giving the blackest character to all these fathers of the 
Church, but especially to Dr. Sharp. Their satanic 
malice, and indeed that of the whole Covenanters, 
defeats itself, and even brings a direct reproach upon 
their own beloved discipline. If the bishops were such 
monsters of wickedness as they represent them to have 
been, why did the Kirk, in its state of Philadelphian 
purity, suffer them to exercise their ministry without 
rebuke ? Why suffer them to disgrace the Presbyterian 
discipline, which Kirkton informs us was so severe, and 
so inquisitorial, that even a poor peasant could not 
escape its searching strictness, far less its ministry? 
We leave these questions to be answered by those who 
believe and continue the malicious misrepresentations 
of those persecutors of the true Church. Had they 
really been such immoral men, under such an inquisi- 
torial discipline, it would have been next to impossible 
to have concealed their immorality, even although Kirk- 
ton admits, that their tyranical discipline made hypocrisy 
the besetting sin of the age. It says very little for the 
severe morality to which the Presbyterian discipline is 
said to be so favourable, to wink at such alleged wicked- 
ness in their ministers. Had these men, however, 
remained in their obscurity of parish ministers ; but 
more particularly, had they adopted the Presbyterian 
discipline, the world would have been unedified by the 
malicious libels of Kirkton and Wodrow. It is certain, 
there never was the slightest accusation of immorality 
against them till after their promotion to the order of 
bishops. The Covenanting historians, and who have 
been but too thoughtlessly copied by more reputable 

SHARP. 375 

names, have heaped the most atrocious falsehoods on 
the Scottish bishops ; accusations which a small degree 
of reflection would show were the suggestions of malice 
and envy alone. The bishops were chosen out of the. 
party known by the name of public Resolutioners, towards 
whom the Covenanters entertained the most fiendish 

None, however, suffered so much, nor more unjustly, 
than Archbishop Sharp. It seems to have been a chief 
and paramount object with his enemies, to fix on him 
the guilt of necromancy, and for which purpose the most 
absurd and improbable falsehoods have been gravely 
recorded as materials for future history. Such " weak 
inventions of the enemy" would only excite contempt, 
as being the childish gossip of ignorant and silly men, 
envious of his superior abilities and station, were it not 
for the deep and fiendish malice which lurks under 
them. The atrocious libels which the chief historian 
of that period has put into circulation, and which have 
been thoughtlessly and maliciously repeated without 
inquiry, are recorded upon no better authority than mere 
hearsay. The object is apparent, and hitherto has been 
eminently successful ; for not content with taking his 
life in a most barbarous manner, they have never ceased 
to murder his character, so that he has been a double 
martyr — in deed and in reputation. Good men in all 
ages have been the butt of the wicked ; but none were 
ever so maligned and insulted whilst living, nor their 
memories so persecuted when dead, and some of them 
even murdered, as these fathers of the Church, but 
especially the archbishop. The persecution, whether 
active or passive, to which the true Church has ever 
been subjected by heretics and schismatics, may consti- 
tute one of its marks. The Church in England was 
crushed beneath the upper millstone of Popish Jesuits, 
and the nether millstone of the Puritans ; and the 
Church in Scotland was annihilated by the united fero- 

376 SHARP. 

city and intolerance of the Covenanters and Popish 
emissaries, at the grand rebeUion. It has been all along 
the tactics of all these parties to persecute the Church, 
but especially the Church in Scotland, by the continued 
circulation of the most enormously wicked and inconsis- 
tent falsehoods on the memories of the first prelates of 
that branch of the Church Catholic. 

Of the persecutions to which the Covenanters were 
subjected by the civil power we have only to speak with 
abhorrence, and with the greater abhorrence when we 
know that the profligate instigator of these was himself 
of the same way of thinking with those he persecuted, 
and desired to make Episcopacy stink in the nostrils of 
the people. But for these atrocities Sharp is not respon- 
sible, and it is to be recollected that the principles of 
the Covenanters were principles as much opposed to the 
laws of common humanity as to the laws of God, They 
thirsted for the blood of these victims, and many felt 
that if they were not repressed they would be themselves 
destroyed. The principles of the Covenanters and Pres- 
byterians of that age are sufficiently exemplified by the 
concluding events of Sharp's life. 

In the year 1668, when the primate was in Edinburgh, 
and engaged " in distributing alms to the poor in the 
street," says the author of the " True and Impartial 
Account," he was shot at by a fanatical preacher of the 
name of Mitchell, who had been out with the armed 
insurrection two years before : " a youth," says Wodrow, 
" of much piety and zeal " ! The ball missed Sharp, 
but wounded Honyman, Bishop of Orkney, who hap- 
pened to be beside him, and who died of the w^ound 
a few years after. Here, again, Wodrow remarks, that 
"people could not help observing the righteousness of 
Providence in disabling Bishop Honyman," because, it 
seems, in former times he had written in favour of Pres- 
byterianism ! The assassin made his escape through 
the crowd; but not before his features were distinctly 

SHARP. 377 

seen by the primate. In order to escape from justice, 
he went to Holland, where he remained five j^ears, from 
whence he returned with a resolution to make a second 
attempt on the object of his hatred. Accordingly, he 
came with his wife to Edinburgh, and hired a small 
shop within a few doors of Sharp's lodgings, where he 
sold tobacco and groceries. One day soon after, the 
primate being accidentally in Edinburgh, perceived this 
very man eyeing him with a malignant scowl, as if 
watching for an opportunity of doing him some mischief. 
He had him instantly arrested ; and two loaded pistols, 
with three balls each, being found upon him, he was 
brought before a committee of the privy council, who, 
it is alleged, promised him his life if he would confess 
that he was the person who had attempted to shoot the 
primate on the former occasion. On this point, however, 
the accounts are conflicting. One asserts that Sharp 
only promised to intercede for him, on the condition of 
his confessing. Burnet (who disliked Sharp personally, 
and admits that he received his account from one of 
his enemies) says that he swore to Mitchell with uplifted 
hands, that if he would confess, no harm whatever should 
happen to him. The criminal, it would appear, made 
the required confession; after which he was taken for 
trial before the Lords of Justiciary, the appointed judges 
in all criminal cases. Some one had hinted to him, in 
the meantime, that he ought not to confess anything ; 
because, though he might get his life, he would pro- 
bably lose his hand, and be imprisoned for the remainder 
of his days. Being called upon by the court to say 
whether he were guilty or not, he pleaded not guilty, 
and obstinately refused to repeat his former confession, 
though informed that his life could not be granted to 
him on any other condition. As therefore he withdrew 
his confession, the council considered themselves justi- 
fied in withdrawing their conditional promise of pardon ; 
and in the meantime, till he should think better of it, 

3 KK 

378 SHARP. 

lie was sent to the tolbooth, where he was imprisoned two 
years. At the end of that period, he was again brought 
before the council, and had the cruel torture of the 
boots applied to one of his legs, but without producing 
the required confession. Next, he was remanded to the 
Bass rock, where he was kept another two years, after 
which his trial was resumed, according to Laing, " at 
the instigation of Sharp." The evidence against him 
was conclusive ; and was so far from being contradicted, 
even by himself, that when asked by Lord Halton why 
he had done so execrable an act, he answered, " Because 
the archbishop was an enemy to the godly people in the 
west." His trial lasted four days ; at the end of which, 
being found guilty by the unanimous vote of a jury con- 
sisting of fifteen gentlemen, he was condemned and 
executed. In his last words, he declared openly that 
he laid down his life in opposition to the perfidious 
prelates, and in testimony to the cause of Christ : and 
blessed God that He had thought him worthy of so 

The foregoing are the simple facts of the case, so far 
as they are known, as we find them briefly detailed 
by Mr. Lyons, in his History of St. Andrews, and it must 
rest with the reader to judge whether Sharp is deserving 
of the odium with which his memory has been loaded 
for the part he took in the transaction. 

After an administration of eighteen years, Sharp, as 
is well known, was cruelly murdered by a party of ruffians 
to whom he had made himself obnoxious. Their con- 
spiracy against him arose out of a quarrel which he had 
with one Haxton of Rathillet, and his brother-in-law, 
Balfour of Kinloch, about some money due to him, which 
they resisted, while he took legal means to compel pay- 
meut. This so exasperated them, that they engaged a 
party of seven Covenanters who were too happy to wreak 
their vengeance on the primate on religious grounds. 
With their help, they way-laid him on Magus Muir, 

SHARP. 379 

near St. Andrews, as he was travelling home in his 
coach from Edinburgh, accompanied by his eldest 
daughter. But here we will allow his biographer to 
describe what occurred on his part immediatety previous 
to the murder : — " Upon Friday, May 2nd, he deter- 
mined to take a journey to St. Andrews, with a design 
to return upon Monday to Edinburgh, and thence to 
begin his journey for court. On Friday evening he 
reached Kennoway, where he lodged that night ; in which, 
and next morning, he was observed to have eaten or 
drunk very little, but was known to have been very 
fervent and longer than ordinary in his devotions ; as 
if God, out of His great mercy, had thereby prepared 
him for what he was to meet with from the worst of men. 
His religious behaviour was so much taken notice of that 
morning by the pious and learned Dr. Monro, (who had 
come to wait on him,) that he said he believed he was 
inspired. So, on Saturday, May 3rd, he entered his 
coach with his daughter Isabel, and went on his journey. 
All the way he entertained her with religious discourses, 
particularly of the vanity of life, the certainty of death 
and judgment, of the necessity of faith, good works, and 
repentance, and daily growth in grace," &c. The cir- 
cumstances of his murder have often been described. 
Let it suffice to say here, that the assassins, after making 
themselves masters of the servants and horses, dragged 
the unfortunate prelate out of his coach, and despatched 
him with many wounds. Instead of trying to escape, 
they retired to a neighbouring cottage, where they devoted 
several hours to prayer. They felt no fear or compunction, 
but thanked God that he had enabled them to accomplish 
this glorious work, and asked strength that they might, 
if necessary, seal it with their blood ! Danziel, one of 
the fanatics, declared that, in answer to this prayer, he 
heard a voice from heaven saying, " Well done, good and 
faithful servants." 
The murder of the archbishop was received with a 

380 SHARP. 

savage yell of exultation throughout all the regions of 
remonstrant Presbyterianism, which of itself shewed 
how abhorrent their principles were from the spirit of 
the Gospel. Their malignity has defeated itself in the 
portraiture they have undertaken to draw of their victim. 
They have represented him, not only as a traitor and a 
persecutor, but as a wretch, stained with the most abomi- 
nable crimes, — with infanticide, adultery, and incest. 
And, in order to deepen the horrors of the picture, they 
have not scrupled to affirm, that he was in a dark con- 
federacy with the evil potentate ! It is seriously related 
by Wodrow that, on one occasion, the archbishop de- 
spatched his footmen to St, Andrews, for a paper ; and 
that, when the man arrived at St. Andrews, after a hasty 
journey, to his terror and astonishment, he found his 
grace there, quietly sitting at his table, with his black 
gown and tippet, and his broad hat, just as he had left 
him at Edinburgh. Another story is, that one Janet 
Douglas, when summoned before the council, on a charge 
of sorcery, declared that she knew who were witches, 
but was no witch herself. Being threatened with the 
plantations, she turned to the primate, and said, " My 
lord, who was with you, in your closet, on Saturday night 
last, between twelve and one o'clock ?" And, when after- 
wards privately questioned by Lord Rothes, she declared 
that his grace's nocturnal visitor was no other than the 
muckle black deevil himself. It was, moreover, asserted 
that "he bore a charmed life," or, at least, a s/io^proof 
body, upon which leaden bullets could work no further 
mischief than to leave black or blue marks behind them ! 
And, all this trash is propounded with just as much 
confidence and gravity, as if it were a narrative of the 
best authenticated facts ! It would be cruel to hang a 
dog on the sole testimony of such witnesses. 

On the other side of the picture, it is undeniable 
that in his personal habits of life he was blameless ; we 
have not grounds for doubting that his religion was 


sincere, and it is beyond question that he was charitable 
to the poor. Neither can it be disputed that he was 
capable of kind and generous offices towards men who 
w^ere anything but his well-wishers. By his intercession 
with the king he saved the lives of two traitors, Simpson 
and Gillespie; and he made a similar attempt, though 
without success, in favour of a third, the notorious 
Guthrie, author of the treasonable pamphlet entitled, 
" The Causes of God's Wrath," &c. These facts were 
known to Wodrow ; but were scandalously suppressed 
by ^im in his calumnious History. His commission 
was " to aggravate the crimes," and not to blazon the 
virtues of the royal clergy. — Stephens. Lyons History of 
St. Andrews. 


John Shabp was born at Bradford, now one of the first 
towns in Yorkshire, but at that time little more than 
a village, on the 16th of February, 1644, his father being 
an eminent tradesman. In 1660, he went to Cambridge, 
and in 1667, he was ordained on the same day deacon 
and priest at St. Margaret's, Westminster, by Dr. Fuller, 
Bishop of Limerick, and he became domestic chaplain 
to Sir Heneage Finch, then attorney-general. 

In 1672, he was made Archdeacon of Berkshire, aod 
in 1676, Prebendary of Norwich, next Eector of St. 
Bartholomew, near the Exchange, and afterwards of 
St. Giles'-in-the-Fields, London. In 1679, he took his 
degree of D.D., and became lecturer of St. Lawrence, 
Jewry. In 1681, he was made Dean of Norwich, by the 
interest of his friend Finch, at that time lord-chancellor. 

As a parish priest and as a preacher, he was exem- 
plary and laborious. But with the exception of a con- 
troversy with Dissenters, occasioned by a sermon he had 
preached before the lord-mayor, in 1674, he did not 


come prominently before the public until the reign of 
James II. 

Dr. Sharp, in 1686, having preached in his own 
church a sermon against Popery, as he descended from 
the pulpit a paper was put into his hand, containing 
an argument for the right of the Church of Rome to 
the title of the only visible Catholic Church. This he 
answered from his pulpit on the next Sunday ; which 
circumstance being represented at court as an attempt 
to produce jealousy and disaffection to his majesty's 
government, and an infraction of his order concerning 
preachers, the king was greatly incensed, and in the 
June following, sent a mandate to Dr. Compton, Bishop 
of London, for the suspension of Dr. Sharp from preach- 
ing in any church or chapel in his diocese, till he had 
given satisfaction for his offence. The bishop sent for 
the doctor, and informed him of the royal displeasure, 
who replied, that he had never been called upon to 
answer for the matter, or to make his defence, and that 
he was ready to give full satisfaction. The bishop there- 
upon wrote to Lord Sunderland, stating the impossibility 
of his complying with the king's command, since he 
must act in the case as judge, and could not condemn a 
man without knowledge of the cause, and citing the 
accused party. He, however, advised Dr. Sharp to 
intermit the exercise of his function, and for the present, 
to go down to the Deanery at Norwich. With this 
advice he complied, and employed his leisure in forming 
a cabinet of coins, chiefly British, Saxon, and English. 
At length he presented a very humble petition to the 
king, in consequence of which he was permitted to 
return to his duty in the metropolis ! and there is no 
doubt that, according to his promise, he was careful to 
give no farther offence from the pulpit. When, however, 
in 1688, the archdeacons were summoned to appear 
before the ecclesiastical commissioners for disobeying the 
king's orders about the declaration, he concurred with 


his brethren in declining to appear, and drew up the 
reasons for their refusal. Still true to the loyal prin- 
ciples of his Church, when he preached, first before the 
Prince of Orange, and then before the convention, he 
prayed before sermon for King James ; on the second of 
these occasions, the house of commons having now voted 
that the king had abdicated, he gave much offence by his 
prayer, and also by some passages in his sermon, that 
after a long debate, the house broke up without voting 
him the usual thanks ; but this was done afterwards. 

He had no doubt as to the necessity of the revolution, 
but he had a deep sense of duty, and we may therefore 
suppose that at this time he did not consider all hope 
of an accommodation with James to be at an end. 

It was with the same propriety of feeling, that while 
he accepted from William the Deanery of Canterbury, 
in 1689, he refused and adhered to his refusal, to accept 
any of the bishoprics vacant by the ousting of the non- 
juring bishops. He risked the loss of William's favour 
in doing so, but he felt the claims of private friendship, 
he honoured the high though, as he thought, the mis- 
taken principle of the non-jurors, and he may have 
doubted of the lawfulness of the process by which they 
were deprived. But on the death of Lamplugh in 1691, 
he accepted the Diocese of York. As Archbishop of 
York, his conduct was as exemplary as it had been as 
a parish priest. He sympathised with his clergy ; he 
could understand their difficulties, and acted as their 
adviser and friend. He bestowed all the canonries of 
his church upon the clergy of his diocese : he was 
indefatigable in preaching himself, and lost no oppor- 
tunity of hearing his clergy preach that so he might 
judge of their powers in the pulpit. His cathedral 
to which he resorted three times a week, (viz., on the 
Litany days,) for several years after he came to the see, 
though he lived two miles out of the city, served him 
well for this purpose. For in that church, besides the 


preaching courses, distributed among t"he prebendaries 
and archdeacons, on all the Sundays and holidays in 
the year, there are sermons likewise on every Wed- 
nesday and Friday in Advent and Lent. So that during 
those seasons at least, he had an opportunity of hearing 
three sermons a-week from different hands. But as all 
these turns in the Minster were chiefly supplied by the 
members of it, the prebendaries or vicars-choral, that 
he might also exercise and know the talents of the 
city clergy, and those of the neighbouring parishes, he 
set up an evening lecture, to be preached on every 
Friday, at All Saint's Church, in the Pavement. 

He was particularly careful to do all the good he 
could, by giving advice to the younger clergy, especially 
at ordinations and visitations. The first he held regu- 
larly at all the stated times, when he was in his diocese. 
And as it was a business of the greatest weight and 
consequence that appertained to his office, he used the 
properest means to qualify himself for the discharge of 
it. He usually repaired privately to his chapel to beg 
God's presence with him, and blessing upon him, or, 
to use his own expression, to implore the guidance of 
His Spirit in that work. He measured candidates for 
orders, more by their modesty and good sense, and the 
testimonials of their virtue, than by their learning. To 
have a right notion of the main doctrines of religion, 
to understand thoroughly the terms of the new covenant, 
both on God's part and on man's ; and to know the 
reasons, and apprehend the force of those distinctions 
upon which the Church of England explained and stated 
those terms differently from the Church of Rome, and 
other communions separating from her, were with him, 
the chief qualifications for the ministry in regard to 

When consulted about the Societies for the Reformation 
of Manners which were established in various parts of 
the country about the year 1697, he declined associating 


with dissenters for sucli objects, thougli his liberality 
towards them, not to their principles, was well known. 
And referring to one of these societies instituted at Carlisle 
he observes, " I must confess if a society was entered 
into at York upon these articles, I should neither give 
the members of it any disturbance nor any discourage- 
ment. I should only wish that those of the clergy who 
joined in it would add an article or two more, w^hereby 
they should more particularly oblige themselves to the 
reading of prayers on Wednesdays and Fridays, and 
holidays, or in populous towns every day, unless they 
w^ere hindered by some urgent business. Secondly, to 
the holding monthly communions in their parishes, 
and lastly to the diligent attendance upon catechising 
and instructing the youth of their parishes in the 
principles of Christianity. The practice of which things 
will in my poor opinion, more contribute to the pro- 
moting a reformation, than the informing against crimi- 
nals, though that is a good work too." 

Whenever he was consulted by the clergy about their 
parochial concerns, he immediately answered their 
queries, and clearly and positively determined them. 
In all his letters of this kind, which are left, there is 
but one in which he is something doubtful what to 
resolve ; but even there he leaves no doubt or difJBculty 
upon the clergyman who consulted him, by permitting, 
or rather advising him to follow his own first deter- 
mination. The case not being very common, about the 
marriage of a person with a quaker, according to the 
usage of the Church, the letter itself will not be dis= 
agreeable : — 

"November 30, 1700. 

" Sir, — The case which you propose hath some diffi- 
culty in it, since our present canons say nothing about 
it. The old canons, indeed, are express against any 
person being married, who was not first baptized. But 
then in those times marriage was accounted a sacrament, 



and baptism was janua sacramentorum. On the other 
side, though marriage be no sacrament, but all men 
and women have a natural right to it, yet whether 
any who are not initiated in Christianity, ought to have 
the solemn benediction of the Church (as it is upon that 
account that the clergy have anything to do with mar- 
riage,) is a thing fit to be considered. Add to this, that 
there is something in the Church office which supposeth 
that both the married persons are baptized. For, ac- 
cording to the Rubric, it is " convenient that they re- 
ceive the holy communion together at the first oppor- 
tunity that presents itself." And therefore they must 
be in a condition of receiving it, which unbaptized 
persons are not. 

•' Pray ask yourself what you would do in case a per- 
son excommunicated should desire you to marry him. 
Methinks the case is much the same. 

"I do think, upon the whole, it is not advisable to 
depart from your first resolution, unless the party will 
be first baptized, which I am not against your doing as 
privately as may be. 

" I am, &c., Jo. Eboe." 

His care for the Church extended far, and when he 
was emploj^ed in 1703, in preparing measures to be 
laid before the Convocation, he wished to add a proposal 
concerning bishops being provided for the plantations. 
"When the Occasional Conformity bill was introduced, 
there was one point which he laboured to carry, and 
that was to indemnify parish ministers for observing 
the Rubric, from all such damages as by the Test Act 
they might stand liable to, for refusing to give the sacra- 
ment in any instance wherein the rubric directed repul- 
sion from it. In the debates, December 4, 1702, upon 
this bill, his grace applied himself to this point alone. 
" I made a speech, (says he,) against the clause that was 
then brought in to oblige all officers to receive the sacra- 


ment four times a year, unless a clause might be brought 
in to indemnify parish ministers for repelling such from 
the communion, as by the rubric they are empowed to 
do." This was rather securing to the clergy their rights, 
than opposing the dissenters in the favour they desired. 
He thought the consciences of the parochial clergy doing 
their duty in the administration of the sacraments, were 
as much to be considered, and to be as tenderly treated 
as the consciences of those who could occasionally con- 
form. And that it was hard the dissenters should be 
allowed to act inconsistently, in order to obtain the 
benefits of the law ; while the Church ministers, for 
acting consistently, and according to rule, incurred the 
penalties of the law ; that is, were liable to the damages 
which any man sustained by being rejected by them 
from the communion. There were also several others 
who voted with him for the bills against occasional con- 
formity, who yet were never thought unfavourable to the 

In the attempt to introduce the Church system into 
Prussia, Archbishop Sharp took a deep interest which in 
some degree compensated for the culpable neglect of the 
then Archbishop of Canterbury. Indeed, in every thing 
relating to the Church at large. Archbishop Sharp shewed 
his zeal. To the distressed Greek Churches in America 
he was a liberal benefactor, and received with hospitality 
Arsenius, Archbishishop of Thebais, when he came to 
England in 1713. But the proceedings with respect to 
Prussia are of more immediate interest. 

The Protestant subjects of the kingdom of Prussia 
consist partly of Lutherans, and partly of Calvinists; 
which latter call themselves the Reformed; the word, 
Calvinist being disagreeable to them, and consequently 
used only by such as are not their friends. 

Frederick, King of Prussia, had found it necessary, 
for the greater solemnity of his coronation, in 1700, 
to give the title of bishops to two of the chief of his 


clergy, the one a Lutheran, the other a Reformed. The 
former died soon after; whereupon the other, viz. Dr. 
Ursinus, continued without a colleague, and with the 
title of bishop. Since that time the king, who was a 
lover of order and decency, conceived a design of uniting 
the two different communions in his kingdom, the 
Lutherans and the Reformed, in one public form of 
worship. And as he had a great respect for the English 
nation and Church, and held a good opinion of the 
Liturgy of the Church of England, he thought that 
might be the most proper medium wherein both parties 
might meet. The person who, above all others, was 
instrumental in creating in the king a favourable opinion 
of the discipline and Liturgy of the English Church, 
and in improving his good dispositions to establish 
them in his own realm, was Dr. Daniel Ernestus Jab- 
louski, a man of great credit and worth, first chaplain 
to the King of Prussia, and superintendent or senior 
of the Protestant Church in Poland. This gentleman 
had received very great prejudices in his youth against 
the Church of England, from those among whom he 
was educated. But after he had been twice in Eng- 
land, and had spent some time in Oxford, and in the 
conversation of our English divines, and in the study 
of our Liturgy and Church discipline, he became not 
only reconciled to them, but an admirer of our ecclesi- 
astical constitution ; and took all opportunities ever 
after, of expressing his friendship and zeal for the 
English Liturgy and ceremonies. 

Dr. Ursinus was likewise very well inclined to a con- 
formity in worship and discipline to that of the Church 
of England; but if he did not prosecute the design 
with a warmth and zeal equal to Jablouski's, it may be 
imputed to his never having seen the Church of Eng- 
land in her own beauties and proper dress as the other 

By the advice principally of these two, the king 


ordered the English Liturgy to be translated into high 
Dutch, which was done at his University of Frankfort- 
upon-the-Oder, where the professors in general were 
friends to the Church of England. This done, he 
ordered his bishop Dr. Ursinus, to write a letter in his 
name to the Archbishop of Canterbury, to acquaint 
him with what had been, and with what was intended 
to be done ; and to ask his grace's advice about it. The 
scheme was, if the king's intentions met with due re- 
ception and encouragement from England, which it was 
presumed could not fail, to have introduced the Liturgy 
first into the king's own chapel, and the cathedral 
church; and to leave it free for the other churches to 
follow the example ; and the time prefixed for this 
introduction was the first Sunday in Advent, 1706. It 
was indeed debated in the king's consistory (called so 
because a privy counsellor always sits with, yet presides 
over the divines,) whether the English Liturgy should 
be used, or a new one composed in imitation of it, 
several objecting, that they should seem to acknow- 
ledge a dependance on the Church of England, by 
wholly using her service ; upon which some divines, 
who were not willing the design should miscarry, drew 
up a formulary, which was put in manuscript into the 
hands of the king's bishop. 

A letter was written by Dr. Ursinus to his Grace of 
Canterbury, pursuant to the king's directions. And 
two copies of the high Dutch version of the English 
Liturgy were sent along with it; one for her majesty 
the queen, the other for his grace. And orders were 
given to form a correspondence between the principal 
of the clergy of both courts, about the means of pro- 
moting the design. The letter and the copies were 
put into the hands either of Baron Spanheim, or M. 
Bonet, the king's ministers. Her majesty, upon the 
receipt of her copy, ordered my Lord Raby, her minister 
at the Court of Prussia, to return her thanks to the 
L l3 


king and to the bishop which was done. But it unfor- 
tunately happened, that the other copy, and the letter, 
which were designed for the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
by some neglect or mistake, were not delivered to him ; 
and the more unfortunate because they were assured at 
Berlin, that they had been delivered to him by Mr. 
Knyster, a subject of the King of Prussia, then in 
England. This occasioned some disgust ; and the king 
having often asked Dr. Ursinus, what answer the arch- 
bishop had given to his letter, greatly wondered, when 
the bishop, after some time, continued to rej)ly, that 
as yet none had been sent. And it was thought, that 
this misfortune (but looked upon in Prussia rather as 
a neglect in the Archbishop of Canterbury,) was one of 
the chief occasions which made the king grow cool in 
the design. 

Notwithstanding the sinful supineness of the Whig 
Archbishop of Canterbury, the proposal was well received 
by the clergy of England, as w^e may learn from a des- 
patch to the King of Prussia by his minister, M. Bonet, 
giving an account of an interview he had had with the 
English secretary of state. After having spoken of the 
Service of the Church of England, as " the most proper 
that is among Protestants," he addresses himself to 
other considerations. " The j&rst is, that a conformity 
between the Prussian Churches and the Church of 
England would be received with great joy here. The 
second is, that the conformity to be wished for beyond 
the sea relates more to Church government than to any 
change in the Pdtual or Liturgy. The clergy here are 
for Episcopacy, and look upon it, at least, as of apos- 
tolical institution, and are possessed with the opinion, 
that it has continued in an uninterrupted succession 
from the Apostles to this present time ; and upon this 
supposition, they allege there can be no true ecclesias- 
tical government but under bishops of this order ; nor 
true ministers of the Gospel, but such as have been 


ordained by bishops ; and if there be others that do not 
go so far, yet they all make a great difference between 
the ministers that have received imposition of hands 
by bishops, and those that have been ordained by a 
synod of presbyters. A third consideration is, that the 
Church of England would look upon a conformity of 
this nature as a great advantage to herself, and that the 
clergy, united to the Court and the Tories, are a very 
considerable and powerful body. On the other side, 
the Whigs, the Presbyterians, the Independants, and 
all the other non-conformists would look upon this con- 
formity with great concern as weakening and disarming 
their party. And the electoral House of Brunswick, 
which depends more upon the latter than the former, 
may fear lest this conformity should have other conse- 
quences. But though the Whigs have more money, 
because they are more concerned in trade, and though 
their chiefs may have the reputation at present of a 
superior genius, yet the others have more zeal and con- 
stant superiority and interest, 

" Ut in ratione humillima, &c." 

It was, perhaps, the jealousy of the Whigs and the 
fear of the Hanoverians lest they should offend the Dis- 
senters, which prevented this noble scheme from being 
accomplished. Archbishop Sharp, however, endeavoured 
to further it to the day of his death, and continued his 
correspondence with his Prussian friends. Much im- 
portant information is given on this subject in the 
Appendix to Sharp's Life of Sharp. 

In the same work, from which this article is taken, we 
find a beautiful and affecting specimen of the archbishop's 
private devotions, taken from his Diary. When he 
resided at London, he constantly attended the early sacra- 
ments, (for the most part at Whitehall), that he might be 
at liberty to preach afterwards in the Parish Chnrch, or 


attend the Queen's Chapel, whither he generally resorted 
for the morning service, when he had not engaged to sup- 
ply any pulpit in town. The afternoon service he had in 
his own family. In short, he made it his serious endea- 
vour, as he often remarks, "' to spend the whole Lord's 
day in the best manner he could to the glory of God, and 
the good of his own soul." 

Thursday was the other day of the week that he appro- 
priated to thanksgivings ; and these were usually his 
acknowledgments to God of his " great temporal mercies 
and blessings vouchsafed to his country, his family and 
to himself, in that he and all who belonged to him, 
lived in health, peace, and safety; joined with earnest 
petitions, that God for His mercies' sake, would have 
him and his always in protection." In the summer 
time, when he resided at Bishopsthorp, and when the 
weather was fair, he usually offered these thanksgivings 
sub dio, either in his garden or in the adjoining fields and 
meadows, whither he frequently walked to perform his 
devotions. The parish Church of Acaster is within a 
little mile of the Archbishop's Palace. It stands by 
itself in the fields. Thither he frequently retired alone 
and made the little porch of that church his oratory, 
where he solemnly addressed and praised God. And 
here it was that for some years he resorted, as he had 
opportunity, to perform his Thursday thanksgivings; 
afterwards he removed from this place to another which 
was more pleasant, and more commodious too, as being 
nearer his house ; and this was a shed or little summer 
house, placed under a shade on the side of a fish-pond 
which stood north of his house and gardens. Hither 
he frequently retired for prayer, but most generally on 
Thursday. Afterwards, when the plantations that he 
had made in his garden, were grow^n up to some per- 
fection he again changed the scene of his thanksgivings 
and offered them up in a particular walk, which from 
thence he called his Temple of Praise. It is a close 


grass-plot walk, lying north and south, and hedged on 
each side with yew, so thick and high, as to be com- 
pletely shaded at all times of the day, except noon. 
On the east it hath a little maze or wilderness, that 
grows considerably higher. The entrance into it at 
each end is through arches made in a lime hedge, and 
the view through these arches immediately bounded by 
a hedge of horn-beam at one end, and a fruit wall at 
the other. So that from within the walk, scarce any 
thing is to be seen but verdure and the open sky above. 
In this close walk, and in the adjoining maze, ( for pro- 
bably he adopted both at the same time for his Temple of 
Praise,) he spent many a happy hour, especially in the 
last years of his life. Here was a privacy that answered 
his design, and a solemnity that suited his taste ; and here 
he poured out his soul in prayers and thanksgivings, and 
had such delightful intercourses with God, as would affect 
him to a very great degree. Thus, for instance, he notes, 
in the year 1712 : — " After evening prayers, I walked in 
my garden, and there, in my Temple of Praise, poured 
out my soul to God in an unusual ardent manner; so 
that I think I was never so rapturously devout in my 
life." This passage is brought to shew what use he 
made of that place, and not what effect the place had 
upon him. For indeed at this time of life, he had 
attained to such a habit of raising his affections, beyond 
what he had been formerly able to do, that, upon several 
occasions, he wrought himself into ardours which he 
had not felt in so great a degree before. Thus for 
instance, in the same summer: — " I never was in such 
transports of devotion hardly as I was when I came 
home from the Minster, being alone in the coach. I 
never prayed more heartily and devoutly in my life. 
And I hope God will hear my prayers which I put up 
for grace and mercy, with tears." 

He did not neglect general literature or the patronage 
of hterary men, Mr. Speaker Onslow, in a note to 


Burnet's History of his own Times, says of Archbishop 
Sharp, " He was a great reader of Shakspeare. Dr. 
Mangaj, who had married his daughter, told me that he 
used to recommend to young divines the reading of the 
Scriptures and Shakspeare. And Dr. Lisle, Bishop of 
Norwich, who had been chaplain at Lambeth to Arch- 
bishop Wake, told me that it was often related there, that 
Sharp should say, that the Bible and Shakspeare made 
him Archbishop of York." 

In every relation of life, he seemed to excel, and was 
beloved by all who approached him, although he was 
very plain spoken, and remonstrated without fear, but 
with gentleness with the highest personages, not only in 
his own diocese, but in London when he found them 
transgressing, and felt himself responsible. 

He died at Bath, in 1714, and was buried in York 
Cathedral, where an inscription by Dr. Smalridge records 
his merits. His Sermons, in 7 vols. 8vo, have been 
published since his death, and are deservedly popular. — 
Le Neve. Sharps Life of Sharp. 


This munificent prelate was born at Stanton, in Staf- 
fordshire, in the year 1598, and was educated at Trinity 
College, Oxford, where he took his B.A. degree in 1617. 
In 1622, he was elected fellow of New College, and soon 
after became chaplain to the lord-keeper, Coventry, 
by whom he was presented to a stall in Gloucester 
Cathedral. In 1633, he became Vicar of Hackney, 
having previously held the Rectory of Ickford, in Buck- 
inghamshire. In 1634, he took his D.D. degree, and in 
March, 1635, was elected warden of All Souls. About the 
same time, he became chaplain in ordinary to his 
majesty, was afterwards clerk of his closet, and by 
,laim designed to be made master of the Savoy Hospital, 


and Dean of Westminster ; but his settlement in them 
was prevented by the rebellion. 

In February, 1644, he was one of the king's chap- 
lains sent by his majesty to attend his commissioners 
(at the treaty of Uxbridge) for their devotions, and for 
the other Service of the Church, as the management of 
the treaty required, which could not be foreseen. 

In April, 1646, we find him attending his majesty 
at Oxford, and witness to a remarkable vow of his, 
which is published in the Appendix to Archdeacon 
Echard's History of England, p. 5 : — " In the midst of 
these uncommon difficulties, the pious king, as it were, 
reflecting upon his concessions relating to the Churches 
of Scotland and England, and being extremely tender 
in case of sacrilegious encroachments, wrote and signed 
this extraordinary vow, which was never yet published : 
— I do here promise and solemnly vow, in the presence 
and for the service of Almighty God, that if it shall 
please the Divine Majesty, of His infinite goodness to 
restore me to my just kingly rights, and to reestablish 
me in my throne, I will wholly give back to His Church 
all those impropriations which are now held by the crown ; 
and what lands soever I do now, or should enjoy, which 
have been taken away, either from any episcopal see, or 
any cathedral or collegiate church, from any abbey, or 
other religious house. I likewise promise for hereafter 
to hold them from the Church, under such reasonable 
fines and rents as shall be set down by some conscien- 
tious persons, whom I propose to choose with all up- 
rightness of heart, to direct me in this particular. And 
I most humbly beseech God to accept of this my vow, 
and to bless me in the design I have now in hand, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

"Oxford, April 13, 1646. Chaeles K" 

This is a true copy of the king's vow, which was pre- 
served thirteen years under ground by me, 

3 660, Aug. 21. GiLB. Sheldon. 


During the king's being at Newmarket, a.d. 1647, and 
afterwards in the Isle of Wight, Sheldon had the 
honour to attend his majesty as one of his chaplains. 

In the latter end of 1647, he was ejected his warden- 
ship by the parliament visitors, and in 1648, was im- 
prisoned ; but obtaining his liberty some time after, he 
retired to Snelston in Derbyshire, whence from his own 
purse, and from others which he made use of, he sent 
constantly monies to the exiled king, and followed his 
studies and devotions till matters tended to a happy 
restoration. On the 4:th of March, 1659, Dr. John 
Palmer, w^ho had usurped his wardenship almost twelve 
years, died ; at which time there being an eminent fore- 
sight of his majesty's return, there was no election 
made of a successor, only a restitution of Dr. Sheldon, 
though he never took re-possession. 

On the king's return he met his majesty at Canter- 
bury, and was soon after made Dean of the Chapel 
Royal, and upon Bishop Juxon's translation to Canter- 
bury, was made Bishop of London, to which he was 
elected Oct. 9, 1 660 ; confirmed the 23rd, and conse- 
crated in King Henry the Seventh's Chapel, at West- 
minster, on the 28th of the said month, by Brian 
Winchester, assisted by Accepted York, Matthew Ely, 
John Rochester, and Henry Chichester, by virtue of a 
commission from the archbishop, dated Oct. 24, and 
directed to them for that purpose. 

He held the mastership of the Savoy with the Bishop- 
ric of London ; for the famous conference between the 
episcopal clergy and the Presbyterian divines concerning 
alterations to be made in the Liturgy, ad. 1661, was 
held at his lodgings in the Savoy. 

Hence the name of this great historical event ; at the 
first meeting of the commissioners appointed to confer. 
Bishop Sheldon told the Presbyterian theologians, *' that 
not the bishops, but they, had been seekers of the con- 
ference, and desired alterations in the Liturgy : therefore, 


there was nothing to be done till they had brought in all 
they had to say against it in writing, and all the 
additional forms and alterations which they desired. The 
ministers moved for an amicable conference, according to 
the commission, as thinking it more likely to contribute 
to dispatch, and to the answering the great end : whereas 
writing would be a tedious, endless business, and prevent 
that familiarity and acquaintance with each others minds, 
which might facilitate concord. But Bishop Sheldon ab- 
solutely insisted upon it, * that nothing should be done 
till all exceptions, alterations, and additions, were brought 
in at once.' And after some debate, it was agreed, ' that 
they should bring in all their exceptions at one time, and 
all their additions at another time.' During the course 
of the conference the bishop did not appear often, and 
engaged not in all the disputation, and yet was well 
known to have a principal hand in disposing of all such 

While he was Bishop of London he contributed largely 
to the repairs of Christ Church, Oxford, damaged as that 
college had been by the iniquities of the rebellion. He 
also had the chief direction of the province of Cantor 
bury, owing to the great age of Archbishop Juxon, whose 
successor he became in 1663. He expended large sums 
upon the episcopal houses of the See of London ; and 
being translated to that of Canterbury in 1663, he re- 
built the Library at Lambeth, and made additions to its 
contents. It was still more to his honour, that he 
remained at Lambeth during the plague of London, and 
exerted himself, both by his own liberal contributions, 
and by promoting collections throughout his province, for 
the relief of the afflicted. On the removal of Lord 
Clarendon from the chancellorship of the University of 
Oxford, he was chosen to succeed him in December 
1667 ; and he immortalized his bounty to that university 
by the erection, at his sole expence, of the celebrated 
theatre at Oxford which bears his name : " Munus (says 



Dr. Lowth in an elegant oration) dignum auctore — quod 
cum intueor et circumspicio, videor mihi in ipsa Roma 
vel in mediis Athenis, antiquis illis, et cum maxime 
florentibus, versari," This edifice was opened in July, 
1669, soon after whicli he resigned his chancellorship, and 
retired from public business. He had before honourably 
lost the king's confidence by importuning him to part 
with his mistress, Barbara Villiers. During the latter 
part of his life he chiefly resided at Croydon. He died 
at Lambeth, on November 9th, 1677, in the 80th year 
of his age. 

Besides his learning and piety he is particularly dis- 
tinguished by his munificent benefactions. We are 
assured by his relations, that from the time of his 
being Bishop of London to that of his death, it appeared 
in his book of accompts, that upon public, pious, and 
charitable uses he had bestowed about £66,000. Another 
author has the following paragraph. 

Dr. Sheldon, while Bishop of London, (not to enu- 
merate particulars) gave for the augmentation of vicarages 
belonging to his see the sum of one hundred and forty 
pounds a year, for which he abated in his fines to the 
value of £1680. When advanced to the See of Canter- 
bury, he augmented the vicarages of Whitestable in 
Kent, and disposed to public pious uses, in acts of 
munificence and charity (in his life, or by his last will 
and testament) the sum of £72,000, as attested by his 
treasurer, Ralph Snow, Esq., to whom his grace left a 
generous legacy under this distinguishing style, " to my 
old and faithful servant." 

Elsewhere it is said, after the civil wars, there were 
several bishops who gave their helping hands to the 
repairing and enlarging of Trinity College in Oxford, 
especially Archbishop Sheldon. 

His works of piety and charity are enumerated 
as follows by the pen of the learned Mr. Henry 
Wharton :— 


To my Lord Peter, for the purchase £. s. d. 
of London House 5200 

Abated in his fines for the augmen- 
tation of Vicarages 1680 

In the repair of St. Paul's before 

the fire 2169 17 10 

Repairs of his houses at Fulham, 

Lambeth, and Croydon 4500 

To All Souls Chapel, Trinity College 
Chapel, Christ Church, Oxford, 
and Lichfield Cathedral ... ... 450 

Charge of the Theatre at Oxford ... 14470 11 11 

To the University, to buy land to 

keep it in perpetual repair 2000 

When he was made bishop, the 
leases being all expired, he abated 
in his fines, (I suppose the above- 
mentioned article of £1680 is 
included in this) 17733 

In his will I find the following particulars : — 

*'My body I desire may be decently buried, but very 
privately and speedily, that my funeral may not waste 
much of what I leave behind for better uses. 

"I give to good, pious, and charitable uses, £1500 to 
be disposed of as I shall direct either by writing or by 
word of mouth ; or for want of such directions, as my 
executors and overseers shall think fit. 

" To my successors some books mentioned in a 

" All the plate, furniture and books in the Chapel at 
Lambeth to my succesors in order. 

" Whereas I formerly subscribed £2000 to the repair 
of St. Paid's, my executors to discharge whatever shall 
remain unpaid at my decease. 
" Published Feb. 5, 1672." 


Sheldon's only publication is, A Sermon preached 
before the king at Whitehall, upon June 8, 1660, being 
the day of solemn Thanksgiving for the happy return 
of his majesty, on Psalm xviii. 49, London, 1660, 4to. — 
Le Neve. Wood. 


This distinguished prelate, son of the succeeding, was 
born in London in the year 1678. He was educated 
at Eton, where he was distinguished as a scholar, and 
not less for his love of athletic exercises, especially of 
bathing. From Eton he went to Catharine Hall, Cam- 
bridge, where he obtained a fellowship. Upon the re- 
signation of his father, in 1704, he was made master of 
the Temple, and, notwithstanding his youth, soon ob- 
tained the respect of the members of that society, where 
his preaching was blessed for many years with eminent 
success. His sermons are, for calm and steady reason- 
ing, as well as forcible expression, among the first com- 
joositions we possess in that department of literature. 
He took his degree of D.D. in 1707, in which year he 
married. In 1714, he was elected master of Catharine 
Hall, and in 1716, was promoted to the Deanery of 

Except three sermons, preached on public occasions, 
he did not come forth as an author until the famous 
controversy, known as the "Bangorian;" and he was 
unquestionably by far the most powerful antagonist 
against whom Bishop Hoadley had to contend. He 
published a great many pamphlets on the subject, the 
chief of which is entitled, " A Vindication of the Cor- 
poration and Test Acts, in answer to the Bishop of 
Bangor's reasons for a Repeal of them, 1718." To 
this the bishop lost no time in replying, yet while he 
vehemently opposed the principles laid down in the 


tract, he bore the most unequivocal testimony to the 
abilities of the author. It has been said that Bishop 
Sherlock afterwards regretted the strong line of conduct 
he had taken with respect to this controversy, and re- 
pented of the language he had employed. Nothing, 
however, can be further from the truth ; so far from 
changing his opinion on the subject, he wrote some 
additional treatises, which he had always wished to pub- 
lish. His views appear to have remained unchanged : 
*' I have been assured," says Bishop Newton, whose 
opinion on the point must be decisive, *' by the best 
authority — by those who lived with him most, and knew 
him best — that this intimation is absolutely false." 

The period at which Bishop) Sherlock lived was re- 
markable for the low state of religious feeling, both 
within and without the pale of the established Church. 
The age of fanaticism had passed by, and had been 
followed by one in which the great fundamental doc- 
trines of Christianity were thrown into the shade. The 
fact has been attempted to be denied ; but to no purpose. 
The published religious works of the day afford proof 
positive that this statement is true ; and the testimony 
of those who mourned over what they could not alter, 
places the matter beyond all dispute. A race of un- 
principled men sprung up, desirous wholly to undermine 
the Christian faith, and on its ruins to erect a wretched 
system of deism, utterly subversive of every moral 
principle, loosing man from all moral restraints, and 
allowing him to lead, without dread of a judgment, a life 
of unbounded sensuality, with the flattering promise, 
"death is an eternal sleep." " All who had objections 
of their own to offer, or who might hope to serve their 
cause by reviving the calumnies of others, were at perfect 
liberty to produce them. Accordingly the authenticity 
of the Bible, more especially of Christianity, was assailed 
at all points by a host of free-thinkers and sophistical 
reasoners, with a versatility of skill unknown to its 
M M 3 


ancient adversaries, and a zeal as indefatigable in its 
exertions as it was bold and ingenious in its contri- 
vances. History, philosophy, literature, and romance, 
wit, satire, ridicule, reproach, and even falsehood, were 
all leagued in this conspiracy, and furnished, in their 
turn, arms for prosecuting this unnatural rebellion 
against light and truth," Although Lord Shaftesbury, 
even where he sets up ridicule as the test and criterion 
of truth, expresses his strong and decided disapprobation 
of scurrilous buffoonery, gross raillery and an illiberal 
kind of wit, and that what is contrary to good breeding 
is in this repect as contrary to liberty. 

Anthony Collins published, though as was his custom 
without his name, his " Discourse of the Grounds and 
Reasons of the Christian Religion," a book which made 
a great noise ; for " the turn given to the controversy,' 
says Dr. Leland, " had something in it that seemed 
new, and was managed with great art ; and yet, when 
closely examined, it appears to be weak and trifling." 
In enumerating the many admirable and convincing 
replies to this work, a most powerful treatise issued from 
the pen of Dr. Chandler, Bishop of Lichfield and Coven- 
try. Dr. Leland says, " it may be proper also to men- 
tion a book which was occasioned by ' the Grounds,' &c., 
though not directly in answer to it, entitled, ' The use 
and Intent of Prophecy in the several ages of the 
Church,' by Dr. Thomas Sherlock,' &c. &c. This is 
an excellent performance ; in which a regular series of 
prophecy is deduced through the several ages from the 
beginning, and its great usefulness shown. The various 
degrees of light are distinctly marked out, which were 
successively communicated in such a manner as to 
answer the great ends of religion and the designs of 
Providence, till those great events to which they were 
intended to be subservient should receive their accom- 
plishment. Dr. Sherlock greatly distinguished himself 
by this publication, which, if possible, proved more fully 


the strength of his mental powers, and the depth and 
extent of his varied acquirements, Collins's opinions 
were that man is a mere machine.; that the soul is 
material and mortal ; that Christ and his apostles built 
on the predictions of fortune-tellers, and divines; that 
the Prophets were mere fortune-tellers and discoverers 
of lost goods ; that Christianity stands wholly on a false 
foundation. Yet he speaks respectfully of Christianity, 
and also of the Epicureans, whom he at the same time 
regards as Atheists. 

Woolston now appeared as the champion of infidelity. 
His object was to allegorize away the miracles of our 
Lord, as Collins had attempted to act with respect to 
the prophecies. But his conduct was flagrant in the 
extreme. He is styled by JMosheim " a man of an in- 
auspicious genius, who made the most audacious though 
senseless attempts to invalidate the miracles of Christ." 
" Many glaring instances of unfairness and disingenuity 
in his quotations from the fathers were plainly proved 
upon him. It was shown that he had quoted books 
generally allowed to be spurious as the genuine works 
of the fathers ; and hath, by false taanslations and 
injurious interpolations, and foisting in of words, done 
all that was in his power to pervert the true sense 
of the authors he quotes ; and that sometimes he inter- 
prets them in a manner directly contrary to their own 
declared sense, in the very passages he appeals to, as 
would have appeared if he had fairly produced the whole 
passage. It is not to be wondered at, that an author 
who was capable of such a conduct should stick at no 
methods to expose and misrepresent the accounts given 
by the evangelists of our Saviours miracles. Under 
pretence of showing the absurdity of the literal and 
liistorical sense of the facts recorded in the Gospels, 
he hath given himself an unrestrained license in invec- 
tive and abuse. The books of the Evangelists, and the 
facts there related, he hath treated in a strain of low 


and coarse buffoonery, and with an insolence and scur- 
rility that is hardly to be paralleled." 

Dr. Sherlock took up the cause of truth with great 
talent and decision. He clearly perceived the knavery 
as well as weakness of his antagonist ; and he published 
his well known small treatise^ " The Trial of the Wit- 
nesses of the Resurrection of Jesus, 1729 ;" a work 
which has gone through a very large number of editions, 
and which Leland describes as being "universally 
admired for the polite and uncommon turn, as well 
as the judicious manner of treating the subject." 

In 1728, he was promoted to the See of Bangor, in 
which he succeeded his antagonist Bishop Hoadley ; as 
he did, in 1738, in that of Salisbury. As his intimacy 
with the members of the legal profession, while master of 
the Temple, had given him a propensity to study the 
law, and he had naturally a turn to business, he was not 
a silent occupier of a seat in the house of lords, but 
occasionally joined in debates, as a supporter of the 
interests of the Crown and Church, in which he delivered 
himself with force and elegance. He opposed the bill 
brought in 17B1 from the house of commons, respecting 
members being pensioners,* regarding it as tending to 
diminish the influence of the crown in that house, and 
thereby to disturb the balance of the constitution. He 
not only spoke, but by his influence excited an opposition 
out of doors, against an attempt to settle an unvaried 
and certain stipend on the clergy in lieu of tithes. He 
was considered in parliament as a great authority in 
ecclesiastical law, and frequently led the judgment of the 
house. Such was the reputation he acquired in the epis- 
copal character, that upon the death of Archbishop 
Potter in 1747, he was offered the See of Canterbury, 
which he declined on account of ill health ; but after- 
wards recovering, he accepted the See of London, vacant 
in 1749. 

In the month of February, 1750, a violent shock of an 


earthquake, which had been, as it were, announced by 
some remarkable coruscations of aurora borealis, with 
tremendous tempests of thunder, lightning, hail and 
rain, greatly terrified the inhabitants of the metropolis : 
and this terror was redoubled by a similar phenomenon, 
on the very same day of the following month, between 
five and six in the morning. The shock was immediately 
preceded by a succession of thick low flashes of lightning, 
and a rumbling noise like that of a heavy carriage rolling 
over a hollow pavement : its vibrations shook every house 
from top to bottom, and in many places the church-bells 
were heard to strike ; people started naked from their 
beds, and ran to their doors and windows in a state of 
distraction ; yet no house was overthrown and no life was 
lost. However, the periodical recurrence of the shocks, 
and the superior violence of the second, made a deep im- 
pression on the minds of the more ignorant and super- 
stitious part of the community ; who began to fear lest 
another such visitation should be attended with more 
dismal consequences. These sentiments of terror and 
dismay soon spread, and were augmented to an extraor- 
dinary degree by a fanatical soldier, who went about the 
streets preaching up repentance, and boldly prophesying 
that another shock in the same day in April w^ould lay 
the mighty Babylon in ruins. ' Considering the infec- 
tious nature of fear and superstition,' says the historian, 
and the emphatic manner in which the imagination had 
been prepared and preposssssed, it was no wonder that 
the prediction of this illiterate enthusiast should have 
contributed in a great measure to augment the general 
terror. The churches were crowded with penitent sin- 
ners ; the sons of riot and profligacy were overawed into 
sobriety and decorum. The streets no longer resounded 
with execrations or the noise of brutal licentiousness ; 
and the hand of charity was liberally opened. Those 
whom fortune had enabled to retire from the devoted city, 
fled to the country with hurry and precipitation ; inso- 


much that the highways were encumbered with horses 
and carriages. Many who had in the beginning com- 
bated these groundless fears with the weapons of reason 
and ridicule, began insensibly to imbibe the contagion, 
and felt their hearts fail in proportion as the hour of pro- 
bation approached : even science and philosophy were not 
proof against the unaccountable effects of this communi- 
cation : in after ages it will hardly be believed that on 
the evening of the 8th day of April, the open fields that 
skirt the metropolis were filled with an incredible num- 
ber of people assembled in chairs, in chaises, and 
coaches, as well as on foot, who waited in the most fear- 
ful suspense, until morning and the return of day 
disproved the truth of the dreaded prophecy. Then 
their fears vanished; they returned to their respective 
habitations in a transport of joy ; were soon reconciled to 
their abandoned vices, which they seemed to resume with 
redoubled affection; and once more bade defiance to the 
vengeance of Heaven. 

The Bishop of London took advantage of the peculiar 
state of feeling into which the public mind had been 
forced by these extraordinary events, to address a " Pas- 
toral Letter to the Clergy and Inhabitants of London 
and Westminster, on occasion of the late Earthquakes." 
This was bougbt up and read with such avidity by all 
ranks of people, that more than 100,000 copies were sold 
within a month. A tract also which he composed on the 
observance of Good Friday is said to have had great 
effect, in a moral and religious point of view. Nor would 
it be right if we omitted to mention his admirable 
Charge, the only one he published, which he printed and 
distributed among his clergy in 1759, and in which a 
profound knowledge of the law, both of Church and 
State, is applied with paternal affection to their use and 

He still held his ofiice in the Temple till 1753, when 
he resigned it in an Affectionate Letter to the Benchers. 


Infirmities soon after accumulated upon him ; he nearly- 
lost the use of his limbs and speech, but still retained 
vigour of understanding sufficient for the revision and 
correction of a volume of sermons, which was follow^ed 
by four volumes more. He died on the 18th day of 
July, 1761. — Hughes. Church of England Magazine. 
Hartwell Homes Introduction. Nichols's Funeral 


William Sheelock was born in the year 1641, at South- 
wark, and was educated first at Eton and then at Peter 
House, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1660. In 
1669, he became Rector of St. George's, Botolph-lane, 

In this parish he discharged the duties of his function 
with great zeal, and was esteemed an excellent preacher. 
In 1673, he pubhshed "A Discourse concerning the 
knowledge of Christ, and our union and communion 
with Him," which involved him in a controversy with 
the celebrated nonconformist Dr. John Owen, and with 
Mr. Vincent Alsop. In 1680, he took the degree of D.D., 
and about the same time published some pieces against 
llie Nonconformists. Soon after he was collated to a 
Prebend of St. Paul's, was appointed master of the 
Temple, and had the Rectory of Therfield in Hertford- 
shire. In 1684, he published a pamphlet, entitled " The 
case of Resistance to the Supreme Powers stated and 
resolved, according to the doctrine of the Holy Scrip- 
tures ;" and continued to preach the same opinion after 
the accession of James 11. when it was put to the test. 
He engaged also in the controversy with the Papists, 
which shows that he was not a servile adherent to the 
king, but conscientious in his notions of regal power. 
This likewise he shewed at the revolution, when he 


refused to take the oaths to WilUara and Mary, and was 
therefore suspended from all his preferments. During his 
suspension, he published his celebrated treatise, entitled 
" A practical Discourse on Death," 1690, which has 
passed through at least forty editions, and is indeed the 
only one of his works now read. But before the ex- 
piration of that year, he thought proper to comply with 
the new government, and taking the oaths, was rein- 
stated in all his preferments, of which, though forfeited, 
he had not been deprived. 

His conduct on this occasion, involved him in a con- 
troversy of a personal nature, of which the best account 
that we have seen is that given by Mr. Lathbui-y, in 
his interesting History of Convocation. Having alluded 
to the publication of Bishop Overall's Convocation Book 
by Archbishop Sancroft, he remarks, that it produced a 
remarkable effect. 

" Dr. Sherlock, who hesitated to take the oaths to the 
new government, professed that his scruples were 
removed by this book. The case was this : the Nether- 
lands had revolted from the Spaniards, and in allusion to 
their case, the convocation, though on all other points 
they carried the royal perogative very high, decided, that 
a government when fully settled, though commenced in 
rebellion, was lawful, and that submission might be 
yielded to it. It is clear that Sancroft had not consider^ 
the passage in question. Sherlock, however, took the 
oaths on the ground that the Anglican Church recognised 
a government de facto. He also endeavoured to induce 
others to take the same views, by quoting Overall's book. 
Thus Sancroft printed the book for one purpose ; and 
in Sherlock's case it answered another. In all proba- 
bility Sherlock had begun to repent of his refusal to 
comply with the new order of things. In my opinion he 
was looking about for a reason to enable him, with some 
colour of justice, to retrace his steps, and he found it in 
this Convocation Book. This appears to have been the 


most remarkable result produced by its publication. 
Sherlock was actually suspended before he discovered the 
lawfulness of taking the oaths. He then published his 
' Case of Allegiance due to Sovereign Powers,' &c. in which 
he says, ' That he had some of the thoughts before ; ' 
but he says further, ' Stick I did, and could find no help 
for it, and there I should have stuck to this day, had I 
not been relieved by Bishop Overall's Convocation Book.' 
This work was severely attacked by several individuals. 
There soon appeared ' A Review of Dr. Sherlock's Case of 
Allegiance,' &c., supposed to have been written by Wag- 
staffe. Sherlock published ' A Vindication of the Case of 
Allegiance,' which was replied to by Wagstaffe in ' An 
Answer to Dr. Sherlock's Vindication.' The author of 
' The Review,' in allusion to Overall's book, says, ' It is a 
shrewd sign the doctor was hard put to it, when he caught 
hold of a twig; yet nothing will serve him, but it must' 
be the judgment of the Church of England.'" 

" But the weapons of ridicule and satire were also 
used against Sherlock on this occasion. A bitter pamph- 
let was published under this title : ' The Trimming 
Court Divine, or Reflections on Dr. Sherlock's Book on 
the Lawfulness of Swearing Allegiance to the present 
Government.' The author observes, ' They were wicked, 
according to him, who contributed to drive out King 
James ; and yet they are no less wicked who shall in the 
least contribute to bring him in again.' Again : ' His 
scheme of government is calculated for every meridian, 
nor can anything happen amiss to him, provided there be 
but an actual possessor of the supreme power, which 'tis 
impossible there should want.' In allusion to the Convo- 
cation Book, he says — ' That book set him most blessedly 
at liberty ; a pretty fetch to hale in the Church of Eng- 
land to abet his untoward principles.' But a satirical 
poem was also published with the title, ♦ The Weesils, a 
satyrical Fable, giving an Account of some Argu mental 
Passages happening in the Lion's Court about Weesilion's 



taking the Oaths;' 4to, 1691. The doctor's wife is 
represented as arguing the point. Thus the argument 
of the first section explains its character : — 

Husband and Avife at variance are 

About the oaths, till female art 
Informs his conscience he must swear, 

And brings him over to her part. 

" The doctor is represented as arguing against the 
oaths on the ground of character. She alludes to some 
of his writings, which, she says, favour her view. He 
replies — 

Opinions variously the wise endite : 
Ne'er build too much on what I write ; 
Thou art my own, and I may boldly say, 
My pen can travel this and t'other way. 

" The wife at last says, the doctor having exhorted her 
to depend on Providence — 

But the meantime I want my coach and six, 
The neighbouring wives already slight me too, 
Justle to the wall, and take the upper pew. 

" It is scarcely necessary to add, that the doctor yields 
to the entreaties of his wife, and takes the oaths to King 
William and Queen Mary. Tom Brown is supposed to 
have been the author of this pungent satire." 

With respect to the alleged inconsistency of Sherlock, 
Mr. Lathbury in another work, the History of the Non- 
jurors, justly observes, " Sherlock was not the only 
inconsistent man of that period. Burnet and Tillotson, 
in the time of Charles II. held the same opinions. 
They opposed Popery : but they maintained that oppo- 
sition to the prince could not be justified : and that 
the authority was in his person, not in the law. Had 
Sherlock complied at the Revolution without scruple, he 
would have been in the same situation with Burnet, 
Stillingfleet and Tillotson, all of whom had written in 
defence of the doctrine at which he stumbled. They 


Complied at first ; while he hesitated, yet yielded after- 
wards. His two works, " Obedience and Submission 
to the present government, &c.," and the " Case of 
Allegiance," were attacked by several of the Nonjurors. 
One of the keenest answers was written, I believe, by 
Wagstaffe. It is attributed to Ken in the Biographia 
Britannica ; but this is clearly a mistake ; and in a copy 
now in my possession, which was once the property of 
a Nonjuror, a contemporary of Sherlock's, it is assigned 
to Wagstaffe. Sherlock replied in " A Vindication of 
the Case of Allegiance ;" but nothing could relieve him 
from the charge of fickleness and inconsistency. Sher- 
lock had told the Bishop of Killmore, that " he would 
be sacrificed before he took the new oath of allegiance." 
This is stated by Hickes, w^ho very justly remarks, " if 
those, who took that oath would but remember their own 
case, they would have more compassion for those who 
could not take it at all. There were, however, some who 
stepped forward in Sherlock's defence. One writer in 
particular asserts, that some would have complied but 
for the schemes of some of the leaders in the opposition 
to King William. He lauds the government for its 
leniency. " They were very zealous to have got the act 
for taking the oaths to their majesties limited to 
a very short time, that men, having but a little time to 
bethink them, might more generally have refused them, 
as they did in Scotland : but the six months that was 
allowed (much against their wills) was so well employed, 
that the number of the Non-swearers was very small in 
comparison; and if these very men had not made it 
their business to traduce all that took the oath as 
apostates, time servers, and perjured men, perhaps it 
would have been much less than it was." Alluding 
to those who complied, he says : " Every man that 
taketh the oath raiseth a new clamour : so that it is 
apparent to all the world, some men fear nothing 
more, than that there should be no non-swearers.'' 


Sherlock stated, in his Preface, that he had renounced 
no principle, except one in " The Case of Resistance ;" 
but he forgot, that that one was the hinge on which 
all turned. 

The truth is that they found that, what appeared to 
them in theory correct, could not be maintained without 
leading to consequences the most dangerous, and very 
properly they reconsidered their principles, and found 
that though their principles were right in the main, 
they admitted of exceptional cases. 

Dr. Sherlock was promoted to the Deanery of St. Paul's 
in 1691, a year also memorable for the publication of 
his Vindication of the Doctrine of the Holy and ever 
Blessed Trinity. "In this elaborate work," says Bishop 
Van Mildert, " he proposed a new mode of explaining 
that ' great mystery ; ' by an hypothesis, which (as he 
conceived) ' gave a very easy and intelligible notion of a 
Trinity in Unity,' and removed the charge of contradic- 
tions. His mode, however, of doing this was much dis- 
approved, not only by Socinian writers, but by men who 
were no less sincere advocates of the doctrine than him- 
self. Dr. Wallis, Savilian professor of geometry, one of 
the most profound scholars of his time, though he 
approved of much of Dr. Sherlock's treatise, yet regarded 
some of his illustrations as approaching too nearly to 
Triiheism. Dr. South, a man of no less powerful intel- 
lect, opposed it, upon similar grounds, with great vehe- 
mence, and with unsparing reproach. Both those dis- 
tinguished writers substituted, however, for Dr. Sherlock's 
hypothesis, theories of their own, far from being gener- 
ally satisfactory ; and were charged by the opposite party 
with leaning towards Sahellianism. In the University of 
Oxford, Sherlock's view of the doctrine was pablicly cen- 
sured and prohibited. This produced further irritation ; 
and such was the unbecoming heat and acrimony with 
which the controversy was conducted, that the Royal 
Authority was at last exercised, in restraining each party 


from introducing novel opinions respecting these myste- 
rious articles of faith, and requiring them to adhere to 
such explications only, as had already received the sanc- 
tion of the Church." 

" These unhappy disputes were eagerly caught at by 
Anti-Trinitarians of every description, as topics of invec- 
tive or of ridicule ; and the press teemed with offensive 
productions of various description, calculated to agitate 
the minds of the people, and to bring the doctrines of 
the Church into disrepute. The advocates of the estab- 
lished creed were represented as being now divided into 
two distinct and irreconcileable parties, the Tritheists and 
the Nominalists, or (as they were sometimes called) the 
real and the nominal Trinitarians ; the former intended 
to denote those who maintained Sherlock's hypothesis ; the 
latter, those who espoused the theories of South and 
Wallis. These terms of reproach were readily adopted 
by Socinian writers, whose policy it was to represent all 
Trinitarians as implicated in the errors either of Trithe- 
ism or Sabellianism, and to deny that any intermediate 
theory of Trinitarian doctrine could consistently be 

At length the contest was carried on with so much 
acrimony, that his majesty, on the suggestion of the 
bishops, interposed with a prohibition of the use of 
new terms in the explication of the doctrine of the 
Trinity. Another deviation of this divine from the 
sentiments which he had professed at an early period, 
appeared in a sermon which he preached on the 
Death of Queen Mary, expressing an approbation of 
a scheme then entertained of comprehension with the 

He died in 1707. He wrote : — A Discourse con- 
cerning the Knowledge of Christ; The Case of Resis- 
tance to the Supreme Powers ; A Practical Discourse 
concerning Death ; Discourse on Religious Assemblies ; 
Discourse on Providence; On the Happiness of Good 
3 N N 


Men, and Punishment of the Wicked, in another World ; 
and, A Discourse on Judgment. — Birch. Nichols. Van 
Mildert's Waterland. Lathbury. 


The time and place of Shuckford's birth are not known, 
but he was educated at Caius College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated in 1716. He became Rector of Shelton, in 
Norfolk, from which place the preface to his learned work 
on the " Connection between Sacred and Profane His- 
tory " is dated. He was a prebendary of Canterbury, 
and held the living of All-Hallows, Lombard-street, in 

He died in 1754. He published a few occasional 
sermons ; but he is principally known for his History of 
the World, Sacred and Profane, 3 vols. 8vo, intended to 
serve as an introduction to Prideaux's Connection, but he 
did not live to carry it down to the year 747 b.c. where 
Prideaux begins. He wrote also a Treatise on the 
Creation and Fall of Man, intended as a supplement 
to the preface to his history. 

Jt was the intention of Dr. Shuckford in his well- 
known work in his " Connection " to bring down the nar- 
rative of Sacred History from the creation of the world 
to the epoch at which Prideaux begins his valuable per- 
formance. But he did not live to complete his plan, and 
the work which thould have extended to the reign of 
Ahaz proceeds no further than to the times of Joshua, 
leaving about eight hundred years of a very important 
period to the pen of another. That pen was taken up, 
and Shuckfords plan was completed by the late Dr. 
Russell the Bishop of Glasgow, who acquired and de- 
served for his learning and virtues the respect of his 
contemporaries. — Evan. Brit. FaisselVs Connection. 

SIMEON. 415 


John Shower was born at Exeter in 1657. In 1679, he 
became assistant to Vincent Alsop, in Westminster ; but 
in 1685, he went abroad as tutor to a young gentleman, 
and after visiting Italy, remained two years in Holland, 
where he officiated to an English congregation at Eotter- 
dam. In 1690 he returned, and became assistant to Mr. 
John Howe ; but afterwards he discharged the pastoral 
office at a meeting in the Old Jewry. He died in 1715. 
His works are: — " Eeflections on Time and Eternity;" 
" Eeflections on the late Earthquakes ; " " Family 
Eeligion ; " " Life of Henry Gearing ; " " The Mourner's 
Companion." — Watkin's Gen. Biog. Diet, 


EicHARD SiBBEs was bom at Sudbury, in Suffolk, in 
1577, and educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, 
where he obtained a fellowship. He became such a 
popular preacher at Cambridge, that the society of Gray's 
Inn invited him to be their lecturer. In 1625 he was 
chosen master of Catherine hall : having refused the 
provostship of Trinity College, Dublin. Dr. Sibbes died 
in 1635. His treatise entitled, The Bruised Reed, is said 
to have been the main cause of Eichard Baxter's conver- 
sion. He also wrote a Commentary on the first Chapter 
of the second Epistle of St. Paul to the Corinthians. 
His works have been reprinted, in 3 vols. 8vo. — Gen. 
Biog. Diet. 


Simeon Stylites was born about 392, at Sison, a border- 
town, which lies between Syria and Cilicia. He was the 

416 SIMEON. 

son of a shepherd, and followed the same occupation to 
the age of thirteen, when he entered into a monastery. 
After some time he left it, in order to devote himself to 
a life of greater solitude and austerity, and he took up 
his abode on the tops of mountains, or in caverns of 
rocks, fasting sometimes for weeks together, till he had 
worked himself up to a due degree of enthusiastic extra- 
vagance. He then, as it is said, to avoid the concourse 
of devotees, but probably to excite still greater admira- 
tion, adopted the strange fancy of fixing his habitation 
on the tops of pillars (whence his Greek appellation); 
and with the notion of climbing higher and higher 
towards heaven, he successfully migrated from a pillar 
of six cubits, to one of twelve, twenty-two, thirty-six, 
and forty. The age was stupid enough to consider 
this as a proof of extraordinary sanctity, and multitudes 
flocked from all parts to pay their veneration to the holy 
man. What is truly wonderful, Simeon passed forty- 
seven years upon his pillars, exposed to all the incle- 
mency of the seasons. At length an ulcer, swarming 
with maggots, put an end to his wretched life at the 
age of sixty-nine. 

Many of the inhabitants of Syria and Palestine, 
seduced by a false ambition, and an utter ignorance of 
true religion, followed the example of this fanatic, though 
not with the same degree of austerity. And what is 
almost incredible, this superstitious practice continued^in 
vogue until the twelfth century, when, however, it was at 
length totally suppressed. 

The Latins had too much wisdom and prudence to 
imitate the Syrians and Orientals in this whimsical 
superstition. And when a certain fanatic, or impostor, 
named Wulfilaicus, erected one of those pillars in the 
country of Treves, and proposed living upon it after the 
manner of Simeon ; the neighbouring bishops ordered it to 
be pulled down, and thus nipped this species of super- 
stition in the bud. — Mosheim. 



JosiAS SiMLER was bom at Cappell, in Switzerland, in 
1530. He was educated at Zurich, where, in 1563, he 
became professor of theology. 

He died in 1 576. Besides commentaries on the Scrip- 
tures, he wrote the lives of Peter Martyr, Gesner, and 
BuUinger, each in a thin 4to. volume ; published an 
Epitome of Gesner's Bibliotheca, 1555, folio; and he 
was editor of some of the works of Peter Martyr and 
Bullinger ; ^thici Cosmographia, Antonini Itinerarium, 
Eutiliani Numantiani Itinerarium, et alia varia ; Helve- 
tiorum Respublica ; Vallesiae Descriptionis libri duo, 
et de Alpibus commentarius ; Vocabularia rei nummarias 
ponderum et mensurarum, Gr., Lat., Heb., Arab., ex 
diversis auctoribus collecta. — De Thou. Baillet. 


Edward Simpson was born at Tottenham, in 1573, and 
was educated at Westminster, whence he proceeded to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated in 1600. 
In 1618, he was presented to the Ptectory of Eastling, 
in Kent. He then took his degree of D.D., and was 
made prebendary of Coringham. In 1636, he published 
at Cambridge his Mosaica ; Sive Chronici Historiam 
Catholicam complectentis Pars Prima, in qua res anti- 
quissimas ab Orbe condito ad Mosis obitum Chronologice 
digestse continentur, 4to. Afterwards he undertook his 
Chronicon Catholicum ab exordio Mundi, but did not 
live to publish it. He died in 1651. His Chronicon, 
&c., was published at Oxford, in 1652, with a Latin life 
prefixed, and was reprinted by Peter Wesseling. Dr. 
Reynolds, afterwards Bishop of Norwich, in his license of 
it for the press, speaks of it as " egregium et absolutissi- 


mum opus, summa industria, omuigena eruditione, 
magno judicio, et multorum annorum vigiliis pro- 
ductum." His other works are : — Positive Divinity, iu 
three parts, containing an Exposition of the Creed, 
Lord's Prayer, and Decalogue ; The Knowledge of Christ, 
in two treatises ; A treatise concerning God's Providence 
in regard of Evil, or Sin ; The Doctrine of Regeneration, 
delivered in a Sermon on John iii. 6, and Defended in a 
Declaration ; Tracatus de Justificatione. Notse Selec- 
tiores in Horatium ; Praelectiones in Persii Satiras ; 
Anglicanse Linguae Vocabularium Etymologicum ; Sanctae 
Linguae Soboles ; Di Gentium, sive Nominum, quibus 
Deos suos Ethnici appellabant Explicatio. — Wesselmg, 


James Sirmond was born at Riom, in 1559, and became 
a Jesuit in 1576. In 1590, he was sent for to Rome by 
the general of his order, Aquaviva, to take upon him the 
office of his secretary, which he held for sixteen years. 
In 1617, he was appointed Rector of the Jesuits College, 
at Paris, and, in 1 637, he became confessor to Louis 
XIII. He died in 1651. 

The works, edited by Sirmond, were chiefly those of 
authors of the middle ages, the manuscripts of which he 
discovered in his searches among the libraries at Rome 
and in other places. Those of his own composition were 
in great part controversial, and in some of them he was 
the opponent of the most learned men in that age. His 
work entitled " Censura de Suburbicariis Regionibus," 
which related to the suburbicary churches under the 
jurisdiction of the Roman pontiff, impunged the opinions 
of Godefroy and Saumaise. He had a dispute with Peter 
x\urelius respecting the second canon of the Council of 
Orange, which was conducted with a degree of acrimony. 
A dissertation, which he wrote to prove that St. Denis 


the Areopagite was a different person from St. Denis 
of France, raised a host of adversaries against him, 
as touching upon a favourite national tradition ; but in 
the end all competent judges were convinced by his 
arguments. He was less successful in a controversy 
respecting predestination, by which he became involved 
in hostility with the Jansenists. It is said to have 
been a practice with him, never to bring out at first 
all that he knew of a subject, but to reserve some argu- 
ments for a reply, like auxiliary troops in a battle. 
Though upon the whole candid and sincere, he is 
charged with having sometimes advanced opinions as 
those of the French clergy, which were only those of 
his order. His works were published collectively at 
Paris, in 5 vols, folio, 1696. — JDupin. Moreri. 


Of this learned and pious but eccentric divine, a memoir 
has been published by Mr. Burdy, which, though coarse 
in language and sentiment, is often amusing. Skelton 
was born in the parish of Derriaghly, near Lisburn, in 
Ireland, in 1707, and educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he obtained a scholarship ; but he left the 
university on taking his first degree. In 1732, he settled 
on the curacy of Monaghan, in the diocese of Clogher, 
Here we are informed by his biographer, his life was 
most exemplary, and his preaching efficacious. It was 
said that the very children of Monaghan, whom he 
carefully instructed, knew more of religion at that time, 
than the grown people of any of the neighbouring 
parishes, and the manners of his flock were soon greatly 
improved, and vice and ignorance retreated before so 
powerful an opponent. His charities were extraordinary 
for all he derived from his curacy was £40, of which he 
gave £10 a year to his mother, and for some years a like 


sum to his tutor, Dr. Delany, to pay some debts he had 
contracted at college. The rest were for his maintenance 
and his charities, and when the pittance he could give 
was insufficient for the relief of the poor, he solicited the 
aid of people of fortune, who usually contributed accord- 
ing to his desire, and could not indeed refuse a man, 
who first gave his own before he would ask any of theirs. 
His visits to the jails were also attended with the happi- 
est effects. On one remarkable occasion, when a convict 
at Monaghan, of whose innocence, he was well assured 
was condemned to be hanged within five days, he set off 
for Dublin, and on his arrival was admitted to the privy 
council which then was sitting. Here he pleaded for 
the poor man with such eloquence, as to obtain his 
pardon, and returned with it to Monaghan, in time to 
save his life. In order to be of the more use to his 
poor parishioners, he studied physic, and was very 
successful in his gratuitous practice, as well as by his 
spiritual advice, and was the means of removing many 
prejudices and superstitions which he found very deeply 
rooted in their minds. 

Mr. Skelton set out in his ministry in the character 
of an avowed champion of the orthodox faith. Deriving 
his religious principles from the pure source of infor- 
mation, the Holy Scriptures themselves, he could find 
in these no real ground for modern refinements. Con- 
sequently he declared open war against all Arians, 
Socinians, &e, and published several anonymous pieces 
against them. In 1736, he published "A Vindication 
of the Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of Winchester," an 
ironical attack on Hoadley's " Plain Account of the 
nature and end of the Lord's Supper." When Bishop 
Sterne read it, he sent for Skelton, and asked if he had 
written it ? Skelton gave him an evasive answer. " Well, 
well," said the bishop, " 'tis a clever thing — you are a 
young man of no fortune ; take these ten guineas, you 
may w*nt them." " I took the money," Skelton told his 


biographer, " and said nothing, for I was then a poor 

He published the same year, " Some proposals for the 
Revival of Christianity," another piece of irony against 
the enemies of the Church, which was imputed to Swift, 
who, as usual, neither affirmed nor denied ; but only ob- 
served, that the author " had not continued the irony to 
the end." In 1737, he published a "Dissertation on 
the Constitution and Effects of a Petty Jury," In this, 
among other things, he seems to object to locking up a 
jury without food, until they agree upon their opinion. 
The attorney-general called at his bookseller's, who 
refused to give up the name of the author. "Well," 
said the attorney-general, " give my compliments to the 
author, and inform him from me, that I do not think 
there is virtue enough in the people of this country ever 
to put his scheme into practice." 

In 1748, Skelton having prepared for the press his 
valuable work, entitled " Deism Revealed," he conceived 
it too important to be published in Ireland, and therefore 
determined to go to London, and dispose of it there. 
On his arrival, he submitted his manuscript to Andrew 
Millar, the bookseller, to know if he would purchase it, 
and have it printed at his own expence. The bookseller 
desired him, as is usual, to leave it with him for a day 
or two, until he could get a certain gentleman of great 
abilities to examine it. Hume is said to have come in 
accidentally into the shop, and Millar shewed him the MS. 
Hume took it into a room adjoining the shop, examined 
it here and there for about an hour, and then said to 
Andrew, print. By this work Skelton made about £200. 
The bookseller allowed him for the manuscript a great 
many copies, which he disposed of among the citizens 
of London, with whom, on account of his preaching, he 
was a great favourite. He always spoke with high 
approbation of the kindness with which he was received 
by many eminent merchants. When in London he spent 



a great part of his time in going through the citj, pur- 
chasing books at a cheap rate, with the greater part of 
the money that he got by his " Deism Revealed," and 
formed a good library. 

" Deism Revealed " was published in two large volumes. 
It consists of eight dialogues ; in the first seven there 
are four, and in the eighth only two, speakers. At first 
three unbelievers attack one Christian, who at last makes 
a convert of one of them, a young gentleman of great 
fortune, but of good sense and candour. In these 
dialogues, the most of the infidel objections against the 
gospel are introduced with their whole force, and fully 
and candidly answered. So that the book is rather a 
complete answer to deistical cavils, than a regular proof 
of the divine authority of the gospel. But if their cavils 
are proved groundless, Christianity consequently is true. 

The title of " Deism Revealed " shows that it was 
intended to expose the craft of the infidels. In this 
book there is a great deal of good sense, sound argu- 
ment, and original observation. It proves the author 
deeply read, and well acquainted with the subject of 
which he treats. But it is defective in point of 
arrangement ; the matter is too loosely thrown together, 
and the arguments do not follow each other in regular 
order. This remark, however, only holds good with 
respect to particular places. The style is also some- 
what coarse ; words are uselessly multiplied, and argu- 
ments drawn out beyond their proper bounds. The 
author, in his attempts at wit, frequently fails ; he is 
merry himself, but the reader unhappily cannot join 
with him in the joke. True wit subsists where the 
writer is grave, and the reader merry. 

This book was in high repute on its first publica- 
tion. A second edition was required in little more 
than a year. Among others. Dr. Delany admired it, 
well pleased with the growing fame of his pupil, to 
whom he had proved himself so sincere a friend. 


And even now, there is scarce any man of reading in 
this country that has not at least heard of '* Deism 
Eevealed." A few months after its pubUcation, the 
Bishop of Clogher happened to be in company with 
Dr. Sherlock, Bishop of London; who asked him if he 
knew the author of this book ? " O yes," he answered 
carelessly, " he has been a curate in my diocese, near 
these twenty years." " More shame for your lordship," 
replied' he, "to let a man of his merit continue so 
long a curate in your diocese." 

The ingenious Bishop of London sent a message 
once to inform Mr. Skelton, that he would promote 
him in his diocese, if he would write a book upon 
Christian Morals. On which he desired the messenger 
to ask his lordship, what objection he had to the old 
" Whole Duty of Man ? " To this question he never 
received any answer. The old " Whole Duty of Man " 
was one of his favourite books. The style, he said, 
was admirably qualified for instruction, being so simple 
as to be easily understood by the most unlearned. 

In 1750, he obtained the living of Pettigo. In 1759, 
he was prefered to the living of Devenish, near Ennsi- 
killen ; whence he was removed, in 1766, to Fintona, 
in the county of Tyrone. In all of these situations 
his labours as a parish priest were exemplary, and he 
thoroughly understood and adapted himself to the Irish 
character. A curious anecdote is told of him on his 
going to Fintona. Having discovered that most of his 
protestant parishioners were dissenters, he invited their 
minister to dine with him, and asked his leave to 
preach in his meeting on the next Sunday; and con- 
sent being given, the people were so pleased with Mr. 
Skelton, that the greater number of them quitted their 
own teacher. After some time, Skelton asked him how 
much he had lost by the desertion of his hearers ? 
He told him £40 a year, on which he settled that sum 
on him annually. 


His charities were almost unbounded. To relieve the 
poor he distressed himself, and one of his last acts was 
to sell his beloved library, that he might have the means 
of assisting his parishioners during a dearth occasioned 
by the decline of the yarn manufactory, at Fintona. 

He had, in 1770, published his works by subscription, 
for the benefit of the Magdalen Charity in Dublin. He 
died May 4, 17 S7.— Life by Burdy. 


RicHAED Smalbroke was born at Birmingham in 1672, 
and was probably educated at King Edward's School in 
that town. He proceeded from school to Magdalen 
College, Oxford, where he took his M.A. degree in 1694. 
He engaged in the controversies of the time, and espe- 
cially as an opponent of Whiston. 

He published : — '* Reflections on Mr. Whiston 's Con- 
duct," and "Animadversions on the New Arian Re- 
proved." But his great work was "A Vindication of 
our Saviour's Miracles ; in which Mr. Woolston's Dis- 
courses on them are particularly examined ; his pretended 
authority of the fathers against the truth of the literal 
sense are set in a just light; and his objections, in 
point of reason, answered," Lond. 1729, 8vo. This 
involved him in a controversy with some anonymous 
writers, and in one or two respects he laid himself 
open to ridicule by an arithmetical calculation of the 
precise number of the devils which entered into the 
swine. Dr. Smalbroke also published eleven single 
Sermons between 1706 and 1732, and one or two 
" Charges," and small controversial pieces to the 
amount of twenty-two. 

He was chaplain to Archbishop Tenison, and was 
appointed in 1712, treasurer of Llandaff, and afterwards 
prebendary of Hereford. In 1723, he was consecrated 


Bishop of St. David's, whence he was translated to the 
See of Lichfield and Coventry, in 1730. He died in 
1749. — Gent. Mag. Shaw's Staffordshire. 


George Smaleidge was born at Lichfield, in 1663, and 
was educated at Westminster. In 1682, he became a 
Westminster student at Christ Church, Oxford, and was 
when M.A. distinguished as a tutor. While in this 
situation he took part in the controversy against Obadiah 
Walker, the Popish master of University College. His 
work is interesting especially at the present time (1851), 
as shewing that our present controversies had their 
counterpart in the seventeenth century. Smalridge's 
work was entitled "Animadversions on Eight Theses 
laid down, and inferences deduced from them, in a 
Discourse, entitled, Church Government, Part V., lately 
printed at Oxford." The Discourse here mentioned was 
printed by Obadiah Walker, at his private press, and 
has for its full title, " Church Government, Part V., a 
relation of the English Reformation, and the lawfulness 
thereof examined by the Theses delivered in the four 
former parts." As these former parts were never pub- 
lished. Walker, or rather the real author, Abraham 
Woodhead, was exposed to the indignant reprehension 
and severe ridicule of his opponents. Smalridge having 
mentioned the answer of Dr. Aldrich, gives the following 
reasons for his own undertaking: — "I should not," says 
he, " have thought myself obliged to answer the extra- 
vagant singularities of a private fancy, such especially 
as are not likely to do any mischief to the public, and 
such I esteem the notions of this pamphlet, which is too 
perplexed for a common reader's understanding, and too 
sophistical to impose upon the more intelligent. But 
considering the false and scandalous reports that are 
o 3 


of late so industriously spread about the nation, as 
if Oxford converts came in by whole shoals, and all 
the university were just ready to declare in favour 
of Popery, I have just reason to believe that this 
pamphlet was designedly printed at Oxford to counte- 
nance those reports, for no doubt the Popish presses were 
at the editor's service. The secret is, these papers are 
to pass, with unwary people, for a specimen of the 
university's government; much such an one indeed as 
the tile was, which Hierocles's scholars brought to mar- 
ket, for a sample of the house he had to sell. Now 
there are divers aggravations of this foul play, which 
make it yet more insupportable ; as where it is said, 
' Why is this question now revived, which the members 
of our Church have of late so carefully declined, out of 
pure respect to those ears, which, if it be possible, they 
are not willing to offend ? Or why are we of the univer- 
sity attacked in our own quarters, and so defied to own a 
truth, that we can neither in honour nor honesty decline 
an answer, though we are well aware with what design 
the scene of the controversy is laid in Oxford ? Or how 
can we brook this usage from our companions, our own 
familiar friends, with whom we have taken sweet 
counsel together, and walked in the House of God as 
friends ?' " This piece was published in May, and how 
exactly our author, whose tract followed it in June, has 
kept to the same lore, appears from his epistle addressed 
to the university reader, where he observes, ' that the 
hopes of our enemies abroad have been entertained, and 
the solicitude of our friends awakened, by the news of 
our Oxford converts daily flocking into the bosom of 
the Romish Church. But we hope all men are by this 
time convinced, that they deserve as little consideration 
for their number, as they do regard for their accom- 
plishments. No one needs to be alarmed at the deser- 
tion of six or seven members, who shall consider their 
dependance on one, who, by the magazines which he 


had stored up against us, shews that he has not now 
first changed his complexion, but only dropped the 

Smalridge also afforded a specimen of his talent for 
Latin poetry in his Auctio Davisiana (on the sale of 
the books of Davis, the Oxford bookseller), first printed 
in 3 689, 4to, and afterwards inserted in the Musse 
Anglicanse. In the same year he entered into holy 
orders ; and about 169j^, he was appointed by the Dean 
and Chapter of Westminster to be minister of Tothill- 
fields Chapel. 

In 1693, he was collated to a prebend in the Cathe- 
dral of Litchfield. In 1700, he took his degree of 
D.D. In ] 708, he was chosen lecturer of St. Dunstan's 
in the West, London, which he resigned in 1711, when 
he was made one of the canons of Christ Church, and 
succeeded Atterbury in the Deanery of Carlisle, as he 
did likewise in the Deanery of Christ Church, in 171 3. 
In 1714, he was consecrated Bishop of Bristol ; and 
Queen Anne soon after appointed him her lord-almoner, 
in which capacity he for some time served her successor 
George I. ; but refusing to sign the declaration which 
the Archbishop of Canterbury and the bishops in and 
about London had drawn up against the rebellion in 
1715, he was removed from that place. 

The passage in the Declaration to which he objected, 
was this, " We are the more concerned that both the 
clergy and people of our communion should shew them- 
selves hearty friends to the government, on this occasion, 
to vindicate the honour of the Church of England, 
because the chief hopes of our enemies seem to arise 
from discontents, artificially raised amongst us ; and 
because some who have valued themselves, and been too 
much valued by others for a pretended zeal, have joined 
with Papists in these wicked attempts, which as they 
must ruin the Church if they succeed, so they cannot 
well end without great reproach to it, if the rest do 

428 SMITH. 

not clearly and heartily declare our detestation of 
such practices." This, he thought was an unjust and 
invidious party-reflection upon some, whose loyalty was 

Bishop Smalridge, however, soon regained the favour 
of the Princess of Wales at least, afterwards Queen 
Caroline, who was his steady patron till his death, in 
1719. Besides his publications already mentioned, he 
wrote twelve Sermons, printed by himself in 1717, 8vo., 
and sixty Sermons published by his widow in 1726, fol., 
of which another edition appeared in 1727. — Biog. Brit. 


John Smith was born in Warwickshire in 1563, and 
going to Oxford in 1577, became a fellow of St. John's 
College. He succeeded Bishop Andrewes as lecturer in 
St. Paul's Cathedral, London, and was popular as a 
preacher. In 1592, he was presented to the living of 
Clavering, in Essex. He died in 1616. His works are : 
— " The Essex Dove presenting the world with a few of 
her Olive Branches, or a Taste of the Works of the Rev. 
John Smith, delivered in three treatises ; " and " An 
Exposition on the Creed and Explanation of the Articles 
of our Christian Faith," in seventy-three Sermons, 1682, 
folio. — Wood. 

smith, JOHN. 

John Smith was born in 1618, at Achurch, near Oundle, 
in Northamptonshire. He entered at Emmanuel Col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1636, and in 1644, was chosen fellow 
of Queen's. He died Aug. 7, 1652. 

Certain treatises by Smith were published by Dr. John 
Worthington at Cambridge, in 1660, 4to, under the 


title of " Select Discourses," consisting : — 1. Of the true 
Way or Method of attaining to Divine Knowledge ; 2. Of 
Superstition ; 3. Of Atheism ; 4. Of the Immortality of the 
Soul; 5. Of the Existence and Nature of God; 6. Of 
Prophesy ; 7. Of the Difference between the Legal and 
the Evangelical Righteousness, the old and new Covenant, 
&c. ; 8. Of the Shortness and Vanity of a Pharisaical 
Eighteousness ; 9. Of the Excellency and Nobleness of 
true Religion; 10. Of a Christian's conflict with, and 
conquests over, Satan. 

These are not sermons, but treatises ; and are less 
known than they deserve. They shew an uncommon 
reach of understanding and penetration, as well as an 
immense treasure of learning, in their author. A second 
edition of them, corrected, with the funeral sermon by 
Patrick annexed, was published at Cambridge, in 1673, 
4to. The discourse " Upon Prophecy," was translated 
into Latin by Le Clerc, and prefixed to his " Commen- 
tary on the Prophets," published in 1731. — Patrick's 
Sermon at his Funeral. 


Miles Smith was born at Hereford, and about 1568 
matriculated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, but 
graduated at Brasen-nose. He afterwards became one of 
the Chaplains of Christ Church, and as a member of that 
house took his B.D. degree. He was in due course 
preferred to the office of Residentiary in Hereford Cathe- 
dral, and in 1612 became Bishop of Gloucester. 

His knowledge of the Oriental languages was so 
extraordinary, that he was thought worthy by James I. to 
be employed upon the last translation of the Bible. He 
began with the first, and was the last man in the 
translation of ' the work : for after the task had been 
finished by the whole number appointed to the business, 


who were somewhat above forty, the version was revised 
and improved by twelve selected from them, and, at 
length, was referred to the final examination of Bilson, 
Bishop of Winchester, and Dr. Smith. When all was 
completed he was commanded to write a preface, which is 
the same that is now extant in our authorised version of 
the Bible. The original is said to be preserved in the 
Bodleian library. It was for his services in this transla- 
tion that he was appointed Bishop of Gloucester, and 
had leave to hold in commendam with his bishopric his 
former livings, namely, the Prebend of Hint on, in the 
Church of Hereford, the Rectories of Upton-on- Severn, 
Hartlebury in the diocese of Worcester, and the first 
portion of Ledbury, called Overhall. According to Willis 
he died October 20 ; but Wood says, in the beginning of 
November, 1624, and was buried in his own cathedral. 
He was a strict Calvinist, and of course no friend to the 
proceedings of Dr. Laud. In 1632, a volume of ser- 
mons, transcribed from his MSS., was published at 
London, fol. ; and he was the editor of Bishop Babing- 
ton's works, to which he prefixed a preface. — Wood, 


This person is notorious for being the second bishop 
appointed to preside over the Romish schism in Eng- 
land. He was born in Lincolnshire, in 1556, and was 
educated at Trinity College, Oxford. He afterwards 
went to Rome, and thence to Valladolid, where he took 
his doctor's degree. In 1603, he came to England as 
a Popish missionary. He sided with that party in the 
Romish sect which was opposed to the Jesuits, and espe- 
cially against Parsons, and when this party carried their 
point, and prevailed upon the Pope to give them a 
bishop, he was one of the persons recommended to 


the Pope. The Pope, however, chose a person named 
Bishop, who was also recommended by the English 
Papists, who was consecrated bj the title of Bishop of 

The first Bishop of Chalcedon did not live long to 
enjoy his elevation. After appointing a Dean with nine- 
teen Canons, five Vicars general, twenty Archdeacons, 
with a certain number of Rural deans, and striving what 
he could to promote peace and good order, he died 
April 16th, 1624, aged seventy-one. Early in the 
following year, February 4th, 1625, Dr. Richard Smith 
was appointed his successor, on the application of the 
chapter, with the same title and powers. What was 
the extent of these powers seemed ambiguous, but for 
some time all went on quietly, till at length disputes 
were raised on the subject by the regulars, including 
of course, those sleepless enemies of good order, the 
Jesuits. The state of the case was this: — The Bishop 
of Chalcedon was appointed over England and Scotland 
nominally with ordinary powers, (i. e. having authority 
of his own, and in himself, to govern his flock,) but as 
they were revocable at the pope's pleasure, the bishop 
had not in reality ordinary jurisdiction, but was in fact, 
only a Roman delegate. He however called himself 
Ordinary of England, and was received as such. This 
title Dr. Smith peaceably retained for two years, but 
it was at length called in question on the following 
grounds. By a bull of Pius V., and by the council 
of Trent, regulars were not allowed to hear the confes- 
sions of lay persons without the ordinary's approbation. 
For some time they requested the approbation of Dr. 
Smith, and were satisfied therewith. But at length, 
" having," says the author of the " Memoirs of Panzani," 
" more maturely weighed the case among themselves, 
they flew off, alleging that the pope, being the universal 
Ordinary of the whole Church, had sufficiently qualified 
them to hear any one's confession by express faculties 


granted for the mission; and for the future they were 
resolved, they said, not to seek the Bishop of Chalcedon's 
approbation." This led to a warm controversy, numer- 
ous books being written on both sides, and several 
learned men abroad taking a part in it. The pope, 
(Urban VIII,) at last, in 3 627, interposed his authority, 
and commanded silence to both parties ; he also ad- 
monished Dr. Smith to drop the title of Ordinary of 
England, which belonged not to the Bishop of Chalcedon, 
and " declared that the regulars, by virtue of their 
apostolic mission, were exempted from the canons that 
required episcopal approbation ; but that the Bishop of 
Chalcedon might claim a jurisdiction as to the three 
parochial sacraments." 

Not long after this, 1629, two proclamations one after 
the other were issued out against the bishop, which 
induced him at length to leave the kingdom. He with- 
drew in the course of the year to France, whence he 
exercised his jurisdiction over the English Romanists 
by vicars general and other ecclesiastical ofi&cers. In 
his retirement he experienced the kindness of Cardinal 
Kichlieu, who bestowed upon him the Abbey of Char- 
roux; but upon the death of his benefactor, in 1642, 
the succeeding minister of state, Mazarin, withdrew his 
protection, and even deprived him of his abbey. He 
afterwards retired to an apartment near the convent of 
some English nuns, in Paris, where he expired in 1655, 
aged eighty-eight, and with him the title of the Bishop 
of Chalcedon. — Dod. Memoir of Panzani. Darwell. 


Samuel Smith was born in the neighbourhood of Dudley, 
in Worcestershire, in 1588, and was educated at St. 
Mary Hall, Oxford. He left the university without 
taking a degree, and became beneficed at Prittlewell, in 


Essex, and afterwards, as Wood says, in his own country, 
but, according to Calaray, he had the perpetual curacy of 
Cressedge and Cound, in Shropshire. On the breaking 
out of the rebellion he came to London, sided with the 
Presbyterians, and became a frequent and popular 
preacher. On his return to the country he was appointed 
an assistant to the commissioners for the ejection 
of those they were pleased to term "scandalous and 
ignorant ministers and schoolmasters." At the restora- 
tion he was ejected from Cressedge, but neither Wood 
nor Calamy have ascertained where he died. The former 
says, '* he was living an aged man near Dudley in 1663." 
His works are : — David's Blessed Man; or a short Expo- 
sition upon the first Psalm, Lend. 8vo, of which the 
fifteenth edition, in 12mo. was printed in 1686; The 
Great Assize, or the Day of Jubilee, 12mo, which before 
1684 went through thirty-one editions, and was often 
reprinted in the last century ; A Fold for Christ's Sheep, 
printed thirty-two times ; The Christian's Guide, of which 
there were numerous editions. He published some other 
tracts and sermons, which also had a very numerous class 
of readers. — Wood. Calamy. 


William Smith, or Smyth, was a native of Lancashire, 
and was born in the middle of the fifteenth century. He 
took his L.L.B. degree at Oxford before 1492, when he 
was presented by the Countess of Richmond, mother of 
Henry VII., to the Rectory of Cheshunt, in Hertford- 
shire. In 1493, he was consecrated Bishop of Lich- 
field and Coventry. He was shortly afterwards made 
president of the Prince's Council within the marches 
of Wales. There was a renewal of this commission 
in the seventeenth year of the reign of Henry VII., 
of which Smith was again lord-president. The Prince's 
VOL. viii. p p 

48i SNAPE. 

Court was held chiefly at Ludlow Castle, long the 
seat of the muses, honoured at this time with a train 
of learned men from the universities, and afterwards 
immortalized by Milton and Butler. Here Bishop 
Smith, although placed in an office that seemed likely 
to divert him from the business of his diocese, took espe- 
cial care that his absence should be compensated by a 
deputation of his power to vicars-general, and a suffragan 
bishop, in whom he could confide ; and here he conceived 
some of those generous and liberal plans which have con- 
ferred honour on his name. The first instance of his 
becoming a public benefactor was in rebuilding and re- 
endowing the hospital of St. John, in Lichfield, which 
had been suffered to go to ruin by the negligence of the 
friars who occupied it. Accordingly, in the third year of 
his episcopate, he rebuilt this hospital, and gave a new 
body of statutes for the use of the society. In 1495, he 
was translated to the See of Lincoln. In 1500, he was 
elected chancellor of the University of Oxford. In 1507-8, 
he concerted the plan of Brasenose College, along with 
his friend Sir Richard Sutton, and lived to see it com- 
pleted. He died at Buckden, January 2, 1513-14, and 
was interred at Lincoln Cathedral. — Churtons Lives of 
Founders. Chalmers History of Oxford. 


Andrdw Snape was born at Hampton-court, and edu- 
cated at Eton, and at King's College, Cambridge, where 
he obtained a fellowship. In 1705, he was created D.D. ; 
in 1713, he was made Canon of Windsor. In 1717, on 
the breaking out of the Bangorian controversy, he took a 
zealous part against Hoadley, in a " Letter to the Bishop 
of Bangor," which was so extremely popular as to pass 
through seventeen editions in a year, but Hoadley 's 
interest at court prevailed, and in so extraordinary a 

SOANEN. 435 

degree, that in the same year, 1717, Dr. Snape, as 
well as Dr. Sherlock, were removed from the office of 
chaplain to his majesty. Atterbury, in a letter to Bishop 
Trelawney, on this occasion, says ; " These are very ex- 
traordinary steps ; the effects of wisdom, no doubt ; but 
of so deep a wisdom, that I, for my part, am not able to 
fathom it. 

In 1713, he had been installed a canon of Windsor, 
and on Feb. 21, 1719, was elected provost of King's 
College, although the court interest was in favour of Dr. 
Waddington. In 1723, he served the office of vice- 
chancellor of the university, and gave every satisfaction 
in discharging the duties of both offices. The revenues 
of the college were greatly augmented in his time, by the 
assistance of some fellows of the college, his particular 
friends. It was said that in 1722 he drew up the 
address to his majesty, George II., upon the institution 
of Whitehall preachers, " an address," says Dr. Zachary 
Grey, "worthy of the imitation of both universities on 
all occasions of the like kind, as it was thought to have 
nothing redundant or defective in it," He was for a 
short time Rector of Knebworth, in Hertfordshire, and 
afterwards, in 1737, of West-Ildesley, in Berkshire. 
This last he retained till his death, which happened at 
his lodgings, at Windsor Castle, Dec. 30th, 1742. His 
sermons were published in three vols. 8vo. — Harwood's 
Alumni Etonenses. 


John Soanen was born at Riom, in J 647. He entered 
into the congregation of the Oratory at Paris, in 1661, 
where he took for his confessor the celebrated Father 
Quesnel. After teaching the languages and rhetoric in 
several of the seminaries of the society, he devoted him- 
self to pulpit services, and wath so much success, that he 


became one of the four distinguisLed preachers of the 
congregation, who were popularly termed the four Evan- 
gelists. Fenelon joined him with Massillon as models of 
pulpit eloquence. In 1695, he was placed in the See of 
Senez, a bishopric of small revenue, but which, being in 
a retired situation, required little of the parade of office, 
and permitted him to expend the greatest share of his 
income in charity. To all the virtues belonging to a 
Christian pastor, he united a firmness which enabled him 
to sustain the part of a martyr to principle. On the pub- 
lication of the famous bull Unigenitus, which contained 
a condemnation of Quesnel's opinions, he appealed 
against it to a future council, and published a pastoral 
letter, in which he controverted its positions with great 
force. Cardinal Fleury, resolving to make an example 
of a disobedient prelate, selected Soanen for the victim ; 
and assembling in 1727, the Council of Embrun, at 
which the licentious Cardinal de Tencin presided, pro- 
cured a condemnation of the conscientious bishop, who 
was suspended from his priestly and episcopal functions, 
and exiled to Chaise-Dieu, in Auvergne. He had nu- 
merous visitors in his retreat, who paid him the respect 
due to his virtue and integrity. 

He died in 1740, at the age of ninety- two, revered 
by the Jansenists as a saint, and stigmatized by the 
Molinists as a rebel. He was the author of " Pastoral 
Instructions," "Charges," and "Letters," which were 
printed, with his Life, in 2 vols. 4to., and 8 vols. 12mo. 
A collection of Sermons has been published in his 
name, but their genuineness is doubtful. — Moreri. 


Although the Socini, strictly speaking, are not en- 
titled to a place in this Biography, still a short notice 
of the authors of so much mischief may be expected. 


Faustus Socinus, nephew of the succeeding, was bora at 
Sienna, in 1539. He studied but little in his youth ; he 
only had a tincture of classical learning, and learned only 
the elements of logic. The letters his uncle wrote to his 
relations, whereby they and their wives were imbibed with 
many seeds of heresy, made an impression upon him ; 
so that he fled away as the rest, when the inquisition 
began to persecute that family. He was at Lyons 
when he heard of his uncle's death, and immediately set 
out to take possession of all the writings of the deceased. 
He returned into Italy, and became so acceptable to 
Francis de Medicis, the grand Duke of Tuscany, that 
the charms of the court, and the honourable employ- 
ments bestowed upon him, hindered him for the space 
of twelve years from remembering that he had been 
looked upon as the man, who was to put the last hand 
to the system of Samosatenian Theology, whereof his 
uncle Lselius had drawn but a rough draught. At 
last, the search after the gospel truths appearing to 
him more valuable than the delights of a court-life, 
he voluntarily left his country, and went into Germany 
in the year 1574, nor did he care to return, though he 
was desired to do it by the grand duke. He was three 
years at Basil, where he studied divinity the whole time 
with great application ; and having embraced a doctrine 
very different from that of the Protestants, he undertook 
to maintain and spread it ; and in order to it, he wrote 
a book, De Jesu Christo Servatore. He disputed at 
Zurich with Francis Puccius, in the beginning of the 
year 1578. 

The differences occasioned by the ill-doctrine of 
Francis David, about the Honours and the Powers of 
the Son of God, caused a great disturbance in the 
Churches of Transylvania. Blandrata, a man of great 
authority in those Churches, and at court, sent for 
Socinus, whom he took to be a person well qualified to 
pacify those troubles. He lodged him in the same house 
p p 3 


with Francis David ; but the latter could not be unde- 
ceived, and maintained his opinion so openly and so 
boldly, that he was imprisoned. He died soon after ; and 
Socinus was ill-spoken off upon that account, though it 
is affirmed he had no hand in the counsels that were 
given to the Prince of Transylvania, in order to oppress 
Francis David. He retired into Poland in the year 157^, 
and desired to be admitted into the communion of the 
Unitarians ; but, because he differed from them in some 
points, and would not be silent, he met with a repulse. 
Nevertheless, he wrote in favour of their churches against 
their enemies. The book he wrote against James 
Paleologus afforded his enemies a pretence to exasperate 
the King of Poland ; and yet that book was nothing less 
than seditious. But though the bare reading of that 
book was sufficient to confute the informers, Socinus 
thought it expedient to leave Cracow, after he had been 
there four years, and to take sanctuary in the house of 
a Polish lord. He lived above three years under the pro- 
tection of several lords of the kingdom, and even married 
a woman of good family. He lost her in the year 1587, 
at which he was extremely afflicted ; and to complete his 
affliction, he was deprived of the yearly income of his 
patrimony by the death of Francis de Medicis, grand Duke 
of Florence. The satisfaction he had to see his doctrine 
approved at last by many ministers, was very much 
troubled in 1598, for he received a thousand insults at 
Cracow, and his friends had much ado to rescue him out 
of the hands of the mob. He lost his household goods, 
and some of his manuscripts, the loss of which he ex- 
tremely lamented. He lost among others, that which he 
had written against the Atheists. To avoid the like dan- 
gers for the time to come, he retired to a village about 
nine miles distant from Cracow, where he spent the 
remaining part of his life in the house of Abraham 
Blonski, a Polish gentleman. He died there on the 3rd 
of March, IQOL—Bayle. 



L^Lius SociNUS was born at Sienna, in 1525, and was 
educated by his father an eminent civilian at Bologna, for 
the civil law. Convinced of the errors of the Romish 
Church, he left Italy, and after visiting several foreign 
countries, he settled at last at Zurich, where he became 
intimate with Calvin, BuUinger, Beza, Melanchthon, 
and others. But having soon discovered, by the doubts 
he proposed to them, that he had adopted sentiments 
the most obnoxious to these reformers, he became an 
object of suspicion ; and Calvin, in particular, wrote to 
him an admonitory letter, of w^hich the following is a 
part : — " Don't expect," says he, " that I should answer 
all your preposterous questions. If you choose to soar 
amidst such lofty speculations, suffer me, an humble 
dis(5iple of Jesus Christ, to meditate upon such things 
as conduce to my edification ; as indeed I shall endea- 
vour by my silence to prevent your being troublesome 
to me hereafter. In the mean time, I cannot but 
lament, that you should continue to employ those ex- 
cellent talents with which God has blessed you, not 
only to no purpose, but to a very bad one. Let me beg 
of you seriously, as I have often done, to correct in 
yourself this love of inquiry, which may bring you into 
trouble." It would appear that Socinus took his advice 
in part, as he continued to live among these orthodox 
divines for a considerable time, without molestation. 

He found means, however, to communicate his no- 
tions to such as were disposed to receive them, and even 
lectured to Italians, who wandered up and down in 
Germany and Poland. He also sent writings to his 
relations, who lived at Sienna. He took a journey into 
Poland about 1558 ; and obtained from the king some 
letters of recommendation to the Doge of Venice and 


the Duke of Florence, that he might be safe at Venice, 
while his affairs required his residence there. He after- 
wards i^eturned to Switzerland, and died at Zurich in, 
1562, in his thirty-seventh year. Being naturally 
timorous and irresolute, he professed to die in the com- 
munion of the Reformed Church, but certainly had con- 
tributed much to the foundation of the sect called from his 
or his nephew's name, for he collected the materials that 
Faustus afterwards digested and employed with such 
dexterity and success. He secretly and imperceptibly 
excited doubts and scruples in the minds of many, con- 
cerning several doctrines generally received among Chris- 
tians, and, by several arguments against the divinity of 
Christ, which he left behind him in writing, he so far 
seduced, even after his death, the Arians in Poland, 
that they embraced the communion and sentiments of 
those who looked upon Christ as a mere man, created 
immediately, like Adam, by God himself. There are 
few writings of Ltelius extant, and of those that bear 
his name, some undoubtedly belong to others. — Diipin. 
Gen. Diet. Mosheim. 


RoBEET DE SoEBONNE was bom Octobor 9th, 1203, at 
Sorbonne, in the diocese of Rheims. He was educated 
at Paris, and became chaplain and Confessor to Louis 
IX. He became a Canon of Cambray in 1251. Having 
reflected on the difficulties which he had himself en- 
countered, in order to obtain his doctor's degree, he 
determined to exert himself in order to provide for the 
assistance of poor scholars. For this purpose he judged 
that the most convenient and efficacious plan would be to 
form a society of secular ecclesiastics, who, living in a 
community, and having the necessaries of life provided 
for them, should be wholly employed in study, and teach 


gratis. All his friends approved the design, and offered 
to assist him both with their fortunes and their advice. 
With their assistance, Robert de Sorbonne founded, in 
1253, the celebrated college which bears his name. He 
then assembled able professors, those most distinguished 
for learning and piety, and lodged his community in the 
tms des deux 2^ortes, opposite to the palace des Thennes. 
Such was the origin of the famous College of Sorbonne, 
which proved the model of all others, there having been 
no society in Europe before that time where the seculars 
lived and taught in common. The founder had two 
objects in view in this establishment, theology and the 
arts ; but as his predilection was to the former, he com- 
posed his society principally of doctors and bachelors in 
divinity. Some have said that his original foundation 
was only for sixteen poor scholars (hoursiers) or fellows ; 
but it appears by his statutes that from the first estab- 
lishment, it consisted of doctors, bachelor-fellows, bache- 
lors not fellows, and poor students as at present, or at 
least lately. The number of fellows was not limited, but 
depended on the state of the revenues. The number in 
the founder's time appears to have been about thirty, and 
be ordered that there should be no other members of his 
college than guests and associates (hospites et socii,) who 
might be chosen from any country or nation whatever. A 
guest, or perhaps as we should call him, a commoner, 
was required to be a bachelor, to maintain a thesis, called, 
from the founder's name, Robertine, aud was to be ad- 
mitted by a majority of votes after three different 
scrutinies. These hospites remained part of the estab- 
lishment until the last, were maintained and lodged in 
the house like the rest of the doctors and bachelors, had 
a right to study in the library (though without possessing 
a key), and enjoyed all other rights and privileges, except 
that they had no vote in the assemblies, and were obliged 
to quit the house on becoming doctors. For an associate, 
Socius, it was necessary, besides the Robertine thesis, to 


read a course of philosophical lectures gratis. In 1764, 
when the small colleges were united with that of Louis- 
le-grand, the course of philosophy was discontinued, and 
a thesis substituted in its place, called the second 

As to the fellowships, they were granted to those only 
among the Socii who had not forty livres, of Paris money, 
per annum, either from benefices or paternal inheritance ; 
and when they became possessed of that income, they 
ceased to be fellows. A fellowship was worth about five sous 
and a half per week, and was held ten years. At the end 
of seven years all who held them were strictly examined, 
and if any one appeared incapable of teaching, preaching, 
or being useful to the public in some other way, he was 
deprived of his fellowship. Yet, as the founder was far 
from wishing to exclude the rich from his college, but, on 
the contrary, sought to inspire them with a taste for 
learning, and to revive a knowledge of the sciences among 
the clergy, he admitted associates, who were not fellows, 
"Socii non Bursales." These were subject to the same 
examinations and exercises as the Socii, with this only 
difference, that they paid five sols and a half weekly 
to the house, a sum equal to that which the fellows 
received. All the Socii bore and still bear the title of 
" Doctors or Bachelors of the House and Society of 
Sorbonne," whereas the Hospites have only the appellation 
of " Doctors or Bachelors of the House of Sorbonne." 
Their founder ordered that every thing should be mana- 
ged and regulated by the Socii, and that there should be 
neither superior nor principal among them. Accordingly 
he forbade the doctors to treat the bachelors as pupils, 
or the bachelors to treat the doctors as masters, whence 
the ancient Sorbonists used to say " We do not live 
together as doctors and bachelors, nor as masters and 
pupils ; but we live as associates and equals." In con- 
sequence of this equality, no monk of whatever order, 
has at any time been admitted '* Socius of Sorbonne ; " 


and from the beginning of the seventeenth century, who- 
ever is received into the society takes an oath on the 
gospels, " That he has no intention of entering any 
society or secular congregation, the members of which 
live in common under the direction of one superior, and 
that if after being admitted into the Society of Sorbonne, 
he should change his mind, and enter any such other 
community, he will acknowledge himself from that time, 
and by this single act, to have forfeited all privileges of 
the society, as well active as passive,, and that he will 
neither do nor undertake any thing contrary to the 
present regulation." Robert de Sorbonne permitted the 
doctors and bachelors to take poor scholars, whom he 
wished to receive benefit from his house ; and great 
numbers of these poor scholars proved very eminent 
men. The first professors in the Sorbonne were William 
de Saint Amour, Odon de Douai, Gerard de Rheims, 
Laurence the Englishman, Gerard d'Abbeville, &c. They 
taught theology gratis, according to the founder's inten- 
tion; and from 1253, to the revolution, there have been 
always six professors at least, who gave lectures on the 
different branches of that science gratis, even before the 
divinity professorships were established. Fellowships 
were given to the poor professors, that is, to those whose 
incomes did not amount to forty livres ; but it appears 
from the registers of the Sorbonne, that the first pro- 
fessors above mentioned, were very rich, consequently 
they were not fellows. Robert de Sorbonne ordered that 
there should always be some doctors in his college who 
applied particularly to the study of morality and 
casuistry ; whence the Sorbonne has been consulted on 
such points ever since his time from all parts of the 
kingdom. He appointed different offices for the govern- 
ment of his college. The first is that of the Proviseur, 
who was always chosen from among the most eminent 
persons. Next to him is the Frieux, chosen from the 
Socii bachelors, who presided in the assemblies of the 


society, at the Robertine acts, at the reading of the Holy- 
Scriptures, at meals, and at the Sorboniques, or acts of the 
licentiates, for which he fixed the day ; he also made two 
public speeches, one at the first, the other at the last of 
these. The keys of the gates were delivered up to him 
every night, and he was the first person to sign all the 
acts. The other offices are those of " Senieur, Conscrip- 
teur, Procureurs, Professors, Librarian, &c." There is 
every reason to believe that the Sorbonne, from its founda- 
tion, contained thirty-six apartments, and it was doubtless 
in conformity to this first plan that no more were added 
when Cardinal Richelieu rebuilt it in the present magni- 
ficent style. One, however, was afterwards added, 
making thirty-seven, constantly occupied by as many- 
doctors and bachelors. After Robert de Sorbonne had 
founded his divinity college, he obtained a confirmation 
of it from the pope, and it was authorised by letters 
patent from St. Louis, who had before given him, or ex- 
changed with him, some houses necessary for that esta- 
blishment in 1256, and 1258. He then devoted himself 
to the promotion of learning and piety in his college, and 
with success, for it soon produced such excellent scholars 
as spread its fame throughout Europe. Legacies and 
donations now flowed in from every quarter, which 
enabled the Sorbonists to study at their ease. The 
founder had always a particular partiality for those who 
were poor, for although his society contained some very- 
rich doctors, as appears from the registers and other 
monuments remaining in the archives of the Sorbonne, 
yet his establishment had the poor principally in view, 
the greatest part of its revenues being appropriated to 
their studies and maintenance. He would even have his 
college called " The House of the Poor," which gave rise 
to the form used by the Sorbonne bachelors, when they 
appear as respondents, or maintain theses in quality of 
Antique ; and hence we also read on many MSS. that 
they belong to the " Pauvres Maitres de Sorbonne." The 


founder, not satisfied with providing sufficient revenues 
for his college, took great pains to establish a library. 
From the ancient catalogue of the Sorbonne library 
drawn up in 1289 and 1290, it appears to have consisted 
at that time of above a thousand volumes ; but the col- 
lection increased so fast, that a new catalogue became 
necessary two years after, i.e. in 1292, and again, in 
1338, at which time the Sorbonne library was perhaps 
the finest in France. All the books of whatever value 
were chained to the shelves, and accurately ranged 
according to their subjects, beginning with grammar, 
the belles lettres, &c. The catalogues are made in the 
same manner, and the price of each book is marked in 
them. These MSS. are still in the house. Robert de 
Sorbonne (very different from other founders, who begin 
by laying down rules, and then make it their whole care 
to enforce the observance of them), did not attempt to 
settle any statutes till he had governed his college above 
eighteen years, and then prescribed only such customs as 
he had before established, and of which the utility and 
wisdom were confirmed to him by long experience. 
Hence it is that no attempt towards reformation or change 
has ever been made in the Sorbonne ; all proceeds 
according to the ancient methods and rules, and the ex- 
perience of five centuries has proved that the constitution 
of that house is well adapted to its purposes, and none of 
the French colleges since founded have supported them- 
selves in so much regularity and splendour. Robert de 
Sorbonne having firmly established his society for 
theological studies, added to it a college for polite litera- 
ture and philosophy. For this purpose he bought of 
William de Cambrai, canon of St. Jean de Maurienne, a 
house near the Sorbonne, and there founded the college 
de Calvi, in 1271. This college, which was also called 
" the little Sorbonne," became very celebrated by the 
great men who were educated there, and subsisted till 
1636, when it was demolished by Cardinal Richeheu's 


446 SOUTH. 

order, and the Chapel of the Sorbonne built upon the 
same spot. The cardinal had, however, engaged to erect 
another, which should belong equally to the house, and 
be contiguous to it ; but his death put a stop to this plan : 
and to fulfil his promise in some degree, the family of 
Richelieu united the college du Plessis to the Sorbonne 
in 1648. Robert de Sorbonne had been Canon of Paris 
from 1258, and became so celebrated as to be frequently 
consulted even by princes, and chosen for their arbiter on 
some important occasions. 

He bequeathed all his property, which was very con- 
siderable, to the Society of Sorbonne, and died at Paris, 
August 15th, 1274, aged seventy-three, leaving several 
works in Latin. The principal are : — A Treatise on 
Conscience ; another on Confession ; and the Way to 
Paradise, all which are printed in the " Bibl. Patrum." 
He wrote also other things, which remain in MS. in the 
library. The House aiid Society of Sorbonne is one of 
the four parts of the faculty of theology at Paris, but 
has its peculiar revenues, statutes, assemblies, and pre- 
rogatives. — Chalmers. Diet. Hist, de L'Avocat. 


Robert South was born in the year 1633, at Hackney. 
In 1647, he was sent to Westminster, and was elected 
a student of Christ Church in 1651. He took his B.A, 
degree in the usual course, but he had some difficulty 
in obtaining that of M.A., for dissent being now in the 
ascendant, he was caught in the very act of commit- 
ting what, in the eyes of those who had rule in the 
college, was a great sin, even that of worshipping God 
after the form and manner of the Church of England. 
Upon this Dr. Owen, who was then vice-chancellor, and 
had been invested with that character some years before, 
was pleased to express himself very severely, and after 

SOUTH. 447 

threatening him with expulsion, if he should be guilty 
of the like practices again, to tell him that he could do 
no less in gratitude to his highness the protector, and 
his other great friends who had thought him worthy of 
the dignities he then stood possessed of. To which 
Mr. South made this grave but very witty reply, " Grati- 
tude among friends, is like credit among tradesmen, it 
keeps business up, and maintains the correspondence : 
and we pay not so much out of a principle that we ought 
to discharge our debts, as to secure ourselves a place to 
be trusted another time ;" and in answer to the doctor's 
making use of the name of the protector and his other 
great friends, he said, " Common-wealths put a value upon 
men, as well as money, and we are forced to take them 
both, not by weight, but according as they are pleased to 
stamp them, and at the current rate of the coin," by 
which he exasperated him two different ways, and made 
him his enemy ever after ; as he verified his own sayings, 
which were frequently applied by him to his fellow- 
students, viz.: — "That few people have the wisdom to 
like reproofs that would do them good, better than 
praises that do them hurt." 

But though the doctor did what he could to shew his 
resentment by virtue of his office, the majority of those 
in whose power it was to give him the degree he had 
regularly waited the usual terms for, was an over-match 
to all opposition, and he had it conferred on him. 

In 1659, South having been admitted into holy orders 
the year before, according to the rites and ceremonies of 
the Church of England, (then abolished) by a regular, 
though deprived bishop, was pitched upon to preach the 
Assize sermon before the judges. For which end, he 
took his text from the 10th chapter of St. Matthew's 
Gospel, V. 33, "Whosoever shall deny Me before men, 
him will I also deny before My Father which is in hea- 
ven." This sermon was called by him. Interest Deposed, 
and Truth Restored, &c., and had this remarkable para- 

448 SOUTH. 

graph in it concerning the teachers of those days, viz. — • 
" When such men talk of self-denial and humility, I 
cannot but think of Seneca, who praised poverty, and 
that very safely, in the midst of his riches and gardens, 
and even exhorted the world to throw away their gold, 
perhaps, (as one well conjectures) that he might gather it 
up : so these desire men to be humble, that they may 
domineer without opposition. But it is an easy matter 
to commend patience, when there is no danger of any 
trials, to extol humility in the midst of honours, to begin 
a fast after dinner." 

In the close of the said sermon, after having applied 
himself to the judges, with proper exhortations that be- 
spoke his intrepidity of soul, he addressed himself to 
the audience in these words : — " If ever it was seasonable 
to preach courage in the despised, abused cause of Christ, 
it is now, when His truths are reformed into nothing ; 
and when the hands and hearts of His faithful ministers 
are weakened, and even broke, and His worship extir- 
pated in a mockery, that His honour may be advanced, 
well to establish our hearts in dut}^ let us before hand 
propose to ourselves the worst that can happen. Should 
God in His judgment suffer England to be transformed 
into a Munster, should the faithful be everywhere mas- 
sacred, should the places of learning be demolished, 
and our colleges reduced not only (as one in his zeal 
would have it) to three, but to none : yet assuredly hell 
is worse that all this, and is the portion of such as deny 
Christ. Therefore let our discouragements be what they 
will, loss of places, loss of estates, loss of life and rela- 
tions, yet still this sentence stands ratified in the decrees 
of Heaven. Cursed be the man that for any of these 
deserts the truth, and denies his Lord." 

Soon after the restoration, he was chosen public orator 
of the university, in cod sequence, it is believed, of his 
excellent sermon preached before the king's commis- 
sioner, and entitled The Scribe Instructed, Matt. xiii. 52. 

SOUTH. 449 

In this office he acquitted himself so much to the satis- 
faction of Lord Clarendon, when complimenting him at 
his investiture as a chancellor of the university, that he 
was taken under the protection of that eminent man, 
and appointed his domestic chaplain. He was presented 
to a prebend of Westminster in 1663, and by virtue of 
a letter from the chancellor was, in the same year, ad- 
mitted to the degree of D.D. In 1670, he was made a 
canon of Christ Church, Oxford; and in 1673 he 
attended, in quality of chaplain, Laurence Hyde, younger 
son of the Earl of Clarendon, in his embassy to Poland. 

Soon after his return from Poland, he was by the 
dean and chapter of the Collegiate Church of West- 
minster, in consideration of his great abilities to dis- 
charge the pastoral office, made choice of to succeed 
Dr. Edward Hinton, as Rector of Islip, in Oxfordshire, 
a living of £200 per annum ; one hundred of which, 
out of his generous temper he allowed to the Rev. Mr. 
Penny, student of Christ Church, his curate, and the 
other, he expended in the educating and apprenticing 
the poorer children of that place. After having been 
two years incumbent there, he caused the chancel that 
had been suffered miserably to run to ruin by his prede- 
cessor, to be rebuilt. 

He also rebuilt the parsonage. It appears that 
Dr. South had frequent opportunities of being advanced 
to the episcopal bench, and when his friend, Lord 
Clarendon, w^as lord-lieutenant of Ireland, he refused an 
Archbishopric in the Irish Church. He acted nobly in 
these instances: although he was generous, learned, and 
pious, yet his temper was irritable, he was sarcastic, 
bitter in his mode of expressing himself, and either 
unable or unwilling to keep his art in proper restraint. 
He doubtless felt that such a person was not a man cal- 
culated to fill the office of bishop in those days with com- 
fort to himself or advantage to the Church. He continued, 
therefore, where his eccentricities were regarded with 
3 Q Q 

450 SOUTH. 

toleration, where bis character was understood, and where 
he was both useful and beloved. 

His principles were severely tested at the Revolution, 
In common with most of the divines of the Church of 
England he had in the re-action after the Revolution, 
pushed the doctrine of the royal prerogative to an 
extreme; and in the reign of James 11. he found a 
traitor king using that prerogative, to subvert the institu- 
tions of the country and to undermine the Church he was 
sworn to support. South, loyal on the one hand, and 
yet a determined foe to Popery on the other, was per- 
plexed how to act, and passed his time in fasting and 
prayer. He refused to sign the Invitation to the Prince 
of Orange, but when the Revolution was effected he 
acquiesced in it and took the oaths to the Sovereigns de 
facto. Again he was pressed to accept one of the vacant 
sees, and again his answer was Nolo Episcopari. 

No sooner had the occurrence of the Revolution with- 
drawn the public attention from the dangers of Popery, 
than Socinianism, encouraged by the Act of Toleration, 
and the general license of the times, began to thrust 
forward its pretensions with unprecedented boldness. It 
was at this time that South became engaged in the violent 
controversy with Dr. Sherlock, dean of St. Paul's, to 
which allusion was made in the notice of Bishop Bull. 
Sherlock's " Vindication of the Doctrine of the Trinity " 
appeared in 1690. This work was answered by South, 
in a volume in 4to, entitled "Animadversions " on it, 
published in 1693 ; a production of great ability, but 
deformed, in the view of calmer judgments, by a more 
than commensurate infusion of asperity and contemptu- 
ousness. In 1694, Sherlock replied in a " Defenc'e " of 
his notion of the Trinity. This work also South 
answered, in the following year, in *' Tri theism charged 
upon Dr. Sherlock's new Notion of the Trinity ; " again, 
as in the former volume, asserting, with a warmth of zeal 
for which the epithet furious is not too strong, his own 

SOUTH. 451 

different views of that doctrine, which with justice he 
terms, the Church's " palladium — the prime, the grand, 
the distinguishing article of our Christianity ; without 
the belief of which, a man can be no more a Christian, 
than he can without a rational soul be a man ; " and de- 
claring the system of Sherlock to be " Paganism — the 
introduction of a plurality of Gods." 

That this strongly attached son of the Church of Eng- 
land wholly disapproved of those plans, which, in his 
time, were successively entertained for the comjDrehension 
of dissenters, was of course to be expected : in fact, he 
opposed them on all occasions, with that want of mod- 
eration in the use of language which was too character- 
istic of his zealous mind ; including, in his fearless and 
indiscriminate censures, all those who favoured such 
attempts, as, equally with the Puritans of a past age, 
" wolves in sheeps' .clothing." He was therefore naturally 
displeased with the course which public opinion now 
took, as well as at the extreme partiality of the govern'^ 
ment in favour of the low, or liberal party in the Church ; 
and lost no opportunity of expressing it in his own 
inimitable manner. 

Less worthy of an enlightened mind was his jealous 
dislike of the new school of experimental philosophy, 
and its promoters. An instance is recorded by Dr. 
Wallis, as occurring on a very marked occasion. In a 
letter from Wallis to Mr. Boyle describing the ceremonies 
at the dedication of the theatre at Oxford, then recently 
erected, the writer mentions the oration delivered on the 
occasion by South, as university orator ; and complains 
that " the first part of it consisted of satirical invectives 
against Cromwell, fanatics, the Royal Society, and the 
new philosophy." 

Through the greater part of Queen Anne's reign. Dr. 
South was a severe sufferer from illness ; yet he neither 
lost his wonted alacrity of spirit and pleasure in the 
society of his friends, nor would wholly remit his habits 

452 SPARKE. 

of study. On the decease of Dr. Sprat, the historian of 
the Royal Society, he was once more soKcited to take 
preferment. The bishopric of Rochester, with the 
deanery of Westminster, was offered him ; but he again 
refused to quit a private station, — now, at least, on 
sufficient grounds ; and Atterbury was, in consequence, 
chosen to occupy the vacant see. 

He expired July 8th, 1716. His sermons, in six vols. 
8vo, have been often printed ; the last edition was printed 
at the Oxford University Press. After his death appeared 
his Opera Posthuma Latina, and his English Posthu- 
mous Works, consisting of three more sermons, his 
Travels into Poland, and Memoirs of his Life, in two 
vols, 8vo. — Life prefixed to Posthumous Works. Catter- 


Thomas Spaeke was born at South- Somercote, in Lin- 
colnshire, in 1548, and became fellow of Magdalen 
College, Oxford. In 1575, he became Archdeacon of 
Stow, being Rector at the same time of Bletchlej, in 
Buckinghamshire. In 1582, he w^as presented to a 
secondary stall in Lincoln Cathedral. 

In 1603, he was called to the conference at Hampton- 
court, as one of the representatives of the Puritans ; 
as he had been one of their champions in 1584, at the 
dispute at Latnbeth ; but the issue of the Hampton- 
court conference was, that he inclined to Conformity, 
and afterwards expressed his sentiments in, A Brotherly 
Persuasion to Unity and Uniformity in Judgment and 
Practice, touching the received and present ecclesiastical 
government, and the authorized rites and ceremonies of 
the Church of England; London, 1607, 4to. He died 
in October, 1616. 

His works, besides those already mentioned, are : — 


A Comfortable Treatise for a Troubled Conscience ; Brief 
Catechism, printed ^vith the former, and a Treatise on 
Catechising; Answer to Mr. Joh. de Albine's notable 
Discourse against Heresies; The Highway to Heaven, 
&c. against Bellarmine and others, in a Treatise on the 
37th, 38th, and 39th verses of the viith chapter of St. 
John; London, 1597, 8vo. — Wood. Neal. 


Of the author of the well-known and much valued 
Rationale of the Book of Common Prayer of the Church 
of England, less is known than those who have been 
benefited by his labours w^ould desire. He was born at 
Depden, in Suffolk, and was first a scholar and then a 
fellow of Queen's College, Cambridge. He was guilty of 
what rebels regard as a sin, loyalty to his sovereign and 
fidelity to his religion, and therefore he was ejected from 
his fellowship by the Dissenters in 1643. He was for the 
same reason, and for praying to God in his own way, by 
using the Book of Common Prayer, ejected by the same 
parties from his living of Hawkedon, in Suffolk. 

After the Restoration he returned to his living, was 
elected one of the preachers at St. Edmund's Bury, and 
w^as made archdeacon of Sudbury, and a prebendary of 
Ely. About 1577, he was elected master of Queen's 
College, and he then resigned his charge at St. Edmund's 
Bury, and the rectory of Hawkedon. In 1667, he was 
made Bishop of Exeter ; and on the death of Dr. 
Reynolds, in 1678, he was translated to Norwich, where 
he died in 1685. 

Of his Rationale the best edition is that of 1722, 8vo, 
with Downes's Lives of the Compilers of the Liturgy, 
and Bishop Sparrow's Sermon on Confession of Sins and 
Absolution. He also published, A Collection of Articles, 
Injunctions, Canons, Orders, Ordinances, &c. 1671, 4to. 
— Wood. Willis s Cathedrals. 



A LIFE of Spinckes is prefixed to " The Sick Man 
Visited," but it is meagre, and it is the more unsatisfac- 
tory, as a good life of Spinckes by a contemporary would 
have given us a history of the Nonjurors at an interesting 
period. He was born at Castor, in Northamptonshire, in 
1653. He received his first classical instruction from the 
Eev. Mr. Morton, Rector of Haddon, and then went to 
Trinity College, Cambridge; but on the 12th of October, 
1672, tempted by the prospect of a Rustat scholarship, 
he entered himself of Jesus College, where, in nine days 
he was admitted a probationer, and May 20, 1673, sworn 
a scholar on the Rustat foundation. After residing some 
time in Devonshire, as chaplain to Sir Richard Edgecombe, 
he removed to Petersham, where, in 1681, he was asso- 
ciated with Dr. Hickes, as chaplain to the Duke of 
Lauderdale. On the duke's death, in 1683, he removed 
to St. Stephen's Wal brook, London, where for two years 
he was curate and lecturer. In 1685, the dean and 
chapter of Peterborough conferred on him the Rectory of 
Peakirk or Peaking-cum-Glynton, in Northamptonshire ; 
and in 1687, he was made a prebendary of Salisbury, 
and instituted to the Rectory of St. Mary, in that town. 
Being decided in his attachment to the Stuart family, he 
was deprived of all his preferments in 1690, for refusing 
to take the oaths to William and Mary. 

He now became eminent among the Nonjurors, and in 
1713, he consented to be consecrated aNonjuring Bishop 
under circumstances of more than questionable propriety. 
The deprived bishops, with Archbishop Sancroft at their 
head, were now no more. In 1693, after Sancroft's 
death, Hickes and Wagstaffe had been consecrated, but 
Wagstaffe died in 1712 ; so that Hickes was left alone. 
He therefore could not continue the succession, as three 
bishops are required by the canons at consecrations. 


Under these circumstances he had recourse to Scotland, 
and Campbell and Gadderer assisted in 1713, in the con- 
secration of Jeremy Collier, Samuel Hawes, and 
Nathaniel Spinckes. Spinckes became the antagonist of 
Collier, (see Life of Collier,) on the subject of the Usages ; 
Spinckes advocating a strict adherence to the present 
Book of Common Prayer. He was often in great pecu- 
niary distress ; but never swerved from his principles. 
He died in 1727. 

It has been remarked, in reference to his consecration 
as a bishop, " happy would it have been for any diocese 
had he been legally appointed to it." The following des- 
cription of his person and acquirements is full of interest : 
— " he w^as of low stature, venerable of aspect, and ex- 
alted in character. He had no wealth, few enemies, many 
friends. He was orthodox in his faith : his enemies 
being judges. He had uncommon learning and superior 
judgment : and his exemplary life was concluded by a 
happy death. His patience was great : his self denial 
greater : his charity still greater : though his temper 
seemed his cardinal virtue (a happy conjunction of con- 
stitution and grace), having never been observed to fail 
him in a stage of nine and thirty years." He was buried 
on the north side .of the cemetery of St. Paul's Church, 

He Tvas a proficient in Greek and Saxon, and had made 
some progress in the Oriental languages. He assisted in 
the publication of Grabe's Septuagint, Newcourt's Eeper- 
torium, Howell's Canons, Potter's Clemens Alexandrinus, 
and Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy. His own works 
are : — An Answer to the Essay towards a proposal for 
Catholic Communion, &c. ; The New Pretenders to 
Prophecy re-examined, &c. ; Two pamphlets against 
Hoadley's Measures of Submission; Two pamphlets on 
The Case stated between the Church of Rome and the 
Church of England, as to Supremacy; Two pamphlets 
against Restoring the Prayers and Directions of Edward 


VI. 's Liturgy. His most popular work is, The Sick Man 
Visited, &c., 1712. — Life as above. History of Nonjurors, 
by Lathbury. 


John Spotswood or Spottiswoode was born in 1565, in 
the parish of Mid-Calder, in the county of Edinburgh, 
and was educated at Glasgow. He succeeded his father 
as minister of Calder when he was only eighteen years of 
age. But for the sake of seeing the world, he accepted 
an appointment in the suite of Ludowick, Duke of Lenox, 
when, in 1601, that nobleman was sent on an embassy 
to France. Spotswood had at this time the advantage of 
visiting England, where, perhaps, he first imbibed those 
Church principles by which he was afterwards distin- 
guished. It is probably to these circumstances that we 
may attribute the fact that in 1603, James I. selected 
Spotswood to be one of the clergy to attend him to Eng- 
land. Spotswood was in the same year, 1603, appointed 
titular Archbishop of Glasgow and a Privy Councellor 
for Scotland. The Church was not at this time re-estab- 
lished in Scotland, and the bishops were called Tulehan 
Bishops. (See Life of Adamson.) Spotswood evinced his 
munificence, while at Glasgow, by repairing both the 
Cathedral and the Episcopal Castle, and was so much 
beloved that he was regarded by the people as their 
** tutelar angel." 

In June, 1610, he presided as the elected moderator 
over an assembly of the Kirk, at Glasgow, when, after 
three days discussion, it was agreed with great unanimity, 
" that the calling of all general assemblies did belong to 
his Majesty by the prerogative of his crown : that synods 
should be kept in every diocese twice in the year, in April 
and October, to be moderated by the bishop, and where 
he cannot attend, by such of the ministers as he shall 


appoint for that turn : that no excommunication or abso- 
lution be pronounced against, or for any person, without 
the knowledge and approbation of the bishop of the 
diocese, and the sentence to be pronounced at his direc- 
tion by the minister of the parish where the offender has 
his dwelling : that in time coming all presentations be 
directed to the bishop of the diocese, with power to him 
to confer all benefices void after the lapse, jure devoluto : 
that in the suspension or deprivation of ministers, the 
bishop is to call in some of the neighbouring ministers, 
and in their presence to try the fact, and pronounce sen- 
tence : that the visitations of the diocese be made by the 
bishop himself, or by such worthy minister as he shall 
depute in his place, and every minister, who without 
leave or just excuse shall be absent from the visitation or 
diocesan synod, be suspended from his office and benefice ; 
and if he does not amend, be deprived : and that every 
minister at his admission swear obedience to the king and 
to his ordinary, according to the form agreed upon in 

In consequence of these conclusions, when the assem- 
bly rose, the king called up the moderator, Spotswood, to 
London, and desired him to bring with him any other 
two of his brethren titulars whom he should think fit. 
Accordingly he made choice of Andrew Lamb, of Brechin, 
and Gavin Hamilton, of Gallqway, and with them arrived 
at London about the middle of September. At their first 
audience, the king told them, " that he had with great 
charge recovered the temporalities out of lay hands, and 
bestowed them, as he hoped, upon worthy persons : but 
as he could not make them bishops, nor could they 
assume that honour themselves, he had therefore called 
them to England to receive regular consecration from the 
bishops there, that on their return home they might com- 
municate the same to the rest, and thereby stop the 
mouths of adversaries of all denominations." To this 
truly sensible speech, Spotswood answered in name of 



them all, " that their only fear was, lest this might be 
taken for a sort of subjection to the Church of England, 
because of old pretensions that way." But the king had 
provided against that danger, by secluding both the Arch- 
bishops of Canterbury and York, the only pretenders to 
that subjection, from having any hand in the office, and 
nominating the Bishops of London, Ely, and Bath, to 
administer the rite : which was done accordingly on the 
21st of October, in the Chapel of London House, and 
thereby, the Scottish bishops obtained the reality of 
that high character which they had hitherto borne 
only in name. We are told that before the consecra- 
tion. Bishop Andrewes of Ely proposed their being first 
ordained presbyters, as they had received no ordination 
from a bishop, but was answered by Bancroft, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, who was present, that the orders they had, 
being of necessity for want of bishops, were sufficient, 
" otherwise the vocation of the foreign reformed churches 
might be called in question." That this popular argu- 
ment was made use of by Bancroft, Archbishop Spots- 
wood himself tells us, and rests there, without taking 
notice of any thing further. But we have information 
from other hands, that Dr. Bancroft added a more con- 
vincing solution, and the only solution which could give 
satisfaction to a man of xlndrewes' strict principles, that 
according to many examples in the primitive Church, the 
Episcopal order included all below it, and consequently 
the regular conferring of it supplied every real or sup- 
posed defect. 

Upon this occasion too, the king instituted a Court of 
High Commission in Scotland, for ordering of all ecclesi- 
astical causes, and gave directions to the clergy, which 
they all approved of, as agreeable to the conclusions that 
had passed among themselves in their late assembly in 
June. The three consecrated bishops, on their return 
home, conveyed the Episcopal powers, which they had 
now received in a canonical way, to their former titular 


brethren, to Mr. George Gladstanes in St. Andrews, Mr» 
Peter Blackburn, in Aberdeen, Mr. Alexander Douglas, 
in Moray, Mr. George Graham, in Dunblain, Mr. David 
Lindsay, in Ross, Mr, Alexander Forbes, in Caithness, 
Mr. James Law, in Orkney, Mr. Alexander Lindsay, in 
Dunkeld, Mr. John Campbell, in Argyle, and Mr. Andrew 
Knox, in the Isles. Thus, after fifty years of confusion, 
and a multiplicity of windings and turnings, either to 
improve or set aside the plan adopted in 1560, we see an 
Episcopal Church once more settled in Scotland, and a 
regular Apostolical succession of Episcopacy introduced 
upon the extinction of the old line which had long before 
failed, without any attempt, real or pretended, to keep it 
up. The king had been long projecting this settlement, 
and had gone on by gradual advances, from one step to 
another, with much patience and great perseverance to 
the last. 

In 16 J 5, Archbishop Spotswood was very reluctantly, 
on his part, translated to St. Andrews, and became the 
Primate of all Scotland. 

In 1617, the king determined, after thirteen years' 
absence, to visit his native country, and among other 
preparations for his reception, he gave orders to repair 
the Chapel of Holyroodhouse, and sent down some por- 
traits of the Apostles, to be set up in proper places, as 
ornaments to it. But it being signified to his majesty, by 
the Archbishop of St. Andrews, the Bishops of Aberdeen, 
Galloway, and Brechin, in a joint letter, how ready the 
people w^ould be to take offence at a thing so uncommon 
among them, though he was much displeased with such 
unreasonable grumblings, and even in some measure with 
these bishops, who, he thought, humoured the people in 
them, yet for the sake of peace, he condescended to recall 
his orders, but cautiously put it upon the footing of want 
of time to get the work properly done. In prosecution 
therefore of his design, he took his journey from London, 
and in the beginning of May, came to Berwick, where he 


was met by the Privy Council of Scotland, and by their 
advice summoned a parliament to convene at Edinburgh 
on the 13th of June. On the day appointed the parlia- 
ment was held, and the king in a long speech recom- 
mended to the estates the establishment of religion and 
justice, neither of which, he said, could be looked for, 
unless due regard was had to the ministers of both. The 
first article proposed to public deliberation was, touching 
the royal authority in causes ecclesiastical, concerning 
which he desired it might be enacted, " that whatsoever 
conclusion was taken by his majesty, with advice of the 
archbishops and bishops in matters of external policy, the 
same should have the power and strength of an ecclesias- 
tical law." But Spotswood tells us, that the bishops 
interceding, humbly intreated that the article might be 
better considered, as in making ecclesiastical laws, they 
said, the advice and consent of presbyters was also re- 
quired : upon which, the king, with much reluctance, 
agreed that the article should pass in this form " that 
whatever his majesty should determine in the external 
government of the church, with the advice of the arch- 
bishops, bishops, and a competent number of the min- 
istry, should have the strength of a law." 

So far were the bishops, we see by these two instances, 
from humouring or flattering the king in all his proposals, 
as a few malignants falsely upbraided them ; and so 
cautious were they in this last instance, not to stretch the 
prerogative inherent in their character, to too great a 
height above their brethren of the lower clergy. 

On the 25th of August, 1618, a general assembly was 
convened by the Archbishop, the Church having increased 
her strength, notwithstanding the violent opposition of 
the Presbyterians. The assembly met at Perth, where 
the following articles, five in number, were discussed and^ 
accepted — " 1. That the Holy Sacrament be received 
meekly and reverently by the people upon their knees. 
^. That if any good Christian known to the pastor, be by 


long visitation of sickness unable to resort to the church 
for receiving the Holy Communion, and shall earnestly 
desire to receive the same in his own house, the minister 
shall not deny him so great a comfort, but shall adminis- 
ter it to him, with three or four to communicate with him, 
according to the form prescribed in the Chnrch. 3. That 
in cases of great need and danger, the minister shall not 
refuse to baptize an infant in a private house, after the 
form used in the congregation, and shall, on the first 
Lord's day after, declare such private baptism to the 
people. 4. That for stopping the increase of Popery, and 
settling true religion in the hearts of people, it is 
thought good that the minister of every parish catechize 
the young children of eight years of age in the belief, the 
ten commandments, and the Lord's Prayer, and that 
children so instructed shall be i^resented to the bishop, 
who shall bless them with prayer for the increase of their 
knowledge, and continuance of God's heavenly graces 
with them. 5. That considering how the inestimable 
benefits of our Lord's birth, passion, resurrection, ascen- 
sion, snd sending of the Holy Ghost, were commendably 
and godly remembered at certain particular days and 
times by the whole Church of the world, and may be so 
now, therefore it is thought meet, that every minister 
shall upon these days make commemoration of the said 
inestimable benefits from pertinent texts of Scripture, 
framing his doctrine and exhortation thereto, and re- 
buking all superstitious observation, and licentious pro- 
fanation thereof." 

There was of course much opposition upon the part of 
the rabid Presbyterians, but still there was, during the 
reign of James I., much peace and harmony even in the 
Scottish Church. But of all the instances of the king's 
tender regard for the peace and honour of the Church of 
Scotland, none was more conspicuous than his constant 
method of filling up such bishoprics as fell vacant in his 
time. For upon every such event he appointed the Arch- 
il r 3 


bishop of St. Andrews to convene the rest of the bishops, 
and all of them to name three or four whom they thought 
sufficiently qualified for that high office, so that there 
might be no error in the choice which he reserved the 
privilege of to himself, out of that approved list. This 
was keeping up such a harmony between the rights of 
the Church on the one hand, and the prerogatives of the 
crown on the other, now that they were so intimately 
connected, and as it were intermixed with one another, 
that neither of the two could be aggrieved, either by the 
weight of royal authority bearing hard upon the freedom 
of the one, or the claim of total exemption encroaching 
upon the dignity of the other. And if any failure or 
mistake was to slip into the management of Church mat- 
ters, which the greatest caution cannot always prevent, 
the blame would by this means fall where it properly 
ought, upon those who, by the original constitution of the 
Church, were the spiritual governors of it. 

Thus was the Church of Scotland quietly governed in 
the time of James I. But there remained one flagrant 
defect in that plan of uniformity which the king so 
ardently desired, — there was no authorised Liturgy. A 
form had indeed been drawn up and had been sanctioned 
by the king, but his attention having been directed to 
political events at the close of his reign, it was not 
enforced. The subject was discussed in the counsels of 
Charles I., at the commencement of his reign, but it was 
again deferred. In the meantime an agitation against 
the introduction of a Liturgy were made a party move- 
ment by the unprincipled portion of the aristocracy, who, 
having enriched themselves with Church lands at the 
Reformation, feared less they should be compelled to sur- 
render them if the Church were fully re-established. 
Hence there was a union between the rebellious and 
sordid aristocracy and the schismatical and malignant 
among the clergy, which, as is too well known, was 
attended by the most disastrous consequences. 


In 16B3, Charles I. came to Edinburgh, and was 
crowned with great pomp by Archbishop Spotswood. 
Before the king left Scotland, with the consent of the 
Archbishop, he erected Edinburgh into a bishopric ; and 
with a view to the settlement of the Church, he appointed 
Laud, then Bishop of London, whom he had brought 
with him into Scotland, to preach in the Abbey Church 
before his majesty. Bishop Laud was heard, says 
Clarendon, " with all the marks of approbation and 
applause imaginable." This was a good introduction to 
the king's design, and produced a conference between 
Laud and such of the Scotch bishops and clergy as were 
at hand : at which meeting Laud could not help lament- 
ing the strange and almost singular nakedness of the 
Scottish manner of worship, for want of a liturgy and a 
proper collection of Canons, which he thought would 
supply all defects. The Archbishop of St. Andrews re- 
plied, " that in the late king's time a motion had been 
made to frame a liturgy, and collect some Canons for the 
Church, but was deferred at that time, because of the 
stirs at first about the Perth articles ; and he still had 
apprehensions, that the attempting of it even yet might 
have some disagreeable consequences." But the other 
bishops pressing the undertaking, and declaring there 
was no danger in it, the king consented that there should 
be a liturgy for the Church of Scotland. 

The king and the Bishop of London were anxious that 
the English Liturgy should be introduced without altera- 
tion, but Archbishop Spotswood and the Scottish prelates 
represented so strongly the prejudice such a proceeding 
would excite in the minds of their countrymen, that it 
was arranged that a new liturgy, with some variations 
from the English, should be composed, and also a collec- 
tion of Canons put together, to regulate and enforce the 
ecclesiastical discipline : all which were to be transmitted 
from time to time to England, to be approved by the 
king, after having been revised by Dr. Laud, who in Sep- 


tember, 1633, was made Archbishop of Canterbury, and 
by two other divines, Dr. Juxon, Bishop of London, and 
Dr. Wren, of Norwich. 

Thus the great work was begun, which, if all those 
concerned had done their part honestly and uprightly, 
according to the king's pious intentions, might have 
been gradually and peaceably accomplished, without those 
tumults and commotions, of which, by treachery and 
double-dealing, it was made the ostensible cause. The 
book of Canons was first undertaken, for which these 
strong reasons were assigned, " that by this means there 
might be a fixed measure for stating the power of the 
clergy, and the practise of the laity : that the acts of the 
General Assemblies being only in manuscript, could not 
reach the generality, and, being not easy to be transcribed 
because of their bulkiness, or to be removed from place 
to place because of the risk of it, few of the inferior 
clergy knew where to apply for information : that in con- 
sequence of this, not one in the kingdom governed his 
practice by these acts of General Assemblies : and, there- 
fore, that by reducing these regulations in a lesser com- 
pass, and laying them open to the public view, nobody 
could miscarry through ignorance, or complain of being 
overcharged." The Canons being with great deliberation 
among the Scottish prelates, and by the singular activity 
of Dr. Maxwell, lately made Bishop of Ross, drawn up 
with this view, and presented to his majesty, he signed a 
warrant to Laud and Juxon, to examine the draught, and 
bring it to as near a conformity as possible to the English 
code of J 603: which being done, and a book prepared 
for the press, the king confirmed it by letters patent 
under the great seal, at Greenwich, May 23rd, 1635, 
" enjoining all archbishops, bishops, and others exercising 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Scotland, to see them 
punctually observed." These Canons were printed at 
Aberdeen, in 1636, and as soon as published, became the 
subject of much clamour and criticism : which, indeed, 


was no more than might be expected, as any rules, how- 
ever innocent and useful, will for a while be apt to give 
offence to people who have long been accustomed to no 
rule, or rather to be all rulers promiscuously or alter- 
nately, over one another. 

It was about the time of forming these Canons, that, 
on the death of the old Chancellor, the Earl of Kinnoul, 
the king was pleased, out of love and esteem to Arch- 
bishop Spotswood, whose fidelity both the late king and 
himself had long experienced, to intrust hfhi with that 
highest office of state in the kingdom, by a commission 
under both the seals, in customary form, January 14th, 
1635, constituting and creating, John, Archbishop of St. 
Andrews, Lord High Chancellor of Scotland during life, 
being the first and only Protestant churchman that ever 
bore that high dignity. And as a further testimony of his 
royal affection to the Church, he ordered six or seven o 
the other bishops to be admitted into the privy council 
hoping, by thus giving them a legal share of power in the 
civil government and judicatories of the kingdom, to put 
them in a better capacity of regulating and settling the 
polity of the Church. But in this, both he and they 
were sadly disappointed : for this unseasonable accumu- 
lation of honours, to which their functions did not entitle 
them, exposed them, as Lord Clarendon remarks, to the 
envy of the whole nobility, many of whom wished them 
well as to their spiritual character, but could not bear to 
see them possessed of those offices and employments 
which they looked upon as naturally belonging to them- 

The royal proclamation directed that the new Liturgy 
should be used in all the churches of Edinburgh, on 
Easter-day, 1637 ; but owing to some unforeseen delay, 
this was not carried into effect till the 23rd of July fol- 
lowing. Meanwhile, the leaders of the Puritanical 
democracy had been moving heaven and earth to throw 
obstacles in the way of its reception ; and concerted their 


measures so skilfully, that success was almost certain to 
attend them. Messrs. Henderson, Dickson, and Cant, 
Lord Balmerino, Sir Thomas Hope, and Johnston of 
Warriston, held a private meeting in Edinburgh, " with 
certain matrons and serving women." These last were 
instructed to " give the first affront to the book, and were 
assured that men would afterwards take the business out 
of their hands." Having thus laid the train, they with- 
drew to a convenient distance to await the explosion. 
When the Sunday came, and the Dean of Edinburgh 
had proceeded but a few minutes with the service, he was 
suddenly saluted by the " matrons and serving women " 
with such indecent and abusive epithets as "ye devil's 
gett ! " [child], and " ane of a witch's breeding." After 
numerous expressions of this kind had been poured forth, 
a woman named Janet Geddes, hearing the Dean an- 
nounce the collect for the day, exclaimed, " Deil colic 
the wame [belly] o' ye ! " and aimed at his head the 
small moveable folding-stool on which she had been sit- 
ting. A young man happened to respond the " Amen " 
somewhat audibly at the end of one of the prayers, a 
"matron " who sat near him, turned quickly round, and, 
after heating both his cheeks with the weight of her 
hands, thus shot forth the thunderbolt of her passion, 
" False thief! is there nae ither part of the kirk to sing 
your mass in, but ye maun sing it at my lug ? " [ear]. In 
the midst of this tumult. Dr. Lindsay the Bishop of 
Edinburgh mounted the pulpit, and tried to recall the 
unruly mob to a sense of what was due to the holy placQ 
in which they were assembled ; but his efforts were fruit- 
less. The Archbishop of St. Andrews, in his capacity 
both of primate and chancellor, then rose up in his gal- 
lery, and attempted to address the people, but with as 
little success. At length the magistrates interfered, and 
eventually succeeded in clearing the cathedral of the 
rioters. But when the doors were closed, and the service 
had once more commenced, they attacked the windows 


with stones, and kept up such a loud and incessant howl 
around the walls, as effectually interrupted the devotions 
of the worshippers. After the service was over, the 
bishop had the utmost difficulty in reaching his home in 
safety, and could not have done so but that a nobleman 
gave him shelter in his carriage. A woman who was 
near him exclaimed, " Fy, if I could get the thrapple 
[windpipe] out of him ; " to whom another responded, 
" Though ye got your desire, perchance anither waur nor 
him micht come in his room ; " on which the first 
rejoined, " Na, na, after Cardinal Beaton was stickit, there 
never anither Cardinal in Scotland sinsyne [since] ; and 
if that false Judas were now stickit, scarce ony ane durst 
hazard to come after him." Singular as it may seem, 
the contemporary but anonymous relator of these anec- 
dotes tells them to the women's praise, and thus winds 
up his narrative : — " These speeches, I persuade myself, 
proceeded not from any particular revenge or inveterate 
malice which could be conceived against the bishop's 
person, but only from a zeal to God's glory wherewith 
their heart was burnt up." The character of these 
women was, no doubt, worthy of their cause ; nor is other 
comment on their behaviour necessary, except what is 
expressed by Baillie himself, who, though their general 
vindicator, is honest enough at times to speak out his 
mind : — " I think," he says, " our people were possessed 
with a bloody devil, far above anything I could have 
imagined, though the mass in Latin could have been 

And yet, in the face of these historical facts, it is con- 
stantly asserted, that the king tried to force the Liturgy 
on the people of Scotland. The truth is, the force used 
was in opposing, not in imposing it. And thus, to serve 
their own factious ends, the leaders of the Puritanical 
movement inflicted an irreparable religious injury on the 
great bulk of their countrymen, in robbing them, perhaps 
for ever, of a form of prayer which was not only in exact 


conformity with what was used throughout the Church 
Catholic in the earUest age of Christianity, but is allowed 
to be the sublimest compilation that uninspired men ever 
framed for the performance of public worship, and, at 
the same time, the purest manual for the exercise of 
private devotion. 

For this animated account of these proceedings we are 
indebted to Lyon's interesting History of St. Andrews, 
who observes, that when the Presbyterians found that 
they had embarked in the cause of treason and rebellion, 
they were not scrupulous as to the means they chose to 
accomplish their ends. Their great object was to keep 
up the excitement they had already raised in the public 
mind. This they effected, partly by the pulpit harangues 
of the disaffected ministers. " From every pulpit," says 
the Presbyterian author of Henderson's Life, *' the lan- 
guage of calm defiance was heard." The same end they 
advanced by means of their voluntary fast days, and 
prayer meetings, which they made far more numerous, as 
well as more stringent, than the ancient fasts and festi- 
vals of the Church ; and which, under the pretence of 
humbling themselves before God for their sins, were 
embraced as occasions for stirring up the people against 
the king and Episcopacy ; for they well knew that the 
most effectual method of gaining over the people to their 
side, was to call in the aid of religion — " Quoties vis 
fallere plebem, finge Deum." 

The same object they farther promoted by means of a 
National Covenant which they caused to be drawn up, by 
which they bound the subscribers, by the most solemn 
obligation of religion, to persevere at all hazards in the 
cause they had undertaken. 

Nearly every nobleman in the country took this cove- 
nant, and the civil authorities in most of the great towns 
submitted to its requirements ; and though most of the 
clergy in the rural districts objected to it, their objections 
were silenced by threats, or drowned in clamour. 


Now the progress of revolution and bloodshed was 
unimpeded, and the Presbyterians carried all before 
them. An assembly of the Kirk met at Glasgow, in 
Nov. 1638, where they proceeded to degrade, as they 
called it, from their sacred office all of their brother 
ministers whom they suspected of malignancy, i.e. of 
loyalty to their king and of duty to their Church ; they 
abolished Episcopacy as far as in them lay, the Five 
Articles of Perth, the Canons and the Liturgy. Their 
next measure was the daring excommunication and 
deposition of their ''pretended archbishops and bishops," 
as they were pleased to call them. But here a formidable 
difficulty occurred. Most of these refractory presbyters 
had been ordained by the said " pretended " prelates ; 
and, according to the universal practice of the Church 
Catholic, had, at their ordination, taken an oath of 
canonical obedience to them. How, then, were they, 
with any show of consistency, to depose from their holy 
office those whom they had sworn to obey ? Their 
expedient was this : they passed an act " annulhng the 
oath exacted by prelates from ministers when admitted 
to their callings ! " We have all heard of the pope 
granting dispensations to his spiritual subjects from the 
observance of oaths ; but it was a new sight to behold 
Protestants dispensing themselves from the observance 
of their own oaths. Yet we need not wonder ; for ex- 
tremes meet. " Puritanism," says Dr. South, " is only 
reformed Jesuitism, as Jesuitism is nothing else but 
popish Puritanism ; and I could draw out such an exact 
parallel betwixt them both, as to principles and practices, 
that it would quickly appear they are as truly brothers as 
ever were Piomulus and Remus ; and that they sucked 
their principles from the same wolf." When the above 
difficulty had been thus jesuitically removed, a committee 
was nominated to arrange, bring forward, and substan- 
tiate the charges against the bishops ; so that, not being 
present themselves, either personally or by proxy, and 

VOL. VIII. s s 


'the judges, jury, and witnesses all consisting of their 
avowed enemies, they were condemned as a matter of 
course. They were accused of almost every crime which 
the vocabulary of their language afforded; accusations 
which the members were but too eager to believe, as 
some apology for their enormous wickedness in so 
treating their ecclesiastical rulers. When unprincipled 
men are bent on any favourite object, they do not allow 
conscientious scruples to stand in their way. The 
bishops accordingly were deposed, or excommunicated, 
or both ; were " declared infamous, and commanded to 
be so holden by all and every one of the faithful, and to 
be denounced from every pulpit in Scotland as ethnicks 
and publicans ;" and all on the pretext of " zeal for the 
glory of God, and the purging of the Kirk." The primate 
in particular, one of the best and most learned men of 
that or any other age, was found guilty of " drunkenness, 
adulteries, breach of Sabbath, papistical doctrine, preach- 
ing Arminianism, incest, et ccetera .'" for w^hich he was 
both deposed and excommunicated by this anti-Christian 

Soon after the king proposed to the Archbishop to 
resign his office of chancellor, in consequence of the bad 
spirit of the times, but would not insist upon it if he 
chose to keep it. The archbishop consented, and received 
£•2500 for the sacrifice which he made. When he saw 
his countrymen plunging into rebellion, his sovereign 
insulted, the Church in Scotland overthrown, and himself 
and order proscribed, he thought it prudent to leave his 
country, where his person was no longer safe ; and 
retired to Newcastle, depressed in spirits, and in a very 
infirm state of health. When he grew a little better, he 
proceeded to London ; but there he soon became worse, 
and was visited by his friend Archbishop Laud, from 
whose hands he received the Holy Eucharist. 

Spotswood died on the 29th of November, 1639, and 
by the command of the king was buried by torch-light, 


in Westminster Abbey. " The manner of his burial," 
says his biographer, " by the command and care of his 
religious king, was solemnly ordered ; for the corpse being 
attended by many mourners, and at least eight hundred 
torches, and being brought near the Abbey Church of 
Westminster, the nobility of England and Scotland then 
present at court, with all the king's servants and many 
gentlemen, came out of their coaches, and conveyed the 
body to the west door, where it was met by the dean and 
prebendaries of that church in their clerical habits, and 
buried according to the solemn rites of the English 
Church, before the extermination of decent Christian 
burial was come into fashion." 

A more generous, learned, and munificent prelate has 
seldom been called to rule in the Church ; and his advice 
was at all times given for moderate measures, and for the 
sacrifice of any thing but principle for peace. 

Archbishop Spotswood was the author of a '* History 
of the Church of Scotland, beginning with the year 203, 
and continued to the end of the reign of James VI." 
published at London in 1655, fol. This work was under- 
taken at the command of King James, who, when Spots- 
wood told him that some passages in it might bear hard 
on the memory of his mother, said, " Write the truth 
and spare not." The king knew that what he regarded 
as a nearer interest, was in safe hands. Of the history, 
the first book relates to the introduction of Christianity 
in Scotland, in which it was shewn that episcopacy was 
its primitive form in that kingdom ; the second gives an 
account of the bishops in the several sees ; the five fol- 
lowing relate the rise and progress of the Reformation, 
confuting the opinion of those who maintain that it 
began with presbytery. Spotswood also wrote a tract in 
defence of the ecclesiastical establishment in Scotland, 
entitled " Refutatio Libelli de Regimine Ecclesise Scoti- 
canae." — Life prefixed to Spotswood' s History. Skinner. 

473 SPRAT. 


Thomas Sprat was born at Tallerton, in Devonshire, in 
1636, and from a school at his native place proceeded 
to Wadham College, Oxford in 1651, and took his M.A. 
degree in 1657. He was a versifier and exercised his 
powers of imagination in describing the virtues of Oliver 
Cromwell on the Usurper's death. After the restoration 
he became chaplain to the Duke of Buckingham, and 
was eminent in literature and science, his chief work 
being the History of the Royal Society of which he was 
one of the first fellows. In 1668, he became a preben- 
dary of Westminster, and he afterwards became rector 
of St. Margaret's. He was in 1680, made canon of 
Windsor, in 1683, dean of Westminster, and in 1684, 
Bishop of Rochester. The court having thus a claim 
upon his diligence and gratitude, he was required to 
write a History of the Ryehouse Plot; and in 1685, 
he published A True Account .and Declaration of the 
horrid Conspiracy, against the fate King, his present 
Majesty, and the present Government. The same year, 
being clerk of the closet, to the king, he was made 
dean of the chapel-royal : and the next year, he was 
appointed one of the commissioners for ecclesiastical 
affairs. On the critical day, when the Declaration dis- 
tinguished the true sons of the Church of England, 
he stood neuter, and permitted it to be read at West- 
minster, but pressed no one to violate his conscience : 
and, when the Bishop of London was brought before 
him, he gave his voice in his favour. When James 
II. fled, and a new government was to be settled, Sprat 
was one of those who considered, in a conference, the 
great question, whether the crown was vacant, and man- 
fully spoke in favour of his old master. He complied 
however, with the new establishment, and was left un- 
molested ; but in 1692 an atrocious attempt was made 

SQUIRE. 4.n 

by two unprincipled informers to involve him in trouble 
by affixing his counterfeited signature, to a seditious 
paper. But he succeeded in a little time in establishing 
his innocence. He died in 1713. — Biog. Brit. 


William Spurstowe was educated at St. Katharine Hall, 
Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. He was 
minister at Hampden in Buckinghamshire, when the 
rebellion broke out. He joined the rebel army, as 
chaplain, and in 1643 he became a member of the so- 
called assembly of Divines, becoming at the same time 
pastor of Hackney. He was made master of Katharine 
Hall but was turned out for refusing the engagement ; 
so ready were the schismatics to persecute one another. 
He was obliged to give place, to an orthodox clergy- 
man at Hackney in 1662, and died in 1666. He was 
author of a Treatise on the Promises ; The Spiritual 
Chemist; The Wiles of Satan; and Sermons. He was 
also engaged in the attack on episcopacy, under the 
name of Smectymnuus. — Reid. 

squire, SAMUEL. 

Samuel Sqdire was born at Warminster, in Wiltshire, 
in 1714, and in due course became a fellow of St. 
Johns College, Cambridge. He is better known as a 
scholar than as a divine. In 1739, he was made Chan- 
cellor and Canon of Wells, and Archdeacon of Bath. 
In 1748, he was presented by the king to the Eectory 
of Topsfield in Essex; and in 1749, when the Duke 
of Newcastle, to whom he w^as chaplain, was installed 
Chancellor of Cambridge, he took the degree of D.D. 
In 1750, he was presented by Archbishop Herring to 
ss 8 


the Rectory of St. Anne, Westminster, being his grace's 
option on the see of London ; and soon after he was 
presented by the king to the Vicarage of Greenwich. 
On the estabhshment of the household of the Prince 
of Wales, afterwards George III., he was appointed 
his royal highness's clerk of the closet. In 1760, he 
was presented to the Deanery of Bristol ; and in the 
following year he was advanced to the Bishopric of St 
David's. He died in 1T66. Among his theological 
works are the following ; Indifference for Religion In- 
excusable, or, a Serious, Impartial, and Practical Re- 
view of the Certainty, Importance, and Harmony of 
Natural and Revealed Religion ; The Principles of 
Religion made easy to Young Persons, in a short and 
familiar Catechism. — Geiifs Mag. 


Thomas Stackhouse w^as born in 1680. Of his early 
history, nothing is known, not even the place of his 
birth. In his history of the Bible he styles himself 
M.A. but this was probably a Lambeth degree, as his 
name does not appear on the Books of Oxford or the 
boards of Cambridge. He was for some time Minister 
of the English Church at Amsterdam, and afterwards 
successively Curate at Richmond, in Surrey, and at 
Ealing and Finchley, in Middlesex, In 1733, he was 
presented to the Vicarage of Benham Valence, alias 
Beenham in Berkshire, where he died in 1752. He 
wrote, The Miseries and great Hardships of the inferior 
Clergy in and about London; and A Modest Plea for 
their Rights and better Usage, in a Letter to a Right 
Rev. Prelate ; Memoirs of Bishop Atterbury, from his 
Birth to his Banishment ; A Funeral Sermon on the 
Death of Dr. Brady ; A Complete Body of Divinity ; 
A Defence of the Christian Religion from the Several 


Objections of Anti-Scripturists ; Reflections on the Na- 
ture and Property of Languages ; The Bookbinder, 
Bookprinter, and Bookseller Confuted, or the Author's 
Vindication of Himself from the Calumnies in a paper 
industriously dispersed by one Edlin ; New History of 
the Bible from the Beginning of the World to the 
Establishment of Christianity, 1732, 2 vols. fol. Of 
this work, a new and valuable edition was published 
with copious additions, corrections and notes by Bishop 
Gleig in 1817. By the plan of the work, the author 
states the objections made to Christianity and its doc- 
trines, and as Bishop Gleig observes, the author's 
answers to the objections which he has stated with 
great force are really feebler than they might have been 
made. Many important doctrines are also stated in 
vague and ambiguous terms. He also wrote A New 
and Practical Exposition on the Creed ; Vana Doc- 
trinae Emolumenta, a poem; An Abridgment of Bur- 
net's Own Times ; The Art of Shorthand ; A System 
of Practical Duties ; and several single Sermons : — 
NicholVs Bowyer. Gleig. 


Geoege Stanhope was born March 5th, 1600, at 
Hertishoon, in Derbyshire, and was educated at Eton 
and at King's. He graduated in 1681, and continued 
for some time a resident at the university, and through- 
out his life, his deep and earnest piety won for him the 
respect of all pious persons, by whom he was regarded as 
a saint ; his mild and friendly temper made him the 
delight of his friends; and his sympathy with the 
unfortunate endeared him to all who were brought 
under his influence. He officiated first at the Church of 
Quoi, near Cambridge; and in 1688 he was made vice- 


proctor of the University, and was preferred to the Rectory 
of Tewing, in the county of Hertford; and in 1689 he 
was presented by Lord Dartmouth, to whom he was 
chaplain, and to whose son he had been tutor, to the 
vicarage of Lewisham, in Kent. He was soon after 
appointed chaplain in ordinary to king William and 
Queen Mary ; and he enjoyed the same honour under 
Queen Anne. He also had a share in the education of the 
Duke of Gloucester, the heir presumptive to the crown. 
In July, 1697, he took the degree of D. D. In 1701, he 
preached the Boyle Lectures, which he published. In 
1703, he was presented to the Vicarage of Deptford, in 
Kent, on which he relinquished the Rectory of Tewing. 
In the same year also he was promoted to the deanery of 
Canterbury. He was also Tuesday lecturer at the Church 
of St. Lawrence Jewry, where he was succeeded, in 1 708, 
by Dr. Moss. At the Convocation of the Clergy, in 
February, 1714, he was chosen to fill the prolocutor's 
chair: and he was twice afterwards re-chosen. In 1717, 
when the fierce spirit of controversy raged in the Convo- 
cation, he checked the Bangorian champion, archdeacon 
Edward Tenison, in his observations, by reading the 
shedule of prorogation. The archdeacon, however, not 
content with protesting against the proceedings of the 
House, entered into a controversy with the prolocutor 
himself. In the following year a correspondence com- 
menced between the dean and his diocesan. Bishop 
Atterbury, on the increasing neglect of public baptisms ; 
from which it appears, that Stanhope had " long dis- 
couraged private baptisms." He died, universally 
lamented, at Bath, March 18th, 1728, aged sixt3'-eight, 
and was buried at the Church at Lewisham. He was 
celebrated as a preacher, and was very influential in all 
affairs relating to the church. He published a transla- 
tion of Thomas a Kempis De Imitatione Christi; a 
translation of Charron on Wisdom ; the Meditations of 
the Emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus, translated, with 


Dacier's Notes and Life of the emperor ; Sermons upon 
several occasions, fifteen in number, with a scheme, in 
the preface, of the author's general design; a translation 
of Epictetus, with the Commentary of Simplicius ; 
Paraphrase on the Epistles and Gospels, 1705, 4 vols. 
8vo; this, which was his greatest work, was written 
originally for the special use of his pupil, the Duke of 
Gloucester ; the truth and excellence of the Christian 
Religion asserted, against Jews, Infidels, and Heretics, 
in sixteen sermons preached at Boyle's Lectures ; 
Rochefoucault's Maxims, translated ; an edition of Par- 
sons 's (the Jesuit's) Christian Directory, put into more 
modern language ; St. Augustin's Meditations, a free 
version ; A Funeral Sermon on Mr. Richard Sayer, 
bookseller ; Twelve Sermons on several occasions ; The 
Grounds and Principles of the Christian Religion, 
translated by Wanley from Ostervald, and revised by Dr. 
Stanhope ; Several Sermons on particular occasions, 
between 1692 and 1724 ; a Posthumous Work, being a 
Translation from the Greek Devotions of Dr. Launcelot 
Andrewes, 1730, in 8vo. — Chalmers. Todd's Deans oj 


William Stanley was born at Hinckley, in Leicester- 
shire, in the year 1647, and was educated at St. John's 
College, Cambridge. In 1689, he was made a canon 
residentiary of St. Paul's. In 1692, archdeacon of 
London ; and in 1706, dean of St. Asaph. He died in 
1731. He published some Sermons; and two tracts, 
one entitled. The Devotions of the Church of Rome 
compared with those of the Church of England ; and 
the other, The Faith and Practice of a Church of 
England Man. — Life iwefixed to Works. 



Jeremy Stephens was born at Bishop's Castle, in 
Shropshire, in 1592, and entered at Brasenose College, 
in Oxford, 1609. He became chaplain at All Soul's 
College, and afterwards Rector of Quinton, and of 
Walton, both in Northamptonshire. He assisted Sir 
Henry Spelman in the first volume of his edition of the 
Councils, and so won the favour of that great patron of 
literature, Archbishop Laud, who procured him a 
prebend in Lincoln Cathedral. But the Dissenters 
spared neither learning nor piety where they obtained 
the ascendant, and he was deprived of his preferment in 
1644. At the Restoration he was replaced in his former 
livings, and had also a prebend in the Cathedral of 
Salisbury. He died in 1665. He published, Notae in 
D. Cyprian, de unitate Ecclesise ; Notse in D. Cyprian, 
de bono patientiae ; Apology for the Ancient Right and 
Power of the Bishops to sit and vote m Parliament; 
B. Gregorii Magni, episcopi Romani, de Cura pastorali 
Liber vere aureus, accurate emendatus et restitutus e vet. 
MSS. cum Romana Editione collatis. He also edited 
Spelman 's work on Tithes, and his Apology for the 
Treatise De non temerandis Ecclesiis. — Wood. 


William Stephens was a native of Devonshire, and 
becoming a fellow of Exeter College, Cambridge, gra- 
duated there in 1715. He was first vicar of Brampton, 
and afterwards rector of St. Andrew's, in Plymouth, — 
a post to which he was elected by the corporation. He 
was an orthodox and learned divine, and from his publi- 

STERNE. 479 

cations which remain, his early death which took place 
in 1786, is much to be lamented. His first sermons 
against the Arians, and the two volumes of Sermons 
published since, are highly and justly esteemed. — Pre 
face to Sermons. 


Richard Sterne was born at Mansfield, in Shirwood, 
in the county of Nottingham, in 1596; and in 1611, 
matriculated at Cambridge as a member of Trinity 
College. He afterwards migrated to Bene't College, of 
which he was elected fellow. He then took pupils with 
great credit to himself and to the college, and proceeded 
B.D. the following year, and was incorporated in the 
same degree at Oxford, in 1627. He had been ap- 
pointed one of the university preachers the year before, 
and was in such high reputation, that he was made 
choice of for one of Dr. Love's opponents in the philo- 
sophical act, kept for the entertainment of the Spanish 
and Austrian ambassors, and fully answered their expec- 
tations. In 1632, he was made president of the college; 
and upon Dr. Beale's translation from the mastership 
of Jesus to that of St. John's College soon after, he 
succeeded him in March, 1633. 

His promotion is thus noticed in a private letter: — 
" One Sterne, a solid scholar (who first summed up the 
3,600 faults that were in our printed Bibles of London) 
is by his majesty's directions to the Bishop of Ely, 
(who elects there) made master of Jesus." This occa- 
sioned him to take the degree of D.D. in 1635, and 
he then assumed the government of the college, to which 
he proved a liberal benefactor. 

In 1641, he was presented by his college to the Rectory 
of Harleton, in Cambridgeshire ; but some contest 
arising, he did not get possession of it till the summer 

480 STERNE. 

following. He had, in 1634, been presented to the 
living of Yeovilton, in the county of Somerset, through 
the favour of Archbishop Laud, one of whose chaplains 
he was, and so highly esteemed by him, that he chose 
him to attend him on the scaffold. 

Upon the breaking out of the rebellion, he was very 
active in sending the Cambridge-plate to his majesty; 
for which he (together with Dr. Beale, master of St. 
John's, and Dr. Martin, master of Queen's,) was by 
Cromwell (who had with some parties of soldiers sur- 
rounded the several chapels, whilst the scholars were at 
prayers,) seized and carried in triumph to London ; and 
though there was an express order from the Lord's house, 
for their imprisonment in the Tower, which met them at 
Tottenham- High-Cross, (wherein notwithstanding there 
was no crime expressed,) yet were they led captive through 
Bartholomew-fair, and so as far as Temple-bar, and back 
through the city to the prison in the Tower ; on purpose 
that they might be hooted at, or stoned by the rabble-rout. 
Since which time now above three years together, says an 
account hereof then written, they have been hurried up 
and down from one prison to another, at excessive and 
unreasonable charges and fees exacted from them, far 
beyond their abilities to defray ; having all their goods 
plundered, and their masterships and livings taken from 
them, which should preserve them from famishing. 
And though in all this time there was never any accusa- 
tion brought, much less proved against any of them, yet 
have they suffered intolerable imprisonment ever since, 
both by land and water ; especially that in the ship ; 
where for ten days together, they (with many other gentle- 
men of great rank) were kept under deck, without liberty 
to breathe in the common air, or to ease nature, except at 
the courtesie of the rude sailors, which oftentimes was 
denied them : in which condition they were more like 
gally-slaves than free-born subjects, and men of such 
(quality and condition ; and had they been so indeed, 

STERNE. 481 

some migbt have had their wills, who were bargaining 
with the merchants to sell them to Algiers, or as bad a 
place, as has been since notoriously known, upon no false 
or fraudulent information. Besides which there are some 
other circumstances, which render the usage of Dr. 
Sterne, and his fellow sufferers, in a peculiar manner 
barbarous and inhuman. For when they were first seized, 
they were used with all possible scorn and contempt, 
(Cromwell being more particularly insolent towards them), 
and when one of them desired a little time to put up some 
linen, Cromwell told him, that it w^as not in his com- 
mission. In the villages, as they passed from Cambridge 
to London, the people were called by some of their 
agents to come and abuse and revile them ; they were 
also led leisurely through the midst of Bartholomew-Fair; 
as they passed along ; they were entertained with excla- 
mations, reproaches, scorns, and curses ; and it was a 
great Providence, considering the prejudice which the 
people had to them, that they found no worse usage. 
After their confinement, though they often petitioned to 
be heard, yet they could never obtain either a trial, or their 
liberty. They had been a full year under restraint in 
other prisons, when they were at length, Friday, August 
11, 1643, by order of the parliament, sent on board the 
ship, the name of which was the Prosperous Sailor, then 
lying at Wapping. As they went to Billingsgate to take 
water, a fellow was like to have been committed for say- 
ing, that they looked like honest men. But another of 
the true stamp, looking these grave, learned divines 
in the face, reviled them, saying, that they did not look 
like Christians ; and prayed, that they might break their 
necks as they went down the stairs to take water. This 
harsh usage they found by land ; but yet they found far 
worse by water. Being come on shipboard, they were 
instantly put under hatches, where the decks were so low, 
that they could not stand upright ; and yet were denied 
stools to sit on, or so much as a burthen of straw to lie on* 


482 STERNE. 

Into this little ease, in a small ship, they crowd no less than 
80 prisoners of quality; and that they might stifle one 
another, having no more breath than what they sucked 
from one another's mouth, most maliciously and certainly 
to a murderous intent, they stop up all the small augur- 
holes, and all other inlets which might relieve them with 
fresh air. An act of such horrid barbarism, that nor age, 
nor story, nor rebellion can parallel ! Whilst Dr. Sterne 
thus continued in durance, March 13, 1643, he was by a 
warrant from the Earl of Manchester, ejected from the 
mastership, and one Mr. Young substituted in his room ; 
whom that Earl coming in person to the College- Chapel 
put into the master's seat, and with some other Formali- 
ties gave him the investiture of this headship, April 12, 
1644: of which he was afterwards himself dispossessed, 
November 14, 1650, for refusing the engagement. After 
this Dr. Sterne was removed from the ship, but still kept 
under confinement in some other prison : only when the 
blessed martyred archbishop (whose chaplain he was) 
suffered on Tower-hill, he was allowed to attend him on 
the scaffold, and perform the last offices of piety about 
him. At length having lost all he had, and suffered to 
the last degree for his loyalty, he was permitted to have 
his liberty. After which he lived obscurely until the 

Soon after the restoration, he was consecrated Bishop 
of Carlisle, and was concerned in the Savoy Conference, 
and in the revisal of the Book of Common Prayer. On 
the decease of Dr. Frewen, he was translated to the 
archiepiscopal see of York. He died in 1683, in the 
eighty-seventh year of his age, and was buried in the 
Chapel of St. Stephen in his own cathedral, where a 
superb monument was afterwards erected to his memory 
by his grandson, Richard Sterne, of Elvington, Esq. 
Bishop Burnet censures him for being too eager to enrich 
his family. But his many benefactions to Benet and 
Jesus colleges, to the rebuilding of St. Paul's, London, 


and other public and charitable purposes, attest his 
liberality. As an author, besides some Latin verses, in 
the Genethliacon Caroli et Mariae, 1631, at the end of 
Winterton's translation of the Aphorisms of Hippocrates 
in 1633, on the birth of a prince in 1640, and others in 
Irenodia Cantab, ob paciferum Caroli e Scotia reditum, 
1641, he was one of the assistants in the publication of 
Walton's Polyglott ; published a Comment on Psalm ciii. 
Lond. 1649, 8vo. ; and wrote a Treatise on Logic, which 
was published after his death, in 1686, 8vo., under the 
title of Summa Logicee, &c. — Walker. Le Neve. 


The following account of Stigand is taken from Godwin : 
Stigand was chaplain unto King Edward the Confessor, 
and preferred by him first unto the Bishopric of the East 
Saxons at Helmham 1043, and after unto Winchester 
the year 1047. He was a man stout and wise enough, 
but very unlearned (as in a manner all the bishops were 
of those times) and unreasonably covetous. Perceiving 
the king highly displeased with Piobert the Archbishop, 
he thrust himself into his room, (not expecting either his 
death, deprivation or other avoidance) without any 
performance of usual ceremonies. And whether it 
were that he mistrusted his title to Canterbury, or inex- 
cusable covetousness I cannot tell ; certain it is, that he 
kept Winchester also together with Canterbury, even 
until a little before his death he was forced to forego them 
both. Many times he was cited unto Piome about it ; 
but by gifts, delays, and one means or other he drove it 
off, never being able to procure his pall thence so long as 
king Edward lived. William the Conqueror having slain 
king Harold in the field, all England yielded presently 
unto his obedience, except only Kentishmen, who follow- 
ing the counsel of Stigand and Egelsin the abbot of St. 


Augustines, gathered all their forces together at Swans- 
combe near Gravesend, and there attended the coming 
of the king (who doubted of no such matter) every man 
holding a green bough in his hand ; whereby it came to 
pass that he was in the midst of them before he dreamed 
of any such business toward. He was greatly amazed at 
the first, till he was given to understand by Stigand, there 
was no hurt meant unto him, so that he would grant 
unto that country their ancient liberties, and suffer them 
to be governed by their former customs and laws, called 
then and till this day. Gavelkind. These things he easily 
yielded unto, upon this armed intercession, and after- 
w^ard very honourably performed : but he conceived so 
profound a displeasure against Stigand for it, as he never 
ceased till he had revenged it with the other's destruction. 
A while he gave him very good countenance, calling him 
father, meeting him upon the way when he understood 
of his repair toward him, and affording him all kinds of 
gracious and favourable usage both in words and be- 
haviour : but it lasted not long. The first sign of his 
hidden rancour and hatred toward him was, that he 
would not suffer himself to be crowned by him, but made 
choice of Aldred Archbishop of York : for which he 
alleged other reasons, as that he had not yet received 
his pall, &c. But the matter was, he was loth in that 
action to acknowledge him for archbishop. Soon after 
his coronation, he departed into Normandy carrying with 
him Stigand and many English nobles, under a pretence 
to do them honour : but in truth he stood in doubt lest 
in his absence they should practice somewhat against 
him ; and namely Stigand he knew to be a man of a 
haughty spirit, subtile, rich, gracious and of great power 
in his country. Presently upon his return, certain 
Cardinals arrived in England, sent from the Pope as 
legates to redress (as they said) certain enormities and 
abuses of the English clergy. Stigand by and by per- 
ceiving himself to be the mark that was especially shot 


at, hid himself a while in Scotland with Alexander 
Bishop of Lincoln, and afterwards in the Isle of Ely. 
At last 2)erceiving a convocation to he called at Winches- 
ter, he came thither and hesought the king in regard of 
his own honour, and the promise made unto him at 
Swanscombe, (which was not to be offended with him or 
any other for their attempt at that time) to save him 
from the calamity he saw growing toward him, which he 
could not impute unto any thing so probably, as his 
undeserved displeasure. The king answered him with 
very gentle words, that he was so far from endeavouring 
to take any revenge of that or any other matter, as he 
loved him, and wished he knew how to protect him from 
the danger imminent : but that which was to be done at 
that time, must be done by the pope's authority which he 
might not countermand. So do what he could, he was 
deprived of his livings by these prelates. The causes 
alleged against h